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  Folha Amazônica


LC-07 (Melack / Novo / Forsberg)

LBA Dataset ID:



1. SILVA, T.S.F.
2. SILVA, D.
      3. COSTA, M.P.F.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (

Dataset Abstract:

Aquatic herbaceous macrophytes contribute significantly to the input carbon for the Amazon floodplain. These plants have large seasonal variations in areal coverage and high productivity. The present study estimates measured the biomass of aquatic herbaceous macrophytes in a large lake on the eastern Amazon floodplain. The data was used to determine net primary productivity (NPP), asses the sources and amount of uncertainty associated with these measures, and offers a comparison among the estimates of herbaceous macrophyte productivity in the Amazon region. Plant biomass accumulated during the rising water stage of the annual flood cycle, peaking at 2300 to 6100 g m2 and decreasing later in the year. The four main sources of uncertainty in the estimates were macrophyte taxa, location, sampling design, and lack of measurements of dead material loss.

Beginning Date:


Ending Date:


Metadata Last Updated on:


Data Status:


Access Constraints:


Data Center URL:

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (

Access Instructions:


Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.

LBA-ECO LC-07 Aquatic Marcophyte Biomass, Monte Alegre Lake, Para, Brazil: 2003-2004 :

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO LC-07 Aquatic Marcophyte Biomass, Monte Alegre Lake, Para, Brazil: 2003-2004 :

Citation Information - Other Details:

ilva, T.S.F., D. Silva, M.P.F. Costa and J.M. Melack. 2012. LBA-ECO LC-07 Aquatic Marcophyte Biomass, Monte Alegre Lake, Para, Brazil: 2003-2004 . Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  BIOMASS, MACROPHYTES, STEMS

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

(click to view profile)
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  BRAZILIAN AMAZON -1.99910 -2.68250 -53.95090 -54.84260

Related Publication(s):

Silva, T.S.F., Costa, M.P.F., and Melack, J.M. 2010. Assessment of two biomass estimation methods for aquatic vegetation growing on the Amazon Floodplain. Aquatic Botany, 92(3), 161-167. doi:10.1016/j.aquabot.2009.10.015

Silva, T.S.F., M.P.F. Costa and J.M. Melack. 2009. Annual net primary production of macrophytes in the eastern Amazon floodplain. Wetlands, 29, 747-758. doi: 10.1672/08-107.1

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are presented in one ASCII comma separated file and are organized as follows:

File name:,Biomass_Lago_Grande.csv

File date:,6-Jul-12,

Associated LME file:,LC07_Biomass_Lgrande


1,Sample_ID,,,Sample Name (SITE_SAMPLE_SUBSAMPLE). Sites are Arapari (ARA); Curuai (C); Lago Grande (G). Only Lago Grande was sampled continuosly on all 10 missions. Eg: C11.1 is curuai site, sample 11, subsample 1,

2,Mission,,,Field mission number (from 1 to 10),

3,Latitude,,,Latitude in decimal degrees

4,Longitude,,,Longitude in decimal degrees

5,Dom_spp,,,Dominant species (see Sp. Coding table)

6,Dom_spp2,,,Second most common species (see Sp. Coding table)

7,Sample_type,,,Type of sample: 1 - observation (presence/description, no biomass); 2 - Partial Sample (10% of individuals; minimum of 9; sampled for biomass); 3 - Complete Sample (all individuals sampled for biomass)

8,Date,,YYYYMMDD,Sample collection date

9,Time,,HH:MM,Sample collection time in local time (local time is UTC-3)

10,Water_depth,,cm,Water depth at sampling point reported in centimeters

11,Stem_density,,ind m-2,Number of individuals per square meter

12,N_rammets,,,Number of secondary individuals (rammets); if registered separately by collector

13,Dev_stage,,,Development Stage (1 = growing; 2 = mature; 3 = Flowering; 4 = Fructifying; 5 = Senescence/Partially Dry; 6 = Sprouting; 0 = Dead/Completely Dry)

14,Stem_length_emerg,,cm,Emergent stem length, in centimeters

15,Stem_dia_emerg,,cm,Emergent stem diameter, in centimeters

16,Stem_incl_emerg,,,Emergent stem inclination (degrees: 0 = vertical/nadir,;90 = horizontal)

