Description: The capital city of the state of Amazonas is Manaus, located near the confluence of the Negro and Solimões Rivers. This area of the central Amazon is relatively undisturbed compared to the eastern Amazon or the Andean Piedmont, but it is currently the focus of increasing deforestation pressure for pasture establishment and selective logging. The recent (1996) completion of the asphalt road (BR 174) linking Manaus with Boa Vista and Venezuela is already significantly increasing deforestation along the highway. The majority of the study sites in Amazonas are near Manaus. These sites are located within 100 km of the city in evergreen secondary and primary forest, pastures derived from primary forest conversion, logged forest, agrosilvopastoral areas, and inundated areas. Many of these sites are located in preexisting research areas. The Manaus area has an annual precipitation that averages 2186 mm and a mean annual temperature of 27°C. The wettest months are March and April (c. 300 mm rainfall per month), and July, August, and September are the driest (<100 mm rainfall per month).