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Investigation:

CD-10 (Wofsy / Kirchhoff / Camargo / A. Nobre)

LBA Dataset ID:

CD10_CO2_PROFILES

Originator(s):

1. HUTYRA, L.R.
2. MUNGER, J.W.
3. GOTTLIEB, E.W.
      4. DAUBE, B.C.
5. CAMARGO, P.B.
6. WOFSY, S.C.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

This data set contains a single text file which reports vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations measured at the km 67 Primary Forest Tower Site in Western Para, Santarem. This site is in the Tapajos National Forest located in north central Brazil. Measurements extend from January 2002 through January 2006. The profile concentration data were used to estimate the change in vertical average concentration between the ground and flux measurement height in order to calculate the column average storage of CO2 (Saleska et al., 2003). CO2 concentrations were measured at 8 levels on the tower (62.2, 50, 39.4, 28.7, 19.6, 10.4, and 0.91 m). Sample air was drawn at 1000 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) through 8 profile inlets in sequence (2 minutes at each level) and then a mixed air sample was simultaneously drawn from all 8 levels to obtain a total column integral (once every 20 minutes) and analyzed with an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA, LI-6262, LICOR, Lincoln, NE). Data were averaged over a 1 hour interval. The profile IRGA was zeroed between each profile sequence and an absolute calibration at 325, 400, and 475 ppm was made every 6 hours. High accuracy for CO2 was obtained by these frequent calibrations and long-term precision was verified by a single cylinder of long-term surveillance standard (375 ppm), measured weekly, and that remained onsite for as long as the experiment operated. Co-located measurements included eddy fluxes of CO2 and H2O were measured at two levels (58m and 47m) using tower-mounted closed-path LICOR 6262 gas analyzers and Campbell CSAT3 sonic anemometers. And a comprehensive set of meteorological parameters (air temperature, pressure, PAR, net radiation, precipitation, etc) were also measured. With the permission of the author, Hutyra, L.R. 2007. Carbon and water exchange in Amazonian rainforests. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts., is included as a companion file.

Beginning Date:

2002-01-01

Ending Date:

2006-01-18

Metadata Last Updated on:

2008-06-13

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO CD-10 CO2 Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=855

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO CD-10 CO2 Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/CD10_CO2_Profiles_Tapajos.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Hutyra, L.R., Munger, J.W., Gottlieb, E.W., Daube, B.C., Camargo, P.B., Wofsy, S.C. 2007. LBA-ECO CD-10 CO2 Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest. Data Set. Available on-line [http://lba.cptec.inpe.br/] from LBA Data and Information System, National Institute for Space Research (INPE/CPTEC), Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/855

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
CARBON DIOXIDE FLUX BIOSPHERE CARBON DYNAMICS TOWER LICOR 6262 GAS ANALYZER
H2O FLUX BIOSPHERE CARBON DYNAMICS TOWER LICOR 6262 GAS ANALYZER

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  CO2, EDDY COVARIANCE, EDDY FLUX, KM 67, TAPAJOS NATIONAL FOREST

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Pará Western (Santarém) km 67 Primary Forest Tower Site -2.85700 -2.85700 -54.95900 -54.95900

Related Publication(s):

aleska, S.R., S.D. Miller, D.M. Matross, M.L. Goulden, S.C. Wofsy, H.R. da Rocha, P.B. de Camargo, P. Crill, B.C. Daube, H.C. de Freitas, L. Hutyra, M. Keller, V. Kirchhoff, M. Menton, J.W. Munger, E.H. Pyle, A.H. Rice, and H. Silva. 2003. Carbon in amazon forests: Unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses. Science 302(5650):1554-1557.

Huete, A., K. Didan, Y.E.R.P. Shimabukuro, S. Saleska, L.R.Y.W. Hutyra, and R.R.M.R. Nemani. 2006. Amazon rainforests green-up with sunlight in dry season. Geophysical Research Letters 33(L06405).

Hutyra, L.R., J.W. Munger, C.A. Nobre, S.R. Saleska, S.A. Vieira, and S.C. Wofsy. 2007. Climatic variability and vegetation vulnerability in Amazonia. Geophysical Research Letters 32(L24712).

Hutyra, L.R., Munger, J.W., Gottlieb, E.W., Daube, B.C., Camargo, P.B., Wofsy, S.C. 2007. Controls on energy and carbon exchange in an evergreen tropical rainforest. Journal of Geophysical Research, Biogeosciences.

Ichii, K., H. Hashimoto, M.A. White, C. Potter, L. Hutyra, A. Huete, R.B. Myneni, and R.R. Nemani. 2007. Constraining rooting depths in tropical rainforests using satellite data and ecosystem modeling for accurate simulation of gross primary production seasonality. Global Change Biology 13:67-77.

Xiao, X.M., Q.Y. Zhang, S. Saleska, L. Hutyra, P. De Camargo, S. Wofsy, S. Frolking, S. Boles, M. Keller, and B. Moore. 2005. Satellite-based modeling of gross primary production in a seasonally moist tropical evergreen forest. Remote Sensing of Environment 94(1):105-122.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

The CO2 profile data are reported in one comma separated ASCII text file, km67_co2_profile_2002_2006.txt.



