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Investigation:

TG-07 (Keller / Oliveira)

LBA Dataset ID:

LBA-ECO_TG07_FSM

Originator(s):

1. KELLER, M.M.
2. OLIVEIRA, R.C.D.
3. CAMARGO, P.C.D.
      4. ESPARITO-SANTO, F.D.B.
5. HUNTER, M.O.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

This data set provides the results of a GLAS (the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) forest structure validation survey conducted in Santarem and Sao Jorge, Para during November 2004 (Lefsky et al., 2005). DBH, total height, commercial height, canopy width and canopy class description were measured for 11 primary forest sites in Santarem along two 75m transects per GLAS measurement. For 10 secondary forest sites in Sao Jorge, the number of stems 0-2cm, 2-5cm, 5-10cm, and greater than 10cm were measured. For all stems greater than 10cm the DBH was measured, and for all sites, the maximum height was recorded. The basal area was calculated for all trees with DBH greater than 10cm within our transects, and biomass was calculated using the Brown, 1997 formula. Exchange of carbon between forests and the atmosphere is a vital component of the global carbon cycle. Satellite laser altimetry has a unique capability for estimating forest canopy height, which has a direct and increasingly well understood relationship to aboveground carbon storage.

Beginning Date:

2004-11-08

Ending Date:

2004-11-18

Metadata Last Updated on:

2007-01-10

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO TG-07 Forest Structure Measurements for GLAS Validation: Santarem 2004:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=836

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO TG-07 Forest Structure Measurements for GLAS Validation: Santarem 2004:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/TG07_STM_GLAS.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Keller, M., R. Oliveira Jr., P. Camargo, F. Espirito-Santo, M. Hunter. 2006. LBA-ECO TG-07 Forest Structure Measurements for GLAS Validation: Santarem 2004. Data Set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/836

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
CANOPY CHARACTERISTICS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD INVESTIGATION CLINOMETER
FOREST COMPOSITION/VEGETATION STRUCTURE BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD INVESTIGATION STEEL MEASURING TAPE
FORESTS BIOSPHERE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  BASAL AREA, BIOMASS, CANOPY POSITION, COMMERCIAL HEIGHT, CROWN DIAMETER, DBH, TOTAL HEIGHT

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Para Western (Santarem) KM 67 PRIMARY -2.84800 -3.19910 -54.91250 -55.00000

Related Publication(s):

Lefsky, M.A., D.J. Harding, M. Keller, W.B. Cohen, C.C. Carabajal, F.D. Espirito-Santo, M.O. Hunter, and R. de Oliveira. 2005. Estimates of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat. Geophysical Research Letters 32(22), L22S02, doi:10.1029/2005GL023971.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

<p class=i2>Study Area:</b> Santarem Km67 and Sao Jorge

Spatial Coverage: </b>11 primary forest plots (Km67), and 10 secondary forest plots (Sao

Jorge) located at GLAS/ICESat waveforms. Each plot is 75 m in diameter, measured using two perpendicular transects. GPS coordinates of all sites are included in the file: STM_Locations.txt

Temporal Coverage: </b>The waveform measurements were taken in Oct03, Feb04, and May-June04 during the 2a, 2b and 2c operational periods. Field measurements were made during Nov04.

Data Organization:</b> </p><ul><li><p class=i2>Field measurement data are stored in an ASCII tab-delimited format that opens conveniently in a spreadsheet. </p></li><li><p class=i2>Missing values are represented by blank cells. </p></li></ul><p class=i2>File names are STM_primary_data.txt, STM_secondary_data.txt, and STM_Locations.txt.

File Content:</b> Information concerning parameters and variables is included as header information in each of the respective data files. </p><p class=i2> </p><p class=i2>STM_PRIMARY_DATA*</b></p><blockquote><p class=i2>Column 1 ICESat site number (footprint number)
Column 2 tree number
Column 3 DBH of tree (cm)
Column 4 location of tree in plot (x-coordinate;meters)
Column 5 location of tree in plot (y-coordinate;meters)
Column 6 crown diameter (m)
Column 7 Category expressed as Suppressed(S), Dominant(D) or Super-Dominant(SD)
Column 8 Height of first branch (m)
Column 9 Height of top of canopy (m)
Column 10 comment
Column 11 Basal Area (m^2)
Column 12 Biomass (kg dry material) calculated from DBH using the formula of Brown,1997</p><p class=i2>
* This data set includes a remnant logged forest site in São Jorge that used the same sampling plan as the primary sites in Santarem.</p><p class=i2>For these plots we established a main plot (20 x 75 m) along the transect and two perpendicular side plots (40 x 27.5 m each). In these plots, DBH and maximum height were tallied for all trees with DBH greater than 35 cm. Within the main plot, DBH for all trees with DBH between 10 and 35 cm were recorded on a subplot (10 x 75 m); for a 30% sample of these smaller trees, we recorded diameter of the canopy, height of the first branch and maximum height (Lefsky et al., 2005). Heights were measured using either a clinometer or a laser range finder.