17,Stem_nodes_emerg,,,Number of emergent stem nodes

18,N_leaves,,,Average number of leaves per individual

19,Width_leaf,,cm,Average leaf width reported in centimeters

20,Length_leaf,,cm,Average leaf length reported in centimeters

21,Incl_leaf,,,Leaf inclination (degrees: 0 = vertical/nadir; 90 = horizontal)

22,N_samples_emerg,,,Number of emergent stems sampled for biomass (sum of triplicate samples)

23,Stem_length_submerg,,cm,Submerged stem length, in centimeters

24,Stem_dia_submerg,,cm,Submerged stem diameter, in centimeters

25,Stem_nodes_submerg,,,Number of submerged stem nodes

26,Root_presence,,,Presence of attached roots (1 =present in one of the triplicates; 2 = present in 2 of the triplicates; 3 = present in 3 of the triplicates)

27,N_samples_submerg,,,Number of submerged stems sampled for biomass (sum of triplicate samples)

28,Biomass_fresh_emerg_ind,,g per ind,Emergent fresh biomass per individual (grams/individual)

29,Biomass_dry_emerg_ind,,g per ind,Emergent dry biomass per individual (grams/individual)

30,Biomass_fresh_submerg_ind,,g per ind,Submerged fresh biomass per individual (grams/individual)

31,Biomass_dry_submerg_ind,,g per ind,Submerged dry biomass per individual (grams/individual)

32,Biomass_fresh_emerg_area,,g per m2,Emergent fresh biomass (grams/m2): calculated as mean mass per individual multiplied by stem density

33,Biomass_dry_emerg_area,,g per m2,Emergent dry biomass (grams/m2): calculated as mean mass per individual multiplied by stem density

34,Biomass_fresh_submerg_area,,g per m2,Submerged fresh biomass (grams/m2): calculated as mean mass per individual multiplied by stem density

35,Biomass_dry_submerg_area,,g per m2,Submerged dry biomass (grams/m2): calculated as mean mass per individual multiplied by stem density

36,Biomass_fresh_emerg_quad,,g per m2,Emergent fresh biomass: for complete samples total fresh biomass (grams/m2): calculated as total measured biomass in quadrant divided by area of the quadrant

37,Biomass_dry_emerg_quad,,g per m2,Emergent dry biomass: for complete samples total dry biomass (grams/m2): calculated as total measured biomass in quadrant divided by area of the quadrant

38,Biomass_fresh_submerg_quad,,g per m2,Submerged fresh biomass: for complete samples total fresh biomass (grams/m2): calculated as total measured biomass in quadrant divided by area of the quadrant

39,Biomass_dry_submerg_quad,,g per m2,Submerged dry biomass: for complete samples total dry biomass (grams/m2): calculated as total measured biomass in quadrant divided by area of the quadrant

40,Total_stem_length,,cm,Total stem length calculated as Col 14 plus Col 23 reported in centimeters

41,Total_biomass_fresh_area,,g per m2,Total fresh biomass in grams per square meter calculated as Col 32 plu Col 34

42,Total_biomass_fresh_ind ,,g per ind,Total fresh biomass in grams per individual calculated as Col 28 plus Col 30

43,Total_biomass_fresh_quad,,g per m2,Total observed fresh biomass in grams per square meter calculated as Col 36 plus Col 38

44,Total_biomass_dry_area,,g per m2,Total dry biomass in grams per square meter calculaetd as Col 33 plus Col 35

45,Total_biomass_dry_ind ,,g per ind,Total dry biomass in grams per individual calculated as Col 29 plus Col 31

46,Total_biomass_dry_quad,,g per m2,Total observed dry biomass in grams per square meter calculated as Col 37 plus Col 39

47,Mean_stem_diam_total,,cm,Mean stem diameter for all stems reported in centimeters calculated as the average of Col 15 and Col 24

48,Nodes_total,,,Total number of nodes calculated as the sum of Col 17 and Col 25

,missing data are indicated by -9999

Sample data:

