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Investigation:

CD-10 (Wofsy / Kirchhoff / Camargo / A. Nobre)

LBA Dataset ID:

CD10_H2O_TAPAJOS

Originator(s):

1. HUTYRA, L.R.
2. MUNGER, J.W.
3. GOTTLIEB, E.W.
      4. DAUBE, B.C.
5. CAMARGO, P.B.
6. WOFSY, S.C.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

This data set contains a single text file which reports vertical profiles of H2O vapor concentrations measured at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This site is in the Tapajos National Forest located in north central Brazil. Measurements extend from January 2002 through January 2006. H2O concentrations were measured at 8 levels on the tower (62.2, 50, 39.4, 28.7, 19.6, 10.4, and 0.91 m). Sample air was drawn at 1000 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) through 8 profile inlets in sequence (2 minutes at each level) and then a mixed air sample was simultaneously drawn from all 8 levels to obtain a total column integral (once every 20 minutes) and analyzed with an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA, LI-6262, LICOR, Lincoln, NE). Data were averaged over a 1 hour interval. Calibration for H2O used two independent calibrations for the IRGA concentration measurements: (a) the nighttime relationship between ambient temperature measurements and sonic temperature measurements; (b) a chilled mirror dew point hygrometer mounted on the tower. See Appendix A of Hutyra (2007) for additional details about calibration methods. Co-located measurements included eddy fluxes of CO2 and H2O were measured at two levels (58m and 47m) using tower-mounted closed-path LICOR 6262 gas analyzers and Campbell CSAT3 sonic anemometers. And a comprehensive set of meteorological parameters (air temperature, pressure, PAR, net radiation, precipitation, etc) were also measured. With the permission of the author, Hutyra, L.R. 2007. Carbon and water exchange in Amazonian rainforests. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, is included as a companion file.

Beginning Date:

2002-01-01

Ending Date:

2006-01-18

Metadata Last Updated on:

2008-06-13

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO CD-10 H2O Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=861

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO CD-10 H2O Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/CD10_H2O_Profiles_Tapajos.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Hutyra, L.R., J. W. Munger, E. W. Gottlieb, B. C. Daube, P. B. Camargo and S. C. Wofsy. 2007. LBA-ECO CD-10 H2O Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/861

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
WATER VAPOR BIOSPHERE ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS TOWER IRGA

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  EDDY COVARIANCE, EDDY FLUX, H2O, KM 67, TAPAJOS NATIONAL FOREST

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Pará Western (Santarém) km 67 Primary Forest Tower Site -2.85700 -2.85700 -54.95900 -54.95900

Related Publication(s):

HHutyra, L.R., J.W. Munger, C.A. Nobre, S.R. Saleska, S.A. Vieira, and S.C. Wofsy. 2007. Climatic variability and vegetation vulnerability in Amazonia. Geophysical Research Letters 32(L24712).

Huete, A., K. Didan, Y.E.R.P. Shimabukuro, S. Saleska, L.R.Y.W. Hutyra, and R.R.M.R. Nemani. 2006. Amazon rainforests green-up with sunlight in dry season. Geophysical Research Letters 33(L06405).

Hutyra, L.R., J.W. Munger, E.W. Gottlieb, B.C. Daube, P. Camargo, and S. Wofsy. 2007. Controls on energy and carbon exchange in an evergreen tropical rainforest. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences.

Ichii, K., H. Hashimoto, M.A. White, C. Potter, L. Hutyra, A. Huete, R.B. Myneni, and R.R. Nemani. 2007. Constraining rooting depths in tropical rainforests using satellite data and ecosystem modeling for accurate simulation of gross primary production seasonality. Global Change Biology 13:67-77.

Saleska, S.R., S.D. Miller, D.M. Matross, M.L. Goulden, S.C. Wofsy, H.R. da Rocha, P.B. de Camargo, P. Crill, B.C. Daube, H.C. de Freitas, L. Hutyra, M. Keller, V. Kirchhoff, M. Menton, J.W. Munger, E.H. Pyle, A.H. Rice, and H. Silva. 2003. Carbon in amazon forests: Unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses. Science 302(5650):1554-1557.

Xiao, X.M., Q.Y. Zhang, S. Saleska, L. Hutyra, P. De Camargo, S. Wofsy, S. Frolking, S. Boles, M. Keller, and B. Moore. (2005) Satellite-based modeling of gross primary production in a seasonally moist tropical evergreen forest. Remote Sensing of Environment 94(1):105-122.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

The H2O profile data are reported in one comma separated ASCII text file, km67_h2o_profile_2002_2006.txt



Data File Description







column variable description



(column heading)



1 JDstart(GMT) decimal day (GMT, continuous from 1/1/00)



NOTE 1: Tapajos Forest Local time (LT) = GMT - 4 hours



NOTE 2: these times are time at the BEGINNING of the hour-long

data aggregation interval, i.e., data at 12:00 are from

aggregating measurements between 12:00 and 13:00



2 1 H2O concentration (ppt) at level 1 @ 62.24m

3 2 H2O concentration (ppt) at level 2 @ 50.05m

4 3 H2O concentration (ppt) at level 3 @ 39.41m

5 4 H2O concentration (ppt) at level 4 @ 28.71m

6 5 H2O concentration (ppt) at level 5 @ 19.57m

7 6 H2O concentration (ppt) at level 6 @ 10.42m

8 7 H2O concentration (ppt) at level 7 @ 3.05m

9 8 H2O concentration (ppt) at level 8 @ 0.91m

10 9 H2O concentration (ppt), instantaneous average of levels 1-8



Missing value code is NA

Values are comma separated







Sample Data Records:



All of the profile data are reported in km67_h2o_profile_2002_2006.txt

JDstart(GMT),1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

733.708333333333,28.088,27.895,27.868,28.125,28.541,29.1185,29.4125,31.511,29.3095

733.75,27.757,27.9535,29.5455,29.726,29.696,29.642,30.1245,31.568,29.7096666666667



...



2210.5,30.1553333333333,30.2425,29.9885,30.447,30.8395,31.515,33.1545,33.1905,NA

2210.54166666667,29.438,29.5433333333333,29.774,30.115,30.6063333333333,31.113,32.3696666666667,33.208,NA

2210.58333333333,20.477,20.6143333333333,20.1033333333333,NA,NA,21.574,23.614,23.3925,28.0615



Data Application and Derivation:

Eddy flux and associated environmental measurements

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

This data set can be considered final, but as always with data sets this large there are occasional individual points that are bad, but which for one reason or another, have not yet been removed.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

A 64 m tower (Rohn 55G, Peoria, IL) was instrumented for eddy covariance measurements which commenced in April, 2001 and continued until the tower was destroyed when a falling tree hit the guy wires in January 2006. Three modular enclosures (approximately 1m x 0.6 m x 0.2 m) containing all the key instruments and dataloggers were mounted on the tower to keep inlet tubes short (~ 2 m) (Figure 1). Eddy-flux measurements were made at a height of 57.8 m with a sample rate of 8 Hz. A 3-axis sonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific, Logan UT) was mounted with the air sample inlet located 20 cm from the anemometer. The flux system drew sample air from the inlet through a 50 mm diameter Teflon filter and 9.5 mm (inner diameter) Teflon PFA tubing to a closed-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA, LI-6262, Licor, Lincoln, NE). The eddy system sample cell (11.9 cm3) was pressure-controlled at 66.6 kPa with a mass flow rate of 6000 sccm, providing a cell-flushing time of 0.078 s. This system design maintains the advantages of the closed-path sensor (e.g. precise instrument calibration, constant pressure and temperature), while also adding some of the advantages (e.g. minimal attenuation of high-frequency fluctuations) attributed to open-path designs. This system is particularly suitable for deployment with very tall vegetation where problems accrue due to long sample-tubes from the top of the tower.



Calibrations of the eddy system for CO2 were made every 6 hours (April 2001 - November 11, 2002 & March 29, 2003 - November 15, 2003) or every 12 hours (November 12, 2002 - March 29, 2003 & November 15, 2003 - January 24, 2006 ) using 325, 400, and 475 ppm CO2 standard gases. The instrument was zeroed every 2 hours. The long-term accuracy of the instruments was ensured by measuring a surveillance standard (traceable to NOAA/CMDL standards at 380.45 ppm) once per week, this tank lasted through the duration of the measurements.



Calibrations for water vapor were made using the daily fluctuations of Tv - Tk, where Tv is the sonic temperature (related to the speed of sound provided by the sonic anemometer) and Tk is the ambient temperature. This approach was necessary due to failures in the chilled mirror hydrometers originally installed for this purpose (See Appendix A of Hutyra (2007) for addition details about calibration methods and Hutyra et al, submitted.).



Vertical profiles of CO2 and H2O concentrations were measured at 8 levels on the tower (62.2, 50, 39.4, 28.7, 19.6, 10.4, and 0.91 m). Sample air was drawn at 1000 sccm through the 8 profile inlets in sequence (2 minutes at each level). The profile concentration data were used to estimate the change in vertical average concentration between the ground and flux measurement height in order to calculate the column average storage of CO2. The profile IRGA was zeroed between each profile sequence and an absolute calibration at 325, 400, and 475 ppm was made every 6 or 12 hours, as for the eddy CO2 measurements.



A suite of environmental measurements was also made on the tower. Dataloggers (CR-10X, Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT), controlled the overall operation of the system. The data were downloaded via coaxial cable to a computer, housed in a climate controlled hut near the tower.

References:

Hutyra, L.R. 2007. Carbon and water exchange in Amazonian rainforests. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.



Hutyra, L.R., Munger, J.W., Gottlieb, E.W., Daube, B.C., Camargo, P.B., Wofsy, S.C., Controls on energy and carbon exchange in an evergreen tropical rainforest., submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research, Biogeosciences.



Saleska, S.R., Miller, S.D.,Matross, D.M., Goulden, M.L., Wofsy, S.C., da Rocha,H., de Camargo, P.B., Crill, P., Daube, B.C., de Freitas, H.C., Hutyra, L., Keller, M., Kirchhoff, V., Menton, M., Munger, J.W., Pyle, E.H., Rice, A.H,Silva, H, Carbon fluxes in old-growth Amazonian rainforest: seasonality and disturbance-induced net carbon loss, Science, 302, 1554-1557, 2003.



Hutyra, L.R., Munger, J.W., Nobre, C.A., Saleska, S.R., Vieira, S.A., Wofsy, S.C., Climatic variability and vegetation vulnerability in Amazonia, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L24712, 2005.

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