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Investigation:

ND-07 (Zepp / Bustamante)

LBA Dataset ID:

ND07_Soil_Characteristics_Brasilia

Originator(s):

Fernandes, Erika Barretto

Point(s) of Contact:

Bustamante, Mercedes (mercedesmcb@gmail.com)

Dataset Abstract:

This data set includes measurements of basic soil physical and chemical characteristics under various agricultural systems and native cerrado at two farms in the state of Brasilia.

Beginning Date:

2003-08-01

Ending Date:

2005-10-31

Metadata Last Updated on:

2011-01-19

Data Status:

In Preparation for Archive

Access Constraints:

Public

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

Public

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

Access data via ftp area for LBA-ECO data at ORNL DAAC:  Search at ORNL DAAC

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

Data Set User's Guide (Draft):  Search at ORNL DAAC

Citation Information - Other Details:

Fernandes Cruvinel, E., M.M.da C. Bustamante, A. Kozovits and R. Zepp. 2011. LBA-ECO ND-07 Soil Characteristics, Dom Bosco and Pamplona Farms, Brasilia, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov ] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
SOIL BULK DENSITY LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION  
SOIL TEXTURE LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION  
SOIL FERTILITY LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION  

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  Soil Bulk Density, Soil Carbon, Soil Nitrogen, Soil Organic Matter, Soil Texture

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Brasilia   -16.25056 -16.25056 -47.25056 -47.25056
Brasilia Fazenda Dom Bosco -16.30000 -16.30000 -47.50000 -47.50000

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

The data for this dataset are presented in three ASCII comma-delimited files:



File #1 Soil_bulk_density.csv

File #2 Soil_texture.csv

File #3 Soil_organic_matter_C_N.csv



The files are organized as follows:



File #1

File name:,Soil_bulk_density.csv,,



Column,Column heading,Units/format,Variable description

----1,Location,,Sampling location

----2,System,,Land use

----3,Replicate_no,,Replicate number

----4,Bulk_density,g cm-3,Soil bulk density for the 0-5cm depth measured using the volumetric ring method reported in grams per cubic centimeter



Example data for File #1

Location,System,Replicate_no,Bulk_density

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,1,0.84

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,2,0.82

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,3,0.74

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,4,0.79

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,5,0.82

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,6,0.83



File #2

File name,Soil_texture.csv,,



Column,Column heading,Units/format,Variable description

----1,Location,,Sampling location

----2,System,,Land use

----3,Replicate_no,,Replicate number

----4,Sand,percent,Percent of soil particles by weight with a diameter greater than or equal to 0.05 mm but less than 2 mm

----5,Silt,percent,Percent of soil particles by weight with a diameter less than 0.05 mm but greater than or equal to 0.002 mm

----6,Clay,percent,Percent of soil particles by weight with a diameter less than 0.002 mm

----7,Texture_class,,Soil texture classification



Note: All measurements were for the 0-5 cm soil depth,



Example data for File #2

Location,System,Replicate_no,Sand,Silt,Clay,Texture_class

Dom Bosco,Control,1,9,20,71,Clay

Dom Bosco,Control,2,15,26,59,Heavy clay

Dom Bosco,Control,3,11,21,68,Heavy clay

Dom Bosco,Control,4,11,18,71,Heavy clay

Dom Bosco,Control,5,10,20,70,Heavy clay

Dom Bosco,Control,6,14,15,71,Heavy clay

Dom Bosco,Control,7,13,21,66,Heavy clay

Dom Bosco,Control,8,15,15,70,Heavy clay

Dom Bosco,Control,9,15,21,64,Heavy clay



File #3

File name,Soil_organic_matter_C_N.csv,,,,,



Column,Column heading,Units/format,Variable description,,,

----1,Location,,Sampling location,,,

----2,System,,Land use ,,,

----3,Sampling_depth,,Soil depth from which the samples were collected: 1 = 0 to 5 cm; 2= 5 to 10 cm; 3= 10 to 20 cm and 4= 20 to 50 cm,,,

----4,SOM,dag kg-1,Soil organic matter reported in decagrams of SOM per kilogram of soil measured using the loss on ignition method,,,

----5,C,g kg-1,Soil carbon concentration in grams of nitrogen per kilogram of soil (g kg-1) based on the assumption that soil organic matter is 58 percent carbon,,,

----6,N,g kg-1,Soil nitrogen concentration in grams of nitrogen per kilogram of soil (g kg-1),,,

----7,C_to_N,,Mass based ratio of carbon to nitrogen calculated from the values for soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations,,,



Example data for File #3

Location,System,Sampling_depth,SOM,C,N,C_to_N

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,1,4.6,26.68,1.83,14.6

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,1,4.6,26.68,1.77,15.1

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,1,4.3,24.94,1.49,16.7

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,2,4.1,23.78,1.36,17.5

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,2,4.3,24.94,1.42,17.6

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,2,4.3,24.94,1.42,17.6

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,3,4.1,23.78,1.22,19.5

Dom Bosco,Native cerrado,3,3.6,20.88,1.49,14

Data Application and Derivation:

Soil physical characteristics such as bulk density and texture as well as chemical characteristics have been shown to be related to the fluxes of gases from the soil surface.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

As bulk density may change after conversion to cropland, errors in estimated C and N stocks may occur when sampling is based on fixed depths (Davidson & Ackerman, 1993; Veldkamp, 1994; Neill et al., 1997). In this study, soil bulk density differed significantly from the reference area (under native vegetation) only under maize-bean-rotation. In this case soil C and N stocks were corrected for comparison of equivalent soil mass (Neill et al., 1997).

