NOTICE -- The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported.  This archive is a snapshot, as it existed in 2013, of the LBA-