Data File Description





column variable description

(column heading)



1 JDstart(GMT) decimal day (GMT, continuous from 1/1/00)



NOTE 1: Tapajos Forest Local time (LT) = GMT - 4 hours



NOTE 2: these times are time at the BEGINNING of the

hour-long data aggregation interval, i.e., data at

12:00 are from aggregating measurements between 12:00

and 13:00



2 1 CO2 concentration (ppm) at level 1 @ 62.24m



3 2 CO2 concentration (ppm) at level 2 @ 50.05m



4 3 CO2 concentration (ppm) at level 3 @ 39.41m



5 4 CO2 concentration (ppm) at level 4 @ 28.71m



6 5 CO2 concentration (ppm) at level 5 @ 19.57m



7 6 CO2 concentration (ppm) at level 6 @ 10.42m



8 7 CO2 concentration (ppm) at level 7 @ 3.05m



9 8 CO2 concentration (ppm) at level 8 @ 0.91m



10 9 CO2 concentration (ppm), instantaneous average of levels 1-8



11 flaggedDATA 0=good data, 1=bad data flagged and removed (NA)



Missing value code is NA

Values are comma separated











Sample Data Records:



All of the profile data are reported in km67_co2_profile_2002_2006.txt.



JDstart(GMT),1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,flaggedDATA





733.708333333333,372.79,373.27,373.29,373.1,372.69,372.365,372.34,392.98,373.84,0

733.75,371.613333333333,371.65,373.22,372.265,372.38,372.58,377.925,385.745,376.046666666667,0



...



741.875,376.38,376.72,376.91,376.97,373.55,374.34,443.22,433.56,NA,0

742.458333333333,NA,NA,NA,NA,NA,NA,389.33,404.19,381.48,NA

742.5,376.816666666667,377.1,376.405,377.585,376.115,374.89,383.07,416.435,385.9,0

...





Data Application and Derivation:

The profile concentration data were used to estimate the change in vertical average concentration between the ground and flux measurement height in order to calculate the column average storage of CO2 (Saleska et al., 2003).

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

This data set can be considered final, but as always with data sets this large there are occasional individual points that are bad, but which for one reason or another, have not yet been removed.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

A 64 m tower (Rohn 55G, Peoria, IL) was instrumented for eddy covariance measurements which commenced in April, 2001 and continued until the tower was destroyed when a falling tree hit the guy wires in January 2006. Three modular enclosures (approximately 1m x 0.6 m x 0.2 m) containing all the key instruments and dataloggers were mounted on the tower to keep inlet tubes short (~ 2 m) (Figure 1). Eddy-flux measurements were made at a height of 57.8 m with a sample rate of 8 Hz. A 3-axis sonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific, Logan UT) was mounted with the air sample inlet located 20 cm from the anemometer. The flux system drew sample air from the inlet through a 50 mm diameter Teflon filter and 9.5 mm (inner diameter) Teflon PFA tubing to a closed-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA, LI-6262, LICOR, Lincoln, NE). The eddy system sample cell (11.9 cm3) was pressure-controlled at 66.6 kPa with a mass flow rate of 6000 sccm, providing a cell-flushing time of 0.078 s. This system design maintains the advantages of the closed-path sensor (e.g. precise instrument calibration, constant pressure and temperature), while also adding some of the advantages (e.g. minimal attenuation of high-frequency fluctuations) attributed to open-path designs. This system is particularly suitable for deployment with very tall vegetation where problems accrue due to long sample-tubes from the top of the tower.



Calibrations of the eddy system for CO2 were made every 6 hours (April 2001 - November 11, 2002 & March 29, 2003 - November 15, 2003) or 12 hours (November 12, 2002 - March 29, 2003 & November 15, 2003 - January 24, 2006 ) using 325, 400, and 475 ppm CO2 standard gases. The instrument was zeroed every 2 hours. The long-term accuracy of the instruments was ensured by measuring a surveillance standard (traceable to NOAA/CMDL standards at 380.45 ppm) once per week, this tank lasted through the duration of the measurements. Calibrations for water vapor were made using the daily fluctuations of Tv - Tk, where Tv is the sonic temperature (related to the speed of sound provided by the sonic anemometer) and Tk is the ambient temperature. This approach was necessary due to failures in the chilled mirror hydrometers originally installed for this purpose (see Hutyra et al, submitted).



Vertical profiles of CO2 and H2O concentrations were measured at 8 levels on the tower (62.2, 50, 39.4, 28.7, 19.6, 10.4, and 0.91 m). Sample air was drawn at 1000 sccm through the 8 profile inlets in sequence (2 minutes at each level). The profile concentration data were used to estimate the change in vertical average concentration between the ground and flux measurement height in order to calculate the column average storage of CO2. The profile IRGA was zeroed between each profile sequence and an absolute calibration at 325, 400, and 475 ppm was made every 6 or 12 hours, as for the eddy CO2 measurements.



A suite of environmental measurements was also made on the tower. Dataloggers (CR-10X, Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT), controlled the overall operation of the system. The data were downloaded via coaxial cable to a computer, housed in a climate controlled hut near the tower.

References:

Hutyra, L.R. 2007. Carbon and water exchange in Amazonian rainforests. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. With the kind permission of the author, this document is included as a companion file with this data set.



Hutyra, L. R., J. W. Munger, S. R. Saleska, E. Gottlieb, B. C. Daube, A. L. Dunn, D. F. Amaral, P. B. de Camargo, and S. C. Wofsy. 2007. Seasonal controls on the exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G03008, doi:10.1029/2006JG000365.



Saleska, S.R., Miller, S.D.,Matross, D.M., Goulden, M.L., Wofsy, S.C., da Rocha,H., de Camargo, P.B., Crill, P., Daube, B.C., de Freitas, H.C., Hutyra, L., Keller, M., Kirchhoff, V., Menton, M., Munger, J.W., Pyle, E.H., Rice, A.H, and Silva, H. 2003. Carbon fluxes in old-growth Amazonian rainforest: seasonality and disturbance-induced net carbon loss, Science, 302, 1554-1557.



Hutyra, L.R., Munger, J.W., Nobre, C.A., Saleska, S.R., Vieira, S.A., and Wofsy, S.C. 2005. Climatic variability and vegetation vulnerability in Amazonia, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L24712.

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