Sample_ID,Mission,Latitude,Longitude,Dom_spp,Dom_spp2,Sample_type,Date,Time,Water_depth,Stem_density,N_rammets,Dev_stage,Stem_length_emerg,Stem_dia_emerg,Stem_incl_emerg,Stem_nodes_emerg,N_leaves,Width_leaf,Length_leaf,Incl_leaf,N_samples_emerg,Stem_length_submerg,Stem_dia_submerg,Stem_nodes_submerg,Root_presence,N_samples_submerg,Biomass_fresh_emerg_ind,Biomass_dry_emerg_ind,Biomass_fresh_submerg_ind,Biomass_dry_submerg_ind,Biomass_fresh_emerg_area,Biomass_dry_emerg_area,Biomass_fresh_submerg_area,Biomass_dry_submerg_area,Biomass_fresh_emerg_quad,Biomass_dry_emerg_quad,Biomass_fresh_submerg_quad,Biomass_dry_submerg_quad,Total_stem_length,Total_biomass_fresh_area,Total_biomass_fresh_ind ,Total_biomass_fresh_quad,Total_biomass_dry_area,Total_biomass_dry_ind ,Total_biomass_dry_quad,Mean_stem_diam_total,Nodes_total


ARA10.2,1,-2.409640074,-54.65719986,4,-9999,2,20031218,-9999,0,108,-9999,1, 106.7,0.7,-9999,6,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,27,0,0,0,3,-9999,-9999,7.8,-9999,0,-9999,840.8,-9999,0,-9999,-9999,-9999,0,106.7,-9999,-9999,-9999,840.8,7.8,-9999,0.4,6









Data Application and Derivation:

These repeated measures of vegetation biomass can be used to calculated net primary production for individual species and regions as well as overall for the study area.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Biomass samples awere taken using a destructive method that is limited by the size of the plants and the depth of the water column, limiting accurate sampling of submerged biomass. Therefore, it is expected that submerged biomass measurements will have a higher degree of inaccuracy, and an underestimation bias. Furthermore, plant material was stored during fieldwork, and posteriorly taken for drying and weighing. The storage and transfer processes might have incurred in small material loss between collection time and dry biomass weight determination. Given the above, we estimate the detection limit as approximately 10 grams in dry weight.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Study area:

The sampling sites were established at the Monte Alegre Lake region, Amazon River. Macrophyte communities in the region are mostly composed by emergent C3 and C4 grasses, with floating genera commonly observed as secondary species, interspersed with the dominant vegetation. Submerged species are rare, due to turbidity, but occur occasionally in places with clear water input. Most communities develop in regions of variable water level, between the upland and the permanently flooded areas, and have rapid growth at the beginning of the flooding phase.

Field Sampling: Ten field campaigns were carried during the period of December 2003 to November 2004, at the best possible interval rate within the existing logistical constraints. The data collection design was established to also accommodate ground truthing for satellite imagery analysis in the region. The sampling design was stratified, with 7 main sample sites, chosen for the known occurrence of macrophytes. Within each of these sites, one or more sampling transects were determined based on the extent and shape of the stands, reaching up to 100 meters into the stand, perpendicular to the shoreline. Five to ten sampling points were visually distributed along the transect(s). Within each sampling point, triplicate measurements were done by randomly placing a 50 x 50 cm aluminum quadrat in the immediate vicinity of the point. Data from the plants inside the quadrat were recorded separately for each triplicate, and them aggregated by averaging the triplicate observations, yielding one set of observations per geographic location. Data in this spreadsheet correspond to the aggregated measuremens of each triplicate sample.

Three types of sample were established for data collection, in order to optimize sampling effort and maximize the number of samples: Observation Samples (OS) - Cover type and macrophyte dominant species were determined visually, and the plot was photographed. No other data were collected. Partial Samples (PS) - Ten percent of the total number of individual stems in the quadrat was clipped or 9 stems for quadrats with less than a hundred individuals. Plants were first clipped at the water surface level, and then submerged parts were sampled by pulling the stems from the soft substratum. Complete Samples (CS) - After the initial collection of the ten percent sample, all remaining individuals in the quadrat were clipped in the same fashion, and weighed separately from the initial partial sample. Biomass samples were washed from debris and manually compressed prior to sample storage. Samples were later oven-dried to constant weight in a laboratory to determine dry biomass, to the nearest 0.1 g multiple. For CS samples, the ten percent fraction and the remaining individuals were weighed separately.

Water depth and phenometric plant variables were recorded for each quadrat, for both CS and PS samples. For the phenometric data, at least three random individuals were measured for each triplicate, and the average was recorded.


none cited


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