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  Folha Amazônica


TG-02 (Guenther / Gatti)

LBA Dataset ID:




Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (

Dataset Abstract:

Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation comprise over 90% of the non-methane organic compounds emitted into the global atmosphere annually. The largest source regions of BVOC emissions are assumed to be tropical forests, especially the Amazon forest. BVOC emissions are species specific and, therefore, may vary with landscape species composition; they also should vary with environmental factors and season. BVOCs are especially important in the chemistry of the atmosphere. They are responsible for photochemical production of O3 and other atmospheric oxidants and transport of nitrogen; they also may be important in the landscape carbon cycle. Consequently, considerable effort has been made to include BVOCs in atmospheric chemistry and transport models to describe present and future atmospheric chemistry and climate. Attempts have been made to define regional and global BVOC emission databases. Few studies have been made in the tropics and subtropics, where the variety of eco-regions and species and also inaccessibility, etc., have limited the number of investigations. The data presented here are an attempt to describe BVOC emissions (here limited to isoprene and monoterpenes) in several large tropical broad leaf forest eco-regions of Amazonia.

Beginning Date:


Ending Date:


Metadata Last Updated on:


Data Status:


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Data Center URL:

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (

Access Instructions:


Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.

LBA-ECO TG-02 Biogenic VOC Emissions from Brazilian Amazon Forest and Pasture Sites:

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO TG-02 Biogenic VOC Emissions from Brazilian Amazon Forest and Pasture Sites:

Citation Information - Other Details:

Greenberg, J.P. 2012. LBA-ECO TG-02 Biogenic VOC Emissions from Brazilian Amazon Forest and Pasture Sites. Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor


Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

(click to view profile)
(click to view profile)
North South East West
    -0.85900 -10.08320 -54.97070 -62.20000

Related Publication(s):

Greenberg, J.P., A.B. Guenther, G. Petron, C. Wiedinmyer, O. Vega, L.V. Gatti, J. Tota, and G. Fisch. (2004) Biogenic VOC emissions from forested Amazonian landscapes. Global Change Biology 10(5):651-662.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are available in one comma separated ASCII file:

File #1:TG02_Balloon_BVOC_Summary.csv

Organization for File #1

File name:,TG02_Balloon_BVOC_Summary.csv

File date:,4-Apr-12

Associated LME file,LBA-ECO TG-02 Biogenic VOC balloon data,


1,Site,,Sampling site name: the Abracos site is a pasture site all others were forest sites,

2,Land_cover,,Vegetation cover at the sampling site either forest or pasture,

3,Date,YYYYMMDD,Sampling date,

4,Time,HH:MM,Sampling time in local time on a 24 hour clock: time is the start time of a 30 minute sampling period

5,Altitude,m,Sampling height in meters: AMLC (average mixed layer concentration) indicates that sampling height varied significantly during the sampling period (30 min),

6,Location_notes,,Additional site location information for the samples from Balbina,

7,Isoprene,pptv,Isoprene concentration in parts per trillion by volume ,

8,Alpha_pinene,pptv,alpha-Pinene concentration in parts per trillion by volume,

9,Camphene,pptv,Camphene concentration in parts per trillion by volume,

10,Sabinene,pptv,Sabinene concentration in parts per trillion by volume,

11,Beta_pinene,pptv,bea-Pinene concentration in parts per trillion by volume,

12,Myrcene,pptv,Myrcene concentration in parts per trillion by volume,

13,Limonene,pptv,Limonene concentration in parts per trillion by volume,

14,other_Monoterpene,pptv,Concentration of monoterpenes not specifically identified in parts per trillion by volume,

,missing data is indicated by -9999,

Sample data for File #1


Balbina,Forest,19980319,14:25,400,E. of BALBINA(at AIRPORT),2130,3,-9999,-9999, 1,-9999,1,-9999,

Balbina,Forest,19980319,14:25,300,E. of BALBINA(at AIRPORT),2040,1,-9999,-9999, -9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,

Balbina,Forest,19980319,15:15,400,E. of BALBINA(at AIRPORT),-9999,82,-9999, -9999,5,-9999,5,-9999,

Balbina,Forest,19980319,15:15,300,E. of BALBINA(at AIRPORT),366,2,-9999,-9999, 0,-9999,1,-9999,

Balbina,Forest,19980319,16:30,350,E. of BALBINA(at AIRPORT),4000,196,-9999, -9999,9,-9999,80,-9999,

Balbina,Forest,19980319,16:30,250,E. of BALBINA(at AIRPORT),-9999,254,-9999, -9999,35,-9999,27,-9999,

Balbina,Forest,19980320,13:35,200,5 km west of BALBINA,2100,86,-9999,-9999, 6,-9999,56,-9999,

Data Application and Derivation:

The atmospheric concentrations and emission estimates derived from this study may be used to characterize landscapes at the resolution of regional and global atmospheric chemistry and transport models.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Quantitative standards were not prepared for individual terpenes, since many, including alpha-pinene, are unstable and isomerize in some storage cylinders. However, camphene has excellent storage characteristics. For calibration, we have alternatively established relative response factors of other terpenes to camphene. In our method we quantify terpenes with respect to the abundance of the m/z 93 ion. We compute for individual terpenes the ratio of the abundance m/z 93 to the total ion abundance, using the NIST mass spectrum database (http://webbook, We subsequently adjust the concentrations of individual terpenes to account for differences in this ratio with respect to the ratio calculated for camphene. The relative response factors (with respective to camphene) determined for a-pinene (the most abundant terpene observed at all sites), b-pinene, sabinene, and limonene were 1.83, 1.46, 1.80, and 0.56, respectively.