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Dom Bosco Farm

This study area is located in the municipality of Cristalina (Federal State of Goias, Brazil), at 826 m altitude. The climate is tropical (Koppen Aw) with two well-defined seasons: dry season (May to September) and wet season (October to April), during which 90 percent of the annual precipitation occurs. The total precipitation between Aug. 2003 and Aug. 2004 was 2078.5 mm while between Aug. 2004 and Aug. 2005 it was 1.555 mm. The total area of the Dom Bosco farm is 2,999.4 ha, being 201.0 ha used for irrigated agriculture (central pivot), 504.0 ha for summer crops and 620 ha for legal reserve (preserved native cerrado).



At the Dom Bosco Farm our study focused on two cultivation systems under no-till and with mechanical harvest: (a) Maize (Zea maiz cv. 30k75) and Brachiaria brizantha intercropping system followed by irrigated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); (b) Soybean (Glycine max cv. P98C81 Pioneer) followed by natural fallow (no winter cover crop). In the maize-bean rotation system, maize was cultivated predominantly during the wet season and bean was cultivated during dry season with irrigation. This cultivation system was introduced in 1998 after ten years of Brachiaria sp. cultivation following conversion from native cerrado using slash-and-burn. Maize and B. brizantha were planted together in Sep. 2003. Maize was harvest in Feb. 2004 and B. brizantha was dried using the herbicide glyphosate (Roundup transorb) one month before the planting of bean in June 2004. Bean was harvested in Oct. 2004.

Irrigation intervals during the bean cycle were thirty hours and six mm of the water were added. Soil remained covered all the year in maize-irrigated bean rotation.



Soybean cultivation occupies 207 ha in the Dom Bosco Farm and was introduced in 1977 after removal of native cerrado using slash-and-burn. Soybean seeds were inoculated with Bradyrizobium japonicum and were planted in Dec. 2003. The harvested occurred in Apr. 2004. In this area, soil was practically uncovered from May to Nov. 2003 because of the rapid decomposition of crop residues.



A native cerrado area with same soil type was selected as reference site. The vegetation is classified as a typical cerrado, termed cerrado stricto sensu (Ribeiro & Walter, 1998). This area has been protected from fire since 1974 but it burned accidentally in Oct. 2004





The soils of the study sites are classified as Latossolo Vermelho in the Brazilian Soil Taxonomy (Embrapa 1999) (Oxisols in the US Soil Taxonomy). The cultivated soils are acidic (pH from 5.1 to 5.9) in the Dom Bosco Farm and Pamplona Farm while soils under native vegetation are very acidic (pH from 4.2 to 4.4).



Fazenda Pamplona

The second commercial farm (Pamplona farm) has a total area of 14,085.2 ha, which 11,407.7 ha are cultivated and 2,677.5 ha are preserved (native cerrado). In the 2004/2005, 3,764 ha were cultivated with cotton for fiber production. An area of 721 ha with high productivity (4.5 ton ha-1), cultivated under no-till and mechanically harvested was used in this study. Herbaceous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. ITA 90-Pioneer) was cultivated from Nov. 2004 to Aug. 2005 over Brachiaria ruzizienses straw. B. ruzizienses was planted by airplane and dried with herbicide (2,4 D - U46DFluid 868/720 CS) 20 days before cotton planting. Previously (May to Oct. 2005), the area was cultivated with soybean followed by natural fallow during winter. This cultivation system was established in 1980 after removal of native cerrado using slash-and-burn. This study includes only the period cultivated with cotton. At the beginning of flowering (Mar. 2005) two applications of growth inhibitor (50 Pix CS) were made to standardize the height of the plants. This practice produces a better harvest and fiber quality. One application of the defoliant (Aurora 400 CE) was made with 70% opening bolls (May. 2005). A native cerrado stricto sensu area with the same soil type was chosen as reference site. This area has been protected from fire since 1994 but it burned accidentally in Nov. 2004. The measurements were taken during crop cycle from Nov. 2004 to Aug. 2005 (from wet to dry season).



Sampling and measurement methods

Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were collected in 20 points distributed randomly for texture determination. Bulk density was determined (0-5 cm depth) using volumetric cylinders (Embrapa, 1999). Sampling for determination of organic C and total N concentrations and bulk density was done in three trenches per area from 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths. Samples for bulk density were collected with volumetric rings and dried at 105 degrees C. Soil C and N stocks were calculated from soil C and N concentration and bulk density.

References:

Davidson & Ackerman, 1993

Embrapa, 1999

Neill et al., 1997

Veldkamp, 1994

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