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  Folha Amazônica


ND-03 (Deegan / Victoria / Krusche / Ballester)

LBA Dataset ID:



2. NEILL, C.
      4. KRUSCHE, A.V.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (

Dataset Abstract:

This dataset includes chemistry data from stream water and lysimeter samples collected at Fazenda Nova Vida from 1994-2001 as well as quantitative descriptions of the stream beds including cross-sectional depth and stream bed surface type.

Beginning Date:


Ending Date:


Metadata Last Updated on:


Data Status:


Access Constraints:


Data Center URL:

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (

Access Instructions:


Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.

LBA-ECO ND-03 Stream and Soil Water Data, Fazenda Nova Vida, Rondonia: 1994-2001 :

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-03 Stream and Soil Water Data, Fazenda Nova Vida, Rondonia: 1994-2001 :

Citation Information - Other Details:

Deegan, L.A., C. Neill, S.M. Thomas, A.V. Krusche, M.V.R. Ballester, R.L. Victoria. 2012. LBA-ECO ND-03 Stream and Soil Water Data, Fazenda Nova Vida, Rondonia: 1994-2001. Data set. Available on-line [] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor


Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

(click to view profile)
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Rondonia Fazenda Nova Vida -10.15600 -10.15600 -62.81100 -62.81100

Related Publication(s):

Neill C, Piccolo MC, Cerri CC, Steudler PA, Melillo JM. (2006) Soil solution nitrogen losses during clearing of lowland Amazon forest for pasture. Plant and Soil, 281, 233-245

Neill, C., L.A. Deegan, S.M. Thomas, and C.C. Cerri. 2001. Deforestation for pasture alters nitrogen and phosphorus in small Amazonian Streams. Ecological Applications 11(6):1817-1828.

Neill, C., L.A. Deegan, S.M. Thomas, C.L. Haupert, A.V. Krusche, V.M. Ballester, and R.L. Victoria. 2006. Deforestation alters the hydraulic and biogeochemical characteristics of small lowland Amazonian streams. Hydrological Processes 20(12):2563-2580.

Richey, J.E., A.V. Krusche, L.A. Deegan, V.M. Ballester, T.W. Biggs, and R. Victoria. 2001. Land use changes and the biogeochemistry of river corridors in the Amazon. IGBP Global Change Newsletter 45:19-22.

Thomas S.M., Neill C., Deegan L.A., Krusche A.V., Ballester V.M., Victoria R.L. 2004. Influences of land use and stream size on particulate and dissolved materials in a small Amazonian stream network. Biogeochemistry 68: 135-151.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are presented in five comma-delimited ASCII files.

File #1 ND03_Nova_Vida_Lysimeter_Data.csv

File #2 ND03_Nova_Vida_Streamwater_Data.csv

File #3 ND03_Nova_Vida_Daily_Streamwater_Temp.csv

File #4 ND03_Nova_Vida_Cross_Sectional_Stream_Depth.csv

File #5 ND03_Nova_Vida_Stream_Bed.csv

The files are organized as follows:

File #1: ND03_Nova_Vida_Lysimeter_Data.csv


1,Location,,Location where samples were collected

2,Date,mm/dd/yyyy,Date sample was collected in the field

3,Year,yyyy,Year in which sample was collected in the field

4,Month,mm,Month in which sample was collected (1,2, 3,�12, where 1 = January, 2 = February, etc.)

5,Season,,Season of the year when sample was taken: Wet or Dry. Rainy season is typically from November to April.

6,Landuse,,Predominant land use in drainage area surrounding the sample location: Forest, Pasture, or Mixed.

7,Slope,,Topographic description of sample location: Forest, Upland, Floodplain, Pasture. See associated map of the sites.

8,Year_converted,yyyy,If pasture, the year (yyyy) in which forest was converted to pasture. If still in forest, then Year_converted is zero (0).

9,Pasture_age,years,If pasture, the age of pasture when sample was collected, i.e. number of years since forest was converted to pasture; if still in forest, then Pasture_age is zero (0).

10,Depth,cm,Depth of lysimeter in centimeters (cm)

11,Rep,,Lysimeter identification within a location: Upland sites consist of 5 lysimeters at each depth (30 and 100cm). In the slope and floodplain sites there are 2 replicates per depth. Where necessary, samples from two lysimeters were combined to form a composite sample and both are identified.