Detection limits for the BVOCs were approximately 1 part per trillion by volume (ppt). However, ambient concentrations of isoprene were on the order of 1000 ppt; a-pinene concentrations were typically 100 to 500 ppt. Measurement precision for isoprene at 1000 ppt was approximately 50 ppt; for a-pinene, the precision at 200 ppt was approximately 20 ppt.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:


The forest areas studied belong to three distinct eco-regions: the Tapajos forest (Para) in the Tapajos/Xingu moist forest, Balbina (Amazonas) in the Uatuma moist forest, and Jaru (Rondonia) in the Purus/Madeira moist forest (Dinerstein et al., 1995).

The Tapajos forest site is located at km 83 on the BR631 highway south of the city of Santarem in the Tapajos National Forest. The region receives about 2000 mm of annual rain; the monthly rainfall extremes are March (375mm) and October (50 mm). Tethered balloon measurements were made in Tapajos in late January through mid-February 2000.

Balbina is located approximately 150 km northeast of Manaus. The area has a mean annual precipitation of 2200 mm and average temperature of 27 degrees C. The wettest months are March and April (300 mm per month), and July, August, and September are the driest (100 mm per month). Tethered balloon measurements were made in Balbina in March 1998.

Two other sites were located in Rondonia: a forest reserve (Rebio Jaru) and a pasture (Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida, labelled Abracos in the spreadsheet). The mean annual temperature is about 27 degrees C and varies by less than 4 degrees C between warmest and coldest months. Central Rondonia gets 1800 mm of rainfall annually, with a wet season from October to April and a dry season from May to September. The Rondonia tethered balloon measurements were made in February 1999.

Tethered balloon

Several balloons, 9 to 15m3 in volume (Blimpworks, Statesville, NC, USA) were used during the different deployments. These were blimp shaped, with rigid steering fins to point balloons into the wind. The static lift of balloons increased with volume and was approximately 3 to 5 kg. A portable winch (AIR model TS-3AW, Vaisala, Boulder, CO, USA) was run from line AC power or from storage (automobile) battery with a DC/AC power inverter.

Air samplers collected BVOCs onto solid absorbents (Greenberg et al., 1999a, b). The air sampler consisted of a solid absorbent cartridge (preceded by an ozone trap), a sample pump, flow sensor, and a microcomputer, which monitored flow through the cartridge and maintained the prescribed flow. The samplers also included sensors for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. The data from all sensors was logged by the microcomputer and downloaded after each sampling period. Packages were designed to attach to the tether line and pivot freely into the wind. Up to four samplers were deployed in individual soundings, usually at 200, 400, 600, and 1000m above the ground, in order to routinely observe concentrations in and above the mixed layer. The designation of average mixed layer concentration was used in place of a specific height when the altitude of the balloon during sampling varied significantly. This may occur for several reasons: too little static lift of balloon for specific payload, hilly topography at launch site, some atmospheric turbulent regimes, etc. Samples were collected at constant flow rate (200 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm)) over a 30 min sampling period, several times longer than the scale of the largest convective eddies in the mixed layer (Lenschow et al., 1980).

After balloon sampling, BVOC cartridges were sealed and stored at minus 30 degrees C until analysis (except during transport from Brazil to the NCAR Boulder laboratory, when they were at ambient temperatures for approximately 24 h). All BVOC analyses were made at the NCAR Boulder laboratory. Cartridges were desorbed by a custom thermal desorption system directly into a GC MS (HP 5890 GC/5972 Mass Selective Detector, Hewlett- Packard, Palo Alto, CA, USA). Details of the analytical procedures have been described previously (Greenberg et al., 1999a, b). Isoprene and terpenes were detected by selected ion monitoring and were quantified with respect to a laboratory prepared standard of isoprene and camphene (approximately 10 ppb each). The mixing ratio of the standard was confirmed by GC FID analysis.


Dinerstein E, Olson DM, Graham DJ et al. 1995. A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. The World Bank, Washington, DC.

Fisch G, Tota J, Machado LAT et al. 2002. The convective boundary layer over pasture and forest in Amazonia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology

Greenberg JP, Guenther AB, Madronich S et al. 1999a. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in central Africa during the Experiment for the Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO) biomass burning season. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 30659 to 30672.

Greenberg JP, Guenther A, Zimmerman P et al. 1999b. Tethered Balloon measurements of biogenic VOCs in the atmospheric boundary layer. Atmospheric Environment, 33, 855 to 867.

Lenschow DH, Wyngaard JC, Pennel WT 1980. Mean-field and second moment budgets in a baroclinic, convective boundary layer. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 37, 1313 to 1326.


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