Example Primary Data Records:</b></p>

<table border=1 width=86% bgcolor=#99CCFF id=table1 bordercolordark=#000000 bordercolorlight=#000000 cellpadding=7><tr><td><p class=MsoNormal align=left> </p><p class=MsoNormal align=left><font size=2>Footprint Number DBH (cm) x (m) y (m) Dia Crown (m) Cat Branch Ht (m) Total Ht (m) Comment BA (m^2) Mass (kg)</font></p><p class=MsoNormal align=left><font size=2>035 01 32.1 -1 65 3 S 5.8 6.7 0.080928212 911.6</font></p><p class=MsoNormal align=left><font size=2>035 02 17.8 2 71 4 S 9.6 17.3 0.024884555 208.4</font></p><p class=MsoNormal align=left><font size=2>035 03 21.3 -4 65 4 S 0.035632729 333.5</font></p><p class=MsoNormal align=left><font size=2>035 04 14.5 3 61 3 S 0.016512996 118.2</font></p><p align=left><font size=2>...</font></td></tr></table><p class=i2> </p><p class=i2> </p></blockquote><p class=i2>STM_SECONDARY_DATA</b></p><blockquote><p class=i2>Column 1 ICESat site number
Column 2 plot number within site*
Column 3 subplot number (4x4m plots have 4 subdivisions)
Column 4 number of stems 0-2 cm
Column 5 number of stems 2-5 cm
Column 6 number of stems 5-10 cm
Column 7 number of stems greater than 10 cm
Column 8 DBH of stems greater than 10 cm
Column 9 mass (kg) of stems greater than 10 cm
Column 10 maximum height of stems in plot**
Column 11 plant type***
Column 12 comments</p><p class=i2>
* we sampled using various densities of randomly-located plots along a 75 m transect, plot density varied as a function of stem density (19 2 Ãâ�â� 2 m plots in a recently abandoned agricultural fields, eight or nine 4 Ãâ�â� 4 m plots in secondary forests) (Lefsky et al., 2005)
** the height of the tallest stem in the footprint is included in the Location file
*** Cecropia stems were counted separately and biomass was calculated using the

Brown (1997) formulae.</p><p class=i2>

Example Secondary Data Records:</b></p>

<table border=1 width=78% bordercolorlight=#000000 bordercolordark=#000000 bgcolor=#99CCFF id=table2 cellpadding=7><tr><td><p class=MsoPlainText> </p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>Footprint Plot Subplot 0-2 (cm) 2-5 (cm) 5-10 (cm) >10 (cm) DBH (cm) Mass (kg) Plot Max. Height (m) Plant Type Comments</font></p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>085 1 0 3 0 1 14.6 109.1 5.0 Other </font></p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>085 2 0 0 0 0 Other </font></p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>085 3 4 0 0 0 3.0 Other </font></p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>085 4 7 4 0 0 Cecropia </font></p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>...</font></td></tr></table></blockquote><p class=i2>

STM_LOCATIONS</b></p><blockquote><p class=i2>Column 1 Footprint #
Column 2 GPS data from ICESat for center of footprint
Column 3 northern bound of measured plot
Column 4 southern bound of measured plot
Column 5 eastern bound of measured plot
Column 6 western bound of measured plot
Column 7 center point of measured plot
Column 8 highest point in plot (m)</p><p class=i2>*Columns 3-7 were measured in the field using a Garmin handheld unit.</p><p class=i2>

Example Location Data Records:</b></p>

<table border=1 width=85% bgcolor=#99CCFF id=table3 bordercolorlight=#000000 bordercolordark=#000000 cellpadding=7><tr><td><p class=MsoPlainText> </p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>Locations of Santarem Footprints</font></p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>Footprint # ICESat center field N field S field E field W Field Ctr highest point (m)</font></p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>085 S3.108 W54.9933 8.6</font></p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>084 S3.10644 W54.9931 14.7</font></p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>095 S3.12360 W54.9955 S3.12327 W54.99542 S3.12394 W54.99556 S3.12364 W54.55918 S3.12356 W54.99582 14</font></p><p class=MsoPlainText><font size=2>096 S3.12516 W54.9957 S3.12488 W54.99564 S3.12520 W54.99539 S3.12512 W54.99601 18</font></p><p><font size=2>...</font></td></tr></table></blockquote><p class=i2> </p><p class=i2>All GPS coordinates are in WGS84</p><p

</blockquote>

</p><ul>

Time period:</b><li>The data set covers the period 2004/11/08 to 2004/11/18.

</li>

</ul>

Data Application and Derivation:

In addition to validating GLAS products, these field measurements can be used to estimate the terrestrial carbon storage on a global scale, and gain understanding of forest structure. The 75x75 m sampling plots were chosen as a best approximation of the area of highest incident laser energy from the GLAS sensor. The true average ellipsoid of the Lidar waveforms for the operations periods used was 53x97 m. Further choices concerning field sampling were made to effectively cover the greatest amount of plot area in the least amount of time. For further information on waveform processing and field data collection, please refer to Lefsky, et al. (2005).

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

There is uncertainty within the height measurements due to the difficulty of measuring tree height from the ground within a dense canopy. We checked for a bias between heights measured with a clinometer and heights measured with the laser. No bias was found. Since collection, no systematic errors within the data have been found.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Field data environment:

Field mission objective: to obtain forest structure data for comparison with Lidar waveforms

Management and funding: NASA

References:

Brown, S. (1997), Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests:

A Primer, (FAO Forestry Paper - 134), U. N. Food and Agric. Org., Rome.





Lefsky, M. A., D. J. Harding, M. Keller, W. B. Cohen, C. C. Carabajal,

F. Del Bom Espirito-Santo, M. O. Hunter, and R. de Oliveira Jr. (2005),

Estimates of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat,

Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L22S02, doi:10.1029/2005GL023971.

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