12,NH4,uM,Concentration of ammonium in micromoles per liter (uM)

13,NO3,uM,Concentration of nitrate in micromoles per liter (uM)

14,PO4,uM,Concentration of phosphate (SRP) in micromoles per liter (uM)

15,DIN_to_DIP,,Ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NH4 + NO3) to dissolved inorganic phosphorus (PO4)

16,TDN,uM,Concentration of total dissolved nitrogen in micromoles per liter (uM)

17,TDP,uM,Concentration of total dissolved phosphorus in micromoles per liter (uM)

18,DON,uM,Concentration of dissolved organic nitrogen in micromoles per liter (uM), calculated as TDN minus sum of NH4 + NO3

19,DOP,uM,Concentration of dissolved organic phosphorus in micromoles per liter (uM), calculated as TDP minus PO4

20,Fe,ppm,Concentration of total dissolved iron in parts per million (ppm)

Missing data are represented by -9999

Values of 0.00 for concentrations represent below detection limit.

Example data records:


Nova Vida,2/24/1997,1997,2,Wet,Pasture,Upland,1989,8,30,1,13.09,7.96,1.9,11.08,109.94,1.6,88.89,-9999,5.86

Nova Vida,2/24/1997,1997,2,Wet,Pasture,Upland,1989,8,30,2,-9999,1.88,-9999,-9999,451.85,14.02,-9999,-9999,-9999

Nova Vida,2/24/1997,1997,2,Wet,Pasture,Upland,1989,8,30,3,38.01,0.77,3.2,12.12,42.2,3.01,3.42,0,-9999

Nova Vida,2/24/1997,1997,2,Wet,Pasture,Upland,1989,8,30,4,2.64,0.68,0.19,17.47,13.11,0.73,9.79,0.54,-9999

Nova Vida,2/24/1997,1997,2,Wet,Pasture,Upland,1989,8,30,5,10.73,7.43,44.39,0.41,52.53,43.87,34.37,0,-9999

Nova Vida,2/24/1997,1997,2,Wet,Pasture,Upland,1989,8,100,1,45.3,1.38,-9999,-9999,66.03,10.15,19.35,-9999,-9999

Nova Vida,2/24/1997,1997,2,Wet,Pasture,Upland,1989,8,100,2,14.72,15.24,3.56,8.42,61.3,4.78,31.34,1.22,2.23

File #2: ND03_Nova_Vida_Streamwater_Data.csv


1,Trip_ID,,Trip identification code with values A, B, C� N.

2,Date,mm/dd/yyyy,Date sample was collected in the field

3,Year,yyyy,Year sample was collected (1994-2001)

4,Month,mm,Month when samples were collected in the field with 1 = January, 2 = February, etc.

5,Day,dd,Day of the month sample collected

6,Season,,Season of the year when sample was taken: Wet or Dry. Rainy season is typically from November to April.

7,Landuse,,Predominant land use in drainage area surrounding the sample location: Forest, Pasture, or Mixed

8,Station_ID,,Sampling station identification number. See associated documentation for a map of the sampling area.

9,Stage,cm,Relative stream height in centimeters (cm) as measured by a fixed staff gage (only at stations 4, 7, 8, and 12)

10,Discharge,L/s,Stream flow reported in liters per second (L/s) measured using depth and flowrate information

11,T_stream,degrees C,Stream temperature at the time of sample collection in degrees Celsius

12,pH,,pH of stream sample as measured streamside or in the laboratory

13,Alkalinity,,Streamwater alkalinity as measured by 2-point titration

14,NH4,uM,Streamwater ammonium concentration in micromoles per liter (uM/L)

15,NO3,uM,Streamwater nitrate concentration in micromoles per liter (uM/L)

16,PO4,uM,Streamwater phosphate (soluble reactive phosphate) in micromoles per liter (uM/L)

17,TDN,uM,Streamwater total dissolved nitrogen in micromoles per liter (uM/L)

18,TDP,uM,Streamwater total dissolved phosphorus concentration in micromoles per liter (uM/L)

19,Na,uM,Streamwater magnesium concentration in micromoles per liter (uM/L)

20,K,uM,Streamwater sodium concentration in micromoles per liter (uM/L)

21,Mg,uM,Streamwater potassium concentration in micromoles per liter (uM/L)

22,Ca,uM,Streamwater calcium concentration in micromoles per liter of streamwater(uM/L)

23,Fe,mg/L,Streamwater iron concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

24,Chl_a,ug/L,Concentration of chlorophyll-a in micrograms per liter of streamwater (ug/L)

25,TSS,mg/L,Concentration of total suspended solids in milligrams per liter of streamwater (mg/L)

26,POC,mg/L,Concentration of particulate organic carbon in milligrams per liter of streamwater (mg/L)

27,PON,mg/L,Concentration of particulate organic nitrogen in milligrams per liter streamwater

28,C_to_N_particulate,,The molar ratio of POC to PON

29,Comments,,Field notes

Missing data values are represented by -9999

Example data records:















File #3: ND03_Nova_Vida_Daily_Streamwater_Temp.csv


1,Year,yyyy,Year in which sample was collected

2,Month,mm,Month in which sample was collected (1,2, 3,�12, where 1 = January, 2 = February, etc.)

3,Date,mm/dd/yyyy,Sampling date

4,T_PVA1_Forest_4,degrees C,Average daily stream temperature for stream PVA1-Forest_4

5,T_PVA1_Pasture_12,degrees C,Average daily stream temperature for stream PVA1-Pasture_12

6,T_PVA2_Forest_8,degrees C,Average daily stream temperature for stream PVA2-Forest_8

7,T_PVA2_Pasture_7,degrees C,Average daily stream temperature for stream PVA2-Pasture_7

Missing data is represented by -9999,

Example data records:










File #4: ND03_Nova_Vida_Stream_Bed.csv


1,Stream_ID,,Stream identification code. See map for precise stream locations.

2,Distance_M,m,Distance in meters (m) from an arbitrary 0 point corresponding to location of the 15N addition. Negative values represent upstream from 15N addition, postive values downstream. GPS locations for the 0-points were: PVA1-Forest_4, 10°9'11.89 S, 62°47'29.05W; PVA1-Pasture_12, 10° 8'58.95S,62°48'9.48W; PVA1-Pasture_25, 10° 9'16.39S, 62°49'39.19W.

3,Number_C,,Number of points on the transect at that distance that were classified as exposed Clay

4,Number_F,,Number of points on the transect at that distance that were classified as Fine Organic material over sand

5,Number_S,,Number of points on the transect at that distance that were classified as exposed Sand

6,Number_L,,Number of points on the transect at that distance that were classified as accumulated leaf pack

7,Number_W,,Number of points on the transect at that distance that were classified as woody debris (stems, trunks of trees)

8,Number_R,,Number of points on the transect at that distance that were classified as Riparian grass

9,Number_G,,Number of points on the transect at that distance that were classified as exposed gravel

10,Total_obs_transect,,Total number of points in the transect

11,Fraction_C,fraction,Fraction of total points on the transect at that distance that were classified as exposed Clay

12,Fraction_F,fraction,Fraction of total points on the transect at that distance that were classified as Fine Organic material over sand

13,Fraction_S,fraction,Fraction of total points on the transect at that distance that were classified as exposed Sand

14,Fraction_L,fraction,Fraction of total points on the transect at that distance that were classified as accumulated leaf pack

15,Fraction_W,fraction,Fraction of total points on the transect at that distance that were classified as woody debris (stems, trunks of trees)

16,Fraction_R,fraction,Fraction of total points on the transect at that distance that were classified as Riparian grass

17,Fraction_G,fraction,Fraction of total points on the transect at that distance that were classified as exposed gravel

Example data records:




















File #5: ND03_Nova_Vida_Cross_Sectional_Stream_Depth.csv


1,Stream_ID,,Stream identification code. See map for precise stream locations.

2,Width_total,m,Total wetted width at cross-sectional transect location in meters (m)

3,Distance_M,m,Distance in meters from an arbitrary 0 point corresponding to location of the 15N addition. Negative values represent upstream from 15N addition, positive values downstream. GPS points for 15N addition point are in data set documentation notes.

4,Depth_0cm,cm,Depth to stream bottom at start of transect reported in centimeters (cm)

5,Depth_10cm,cm,Depth to stream bottom at 10 cm from transect start reported in centimeters (cm)

Jun-87,Depth_20cm... Depth_830cm,cm,Columns 6-87 report depth to stream bottom at 10 centimeter increments along the cross-sectional transect to a maximum stream width of 830 cm

Missing data values are represented by -9999



















Data Application and Derivation:

These data allow for direct comparisons of stream and soil water nutrient concentrations and other physiochemical characteristics between pasture and forest landuses and across wet and dry seasons. Sampling was done on streams of various orders allowing investigators to better understand the impacts of landuse on stream nutrient dynamics at various scales.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

All data have been reviewed and checked for quality and no further changes to the data are anticipated.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Study area

The data were collected from the Aldeia river network at Fazenda Nova Vida, a large cattle ranch 50 km from the city of Ariquemes, in central Rondonia. (See associated documentation for a map of the study area and a list of the sampling stations). The river network consists of first to fourth order streams in a mix of forest and pasture. Terrain was gently rolling, with low-gradient, second-order, clear-water streams draining the basins. Streams of second-order and higher had flowing water through all but the severest dry periods. In two watersheds (referred to as PVA1 and PVA2), two smaller (2nd order) drainage basins, one with forest cover and one with pasture cover, were identified and paired PVA1-Forest4 with PVA1-Pasture12 and PVA2-Forest8 with PVA2-Pasture7. In PVA1 a third-order stream (PVA1-Pasture 25)that was the confluence of the second-order forest and pasture streams was also intensively studied. In PVA1, the second-order forest stream had a watershed area of 17.8 km2. It was shaded, had a pool and run structure and a mean wetted width of 4 m, a maximum depth of 42 cm and dry season discharges of 15-40 L s-1. The PVA1 second-order pasture stream had a watershed area of 8.4 km2. It was bordered by the C4 grass Paspalum repens (Medina et al. 1976) along its entire length, had slow-moving deep runs with extensive channel infilling by grass, organic material, a mean wetted channel width of 5.2 m, an open water channel width of 1.4 m and a mean depth of 42 cm. It had dry season discharges from 14 to 90 L s-1. The PVA1 third-order pasture stream had a watershed area of 27 km2. It had high sandy banks, a pool and run structure and lacked extensive growth of grass in the stream channel. Although this stream had some riparian trees, the canopy was relatively open and most of the stream was exposed to the sun. It had a wetted channel width of 3.6 m, a nearly identical open water channel width of 3.5 m and a mean depth of 34 cm. It had dry season discharges of 45 to 100 L s-1.

These basins lie at 200-500 m elevation in a region generally underlain by Precambrian granitic rock (Projeto RADAMBRASIL 1978). The climate of central Rondonia is humid tropical. Mean annual relative humidity is 89 percent, mean daily temperature is 25.6 degrees C, and mean daily temperature for the warmest and coolest months varies <5 degrees C (Bastos and Diniz 1982). Rainfall averages 2.2 m/yr with a distinct dry season during June-October and a rainy season stretching from November-May. Rainfall averages more than 300 mm per month in the wettest four months (December-March) and less than 40 mm per month during the driest three months (June- August) (Bastos and Diniz 1982). Forest in the cleared basins was converted directly to pasture by cutting, burning, and planting pasture grasses in the same year. Brush was cut in March, large trees were felled in June or July, slash was burned in late August or September, and the pasture grass Brachiara brizantha [Hochst] Stapf was seeded during December or January. The pastures were burned again in September 1992 to kill the re-growth of weeds and stump sprouts and to reduce the volume of dead wood. Pastures were not cultivated, nor were they amended with fertilizer or lime. Pastures were actively grazed beginning approximately one year after forest clearing and stocked throughout this study at 1-1.5 animals/ ha. This is typical management of extensive pastures on large cattle ranches in the region. Native vegetation in the forested basins is classified as moist open tropical forest and consists of perennially evergreen broadleaf trees with a high number of palms (Pires and Prance 1986). Selective logging in the forests removed 3-4 trees/ha during 1987- 1990. A tree canopy shaded forest streams, and stream channels contained unvegetated sandy point bars. Pasture stream channels were bordered by uplands planted to B. brizantha and had only scattered trees in the riparian zone. Pasture stream channels typically contained wetland grasses (Paspallum spp.), which sometimes forms floating mats that covered most of the stream channel.

Soil characteristics and soil N and P stocks and dynamics have been previously examined in these basins (Neill et al. 1995, Moraes et al. 1996, Garcia-Montiel et al. 2000). These basins are equivalent to the pastures cleared in 1989 in chronosequences 1 and 2 in these studies. Soils are well-drained Kandiudults and Paleudults (red-yellow podzolic latosols in the Brazilian classification). These and generally similar soils cover 22 percent of the Brazilian Amazon (Moraes et al. 1995).

Field methods:

Stream physical characteristics

In PVA 1, stream physical characteristics were measured in representative reaches of 800 m (forest stream; PVA1-Forest8), 500 m (second-order pasture stream; PVA1-Pasture12) and 760 m (third-order pasture stream; PVA1-Pasture25) that had no obvious tributaries or other obvious surface water inputs.

The second- and third-order streams were marked at 20 m intervals and sampling stations were assigned, relative to the location of the 15N addition point at 0 m, at -260, 40, 60, 100, 140, 200, 320, 560, and 800 m for the second-order forest stream, -90, 30, 50, 80, 126, 232, and 500 m for the second-order pasture stream, and at -90, 40, 60, 100, 195, 460, and 760 m for the third-order pasture stream. Stream depth and benthic substrate type were recorded every 5 or 10 cm in cross sections (20 to 80 points per cross section) of the stream channels. Substrate type was classified as: terrestrial leaf pack (Leaf), woody debris (downfall trucks and stems; Wood), thin layer of fine organic matter over sand (Fine), exposed sand (sand), clay (clay) or gravel (gravel), coarse fragments of decomposed organic matter (detritus), and riparian grass (riparian). Very small patches of filamentous algae were observed but their area (<<< 0.01% of stream bottom) did not warrant a separate quantitative habitat classification. In the forest, cross sections were done every 10 m, at the designated stations and 5 m and 10 m upstream and downstream of the station (N= 75 cross sections). In the pasture streams, cross sections were at 10 m intervals from the 0 m station to the 100 m station, every 20 m between the 100 m and 200 m stations, and every 40 m downstream of the 200 m station. Additional cross sections were measured at the designated stations and 5 m and 10 m up and downstream of the designated stations (N=45 cross sections in second-order and 39 in third-order pasture streams). Percent cover by substrate type for each cross section was the total number of occurrences of each substrate type divided by the total number of occurrences of all substrate types. Mean percent cover for the stream reach of each substrate type was determined by averaging the percent for each cross section.

Soil solution from lysimeters

Soil solution was collected from tension lysimeters (Soil Moisture Equipment, Goleta, California, USA) installed in the upland (terra firme) of the forest and pasture watersheds of PVA Pair 1. These sites represented the uplands in each basin and were adjacent to soil collections. Five tension lysimeters were installed at 30 cm and at 100 cm at each site in September 1996. Water was collected from the lysimeters on multiple dates between 1997 and 2001. Samples were collected by placing a vacuum on the lysimeter and collecting water 24-48 hours later. Samples from the lysimeters were transferred to acid-washed polyethylene bottles, acidified to pH < 2 with HCl and stored refrigerated.

Stream water nutrients methods

Between 1994 and 2001 at each station, we collected 1L of streamwater that was placed on ice and filtered later the same day at the field laboratory for total suspended solids (TSS) and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PON). One 60 mL sample for nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate, and total dissolved P (TDP) was filtered immediately through ashed glass fiber filters (Whatman GF/F), preserved with hydrochloric acid to < pH 2, and refrigerated. Another 60 mL sample for total dissolved N (TDN) was immediately filtered through ashed GF/F filters and frozen. Also in the field, 200 to 500 mL of streamwater was passed through a 47-mm diameter glass fiber filter (Whatman GF/C) for chlorophyll determination. This filter was immediately wrapped in foil, placed on ice, and then frozen upon return to the field laboratory. Dissolved oxygen was measured with a YSI Sonde (Yellow Springs Instruments Incorporated, Yellow Springs, OH). Water level heights were recorded from permanent staff gages in Reaches I and III at each water sampling. Continuous water level measurements in Reaches I and III were made over a one year period, from September 1999 through November 2000, using a water level datalogger (Global Water, Gold River, CA). Instantaneous discharge was calculated from stream cross-sectional area and velocity measurements (Hauer and Lamberti 1996). The water level measurements in 1999 and 2000 were converted to discharge by means of the stage-discharge relationships at Reaches I and III. Instantaneous discharge was also measured on selected dates in the downstream portion of Reach IV from cross-sectional area and velocity measurements.

Analytical methods

Total suspended solids were measured by filtering a known volume of streamwater through pre-weighed, ashed 25-mm glass fiber filters (Whatman GF/F) and reweighed after drying overnight at 50 degrees C. Filters for POC and PON were prepared the same way and analyzed for C and N on a Perkin Elmer 2400 elemental analyzer.

Nitrate was measured by cadmium reduction (Alpkem method A303-S171-09) on an Alpkem RFA analyzer. Ammonium was analyzed by the phenol-hypochlorite method

(Alpkem method A303-S020-02) and phosphate was measured using the antimony/molybdate and ascorbic acid method (Alpkem method A303-S200-00). We calculated dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (DIN:DIP) as (nitrate + ammonium)/phosphate. TDP was determined by acid persulfate digestion (Koroleff 1983). TDN was measured by alkaline persulfate digestion with HCl buffer solution (Modification of method 4500-Norg D, Eaton et al. (1995)). CertiPrep reference materials (SPEX Chemical, Metuchen, NJ) and laboratory-prepared solutions of ATP and nitrophenol were used to check the accuracy of the colorimetric methods and the efficiency of the TDN and TDP digestions. Dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus (DON and DOP) were calculated from the difference between TDN and TDP and inorganic N and P, respectively. Chlorophyll was extracted overnight from the frozen filters with a buffered 90% acetone solution. The extract was then analyzed using a fluorometer to determine chlorophyll a and phaeophytin concentrations (Strickland and Parsons 1972). Dissolved constituents were measured in all transects and particulate constituents were measured on 19 transects. Instantaneous measurements of dissolved oxygen were taken on one dry (1999) and one rainy (2000) season transect. Dissolved oxygen was measured continuously for 72 hours at one station in Reaches I, III, and IV during the 1999 dry season.


Bastos, T.X. and T.D. Diniz. 1982. Avaliacao de clima do Estados de Rondonia para Desenvolvimento Agricola. Boletim de pesquisa No. 44. EMBRAPA-CPATU: Belem PA.

Eaton, A.D., L.S. Clesceri and A.E. Greenberg. 1995. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA

Garcia-Montiel, D., C. Neill, J.M. Melillo, S.M. Thomas, P.A.Steudler and C.C. Cerri. 2000. Soil phosphorus transformations after forest clearing for pasture in the Brazilian Amazon. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64: 1792-1804.

Hauer, F.R. and G.A. Lamberti. 1996. Methods in Stream Ecology. Academic Press, New York.

Koroleff. F. 1983. Determination of total phosphorus by acid persulfate oxidation. Pages 134-136in K. Grasshoff, M. Erhardt and K. Kremling, editors. Methods of seawater analysis. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim Germany

Moraes, J., C.C. Cerri, J.M. Melillo, D. Kicklighter, C. Neill, D.L. Skole and P.A. Steudler. 1995. Soil carbon stocks of the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 59: 244-247.

Moraes, J.F.L., B. Volkoff, M. Bernoux and C. Cerri. 1996. Soil properties under Amazon forest and changes due to pasture installation in Rondonia (Brazil). Geoderma 70: 63-81.

Neill, C., M.C. Piccolo, P.A. Steudler, J.M. Melillo, .J. Feigl and C.C. Cerri. 1995. Nitrogen dynamics in soils of forests and active pastures in the western Brazilian Amazon Basin. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27: 1167-1175.

Pires, J.M. and G.T. Prance. 1986. The vegetation types of the Brazilian Amazon. In Key Environments: Amazonia. Prance GT and Lovejoy TM (eds). Pergamon Press: Oxford; 109-129

Strickland, J.D.H. and T.R. Parsons. 1972. A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Ottawa.


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