Description: Rondônia is located in the western part of the Amazon, between 7° 58' and 13° 43' South latitude and 59° 50' and 66° 48' West longitude. Rondônia is bordered by the state of Amazonas to the North, the state of Mato Grosso to the East, Bolivia to the South, and the state of Acre to the West. It covers 243,044 km2 of area, about 6.79% of Brazil's North Region, and contains 52 municipalities and 1.3 million inhabitants. (www.ibge.gov.br)
The state's climate is predominantly equatorial, with a tropical transition. It is hot and humid throughout the year, with a large yearly temperature range. The daily temperature ranges are also notable, especially during the winter. Throughout the summer, convective activity caused by greater incidence of solar radiation is high. The winter season is characterized by fluvial winds and increased rains influenced by ecosystems in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the Bolivian Highlands. The rainiest period in the region is between November and March (winter). The driest period (with less convective activity) is between May and September (summer). The region's annual rainfall is approximately 1800. (www.rondomia.ro.gov.br)
The greatest amount of deforestation in the Amazon region has taken place in Rondônia. Most of deforestation is a result of the intense colonization of the state that has occurred since the mid 1970s. The total area that has been deforested is approximately 276,315 hectares, about 1.2% of the state's area. (www.ibama.gov.br)
The region contains five main geomorphological environments which include areas of regional surface leveling domain divided into levels I, II and III; mountain chains composed of old sedimentary rock in the form of tabular surfaces; areas of tertiary sedimentary rock; slopes and hills associated with the presence of erosion resistant rock that highlight the regional leveling surface and the Madeira river system, including the Mamoré, Guaporé, Ji-Paraná and Roosevelt subsystems.
The soils in Rondônia are predominantly Latosols, Argisols, Neosols, Gleisols and Combisols. Approximately 58% of the state is Latosols; of which 26% are Red-Yellow Latosols and 16% are Red-Yellow and Red Latosols.
The flora of the region is made up of a large biodiversity of species because the region is in a transition area between the Cerrado, Pantanal, and Amazon regions.
There is historical satellite data assembled and analyzed and a large body of process level soils and vegetation data already in existence for the state.