NOTICE -- The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported.  This archive is a snapshot, as it existed in 2013, of the LBA-ECO website, maintained by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and now archived at the ORNL DAAC.  Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC.
banner banner banner banner banner banner
banner banner banner banner banner banner banner
home aboutlibrarynews archivecontacts banner

Abstracts & Profiles
Research Sites
Synthesis Groups
Field Support
Find LBA Data
Investigator Checklist
Process & Policy
Documentation & Archive
Training & Education
Activities Summary
T&E Goals
Student Opportunities
  Folha Amazônica


LC-14 (Nepstad / Moutinho)

LBA Dataset ID:


1. Moutinho, Paulo
2. Nepstad, Daniel
3. Alencar, Ane
4. Andrade, Sergio Viana de
5. Arce, Javier Alberto
6. Asner, Gregory Paul
7. Azevedo-Ramos, Claudia de Barros e
8. Belk, Elizabeth Leslie
9. Brando, Paulo Monteiro
10. Breyer, Lace Medeiros
11. Cardinot, Gina Knust
12. Carvalho, Georgia
13. Carvalho Jr, Oswaldo de
14. Costa, Luciana Miranda
15. Dias-Filho, Moacyr Bernardino
16. Figueiredo, Ricardo
17. Goncalves Junior, Felipe Resque
18. Guerrero, Jose Benito
19. Holbrook, Noel Michele
20. Kaufmann, Robert K.
21. Kingerlee, Wendy
22. Klink, Carlos Augusto
      23. Lameira, Wanja Janayna Miranda
24. Lefebvre, Paul A.
25. Maklouf, Eduardo Jorge
26. Markewitz, Daniel
27. Meigs, Garrett Wister
28. Miranda, Heloisa S.
29. Molina, Marirosa
30. Monaco, Luciana Magalhaes
31. Oliveira, Rafael Silva
32. Peters, Charles Merideth
33. Pinto, Flavia dos Santos
34. Pupim, Ana Claudia
35. Ray, David Graham
36. Reis, Eustaquio J
37. Schlesinger, Peter
38. Schwalbe, Karen R.
39. Silva, Dulce Alves da
40. Silva, Wanderley
41. Solorzano Cardenas, Luis Anibal
42. Sternberg, Leonel
43. Steward, Corrina Dawn
44. Zepp, Richard G.

Point(s) of Contact:

Brando, Dr. Paulo (

Dataset Abstract:

Droughts are important drivers of Amazonian forest dynamics and may exert even stronger influences in the future as the regional climate changes. Therefore it is important to understand how plant traits respond to soil water stress. Here, we present two datasets of plant traits; both collected in a large-scale drought experiment located in east Amazonia, Santarem, Para, Brazil. The first dataset includes specific leaf area and leaf size (maximum length and width) measured in 2004 in two 1 ha plots: one subjected to 50% throughfall exclusion during the rainy season (‘dry plot’) and another monitored under normal conditions (‘control plot’). In total, 3224 leaves were sampled across 223 individuals and 56 species. The second dataset is comprised of monthly phenological observations of tree species located in the dry and control plots of the Seca Floresta Experiment. These phenological observations, conducted between 2001 and 2004, include the month and year when a given leaf was first observed fully expanded and last observed alive. These data allow us to quantify the effect of soil water stress on leaf structure and lifespan and compare leaf level effects to measures of tree mortality and forest biomass in the same plots.

Beginning Date:


Ending Date:


Metadata Last Updated on:


Data Status:

Submitted for Archive

Access Constraints:


Data Center URL:

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services (

Access Instructions:


Citation Information - Other Details:

Nepstad, D.C., P. Moutinho, D. Ray and P. Brando. 2014. LBA ECO LC-14 REE Leaf Phenology and Specific Leaf Area 2001-2006. Data set. Available on-line [] from LBA Data and Information System, National Institute for Space Research (INPE/CPTEC), Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
Specific Leaf Area BIOSPHERE VEGETATION Field suvey Balance

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  leaf life span, phenology, seasonality, specific leaf area (SLA)

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

(click to view profile)
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Para Western (Santarem) km 67 Seca-Floresta Site -2.75000 -2.75000 -55.00000 -55.00000

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are available in two comma separated ASCII files:

File #1: REE_Leaf_phenology_2001_2004.csv

File #2: REE_SLA_measuremenst_2004_2006.csv

Files are organized as follows:

File #1

File name:,REE_Leaf_phenology_2001_2004.csv,,,,,,,,,,

File date:,13-Nov-13,,,,,,,,,,

Associated LME file:,LC14_REE_SLA,,,,,,,,,,



1,Treatment,,Experimental treatment plot: Control or Exclusion,,,,,,,,

2,Location,,Location where sample was collected refering to plot structures (ie understory, aerial walkways and towers),,,,,,,,

3,Local_name,,Local name in Portuguese,,,,,,,,

4,Tree_ID,,Tree identification specific to this phenology study,,,,,,,,

5,Scientific_name,,Species identification as Genus species where possible: in some cases only genus is given and some vines were not identified,,,,,,,,

6,Family,,Scientific family where identified,,,,,,,,

7,Branch_ID,,Branch identification in an alphanumeric code,,,,,,,,

8,Leaf_ID,,Leaf identification within each branch ,,,,,,,,

9,First_date,YYYYMMDD,First sampling date on which the leaf was fully expanded and included in the analysis,,,,,,,,

10,Final_date_live,YYYYMMDD,Final sampling date on which the leaf was marked as live ,,,,,,,,

11,Lifespan_1,months,Leaf lifespan calculated at the time from first date to final date reported live in units of months which are uniformly 28 days long,,,,,,,,

12,Lifespan_2,months,Leaf lifespan calculated at the time from first date to date leaf was noted as dead reported in units of months which are uniformly 28 days long,,,,,,,,


,missing data are indicated with -9999,,,,,,,,,,


Sample data from File #1:


Exclusion,Understory,Caferana folha miuda,1,Coussarea micrococca Bremekamp.,Rubiaceae,A,11,20010207,20021204,21.8,22.3

Exclusion,Understory,Caferana folha miuda,1,Coussarea micrococca Bremekamp.,Rubiaceae,A2,5,20040107,20040504,3.87,4.36

Exclusion,Understory,Caferana folha miuda,1,Coussarea micrococca Bremekamp.,Rubiaceae,A2,6,20040107,20040504,3.87,4.36

Exclusion,Understory,Caferana folha miuda,1,Coussarea micrococca Bremekamp.,Rubiaceae,B,6,20010207,20031001,31.67,32.16


Control,Walkway,Breu,9,Thrysodium paraensis,Burseraceae,D3,2,20020812,20030514,9.02,9.51

Control,Walkway,Breu,9,Thrysodium paraensis,Burseraceae,D3,3,20020812,20031008,13.84,14.33

Control,Walkway,Breu,9,Thrysodium paraensis,Burseraceae,D3,4,20020812,20030905,12.75,-9999

Control,Walkway,Breu,9,Thrysodium paraensis,Burseraceae,E,8,20010809,20020812,


File #2:

File name:,REE_SLA_measurements_2004_2006.csv,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

File date:,13-Nov-13,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Associated LME File,LC14_REE_SLA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,



1,Treatment,,Experimental treatment plot: Control or Exclusion,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

2,Scientific_name,,Species identification as Genus species where possible: in some cases only genus is given and some vines were not identified,,,,,,,,,,,,,

3,Location,,Location where sample was collected refering to plot structures (ie understory, aerial walkways and towers),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

4,Common_name,,Local name in Portuguese,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

5,Phenology_ID,,Tree identification in the phenology study,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

6,Inventory_ID,,Tree identification in the original REE plot inventory study,,,,

7,Date,YYYYMMDD,Sampling date,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

8,Max_axis,cm,Length of leaf maximum axis reported in centimeters (cm),,,,,,,,,

9,Min_axis,cm,Length of leaf minimum axis reported in centimeters (cm),,,,,,,,,,

10,Branch_ID,,Branch identification Alphanumeric code.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

11,Leaf_ID,,Leaf identification within each branch ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

12,Height,m,Height at which leaf was sampled in meters (m) above the ground,,,,,,,,,

13,Punch_ID,,Identification of punch used to extract leaf disks ( 1 through 9),,

14,N_disks,,Number of leaf disks collected ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

15,Disk_diameter,mm,Diameter of leaf disks reported in millimeters (mm),,,

16,Disk_area,cm2,Total disk area calculated from the disk diameter and the number of disks collected and reported in centimeters squared (cm2),,,,,,,,,,,,

17,Disk_weight,g,Total disk dry weight reported in grams (g). Weight reported is the total weight of all disks collected.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

18,SLA,m2/kg,Specific leaf area reported in meters squared of leaf surface per kilogram of leaf dry weight (m2/kg),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

19,Leaf_area,cm2 ,Leaf area calculated as maximum axis multiplied by the minimum axis and reported in centimeters squared (cm2),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

20,Notes,,Field observations,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,Missing data is indicated by -9999,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,


Sample data from File #2:

Treatment,Scientific_name,Location,Common_name,Phenology_ID,Inventory_ID,Date,Max_axis,Min_axis,Branch_ID,Leaf_ID,Height,Punch_ID,N_disks,Disk_diameter ,Disk_area,Disk_weight,SLA,Leaf_area,Notes

Control,Pouteria cuspidata,Tower4,Abiurana,3,7269,20041018,11,6,A,5,3,6,15, 9.05,9.64,0.072,13.39,66,no comment

Control,Pouteria cuspidata,Tower4,Abiurana,3,7269,20041018,12,5,A,2,3,6,15, 9.05,9.64,0.078,12.36,60,no comment

Control,Pouteria cuspidata,Tower4,Abiurana,3,7269,20041018,12,5,A,3,3,6,15, 9.05,9.64,0.075,12.86,60,no comment

Control,Pouteria cuspidata,Tower4,Abiurana,3,7269,20041018,9,4,B,4,3,3,30,6.06, 8.65,0.058,14.91,36,no comment

Data Application and Derivation:

Data can be used to determine average leaf lifespan by species and canopy position as well as seasonality in leaf expansion and senescence.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Data have been reviewed for quality control.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Site: The experiment was located in the Tapajos National Forest, in east-central Amazonia. This forest receives between 600 and 3000 mm of rain each year, with a mean of 2000 mm; it experiences severe drought during El Nino events. The forest is situated on a flat terrace of Tertiary sediments capped by the Belterra Clay Formation (Clapperton, 1993), and is approximately 90 m above the water level of the Tapajos River, located 10 km to the west. The Oxisol soil (Haplustox) is dominated by kaolinite clay minerals and is free of hardpan or iron oxide concretions in the upper 12 m.

Drought effects on forest processes were studied by comparing a 1 1-ha forest plot from which a portion of throughfall was excluded with a nearby 1 1-ha control plot. Two floristically and structurally similar, 1 ha (100 by 100 m) plots were selected for the experiment from an initial survey of 20 ha of forest. The forest surrounding the plots had emergent trees up to 55 m in height, with continuous canopy varying in height from 18 to 40 m. The study plots were placed in areas where most of the canopy was less than 30 m high to facilitate access to the tree crowns.

A 1 to 1.7 m deep trench was excavated around the treatment plot to reduce the potential for lateral movement of soil water from the surrounding forest into the plot, and to provide a conduit for water excluded from the plot. A similar trench was excavated around the control plot to avoid the confounding of throughfall exclusion and trenching effects Following an intercalibration period of approximately one-year starting in November of 1998 throughfall was partially excluded during the rainy seasons of 2000 through 2006 using plastic panels and wooden gutters installed in the understory. Dates of panel installation and removal for each year of the study are included in the accompanying documentation.

Methods Phenology

At the beginning of January 2001 – one year the first exclusion period - we becan to randomly sample branches from individuals in the canopy and subcanopy. We took advantage of the towers and aerial walkways to randomly tag 5 branches of each sampled individual in different parts of the crown. In addition to tagging the branch each leaf selected was marked with a black marker. Our goal in so doing was to capture different environments within each the crown of each individual. Leaf longevity was assessed through monthly visits to the sampled branches, observing the presence of new fully expanded leaves and/or leaves that had fallen. If a branch died, we selected another one to keep our sample at 5 branches per tree.

Specific Leaf Area

Starting in July 2004 we removed leaves that had been followed in the Phenology study. For each leaf we measured the major and minor axis. We then punched disks of known area from the leaf tissue and dried these disks to a constant weight at 60 degrees C. Based on the area and weight of the disks we calculated specific leaf area. All the leaves from an individual leaf were weight together and then SLA was calculated from their combined surface area and weight. Note that all sampled leaves were alive when they were collected and that the phenological observations ended in 2004.


Clapperton, 1993


NASA logo
Get Acrobat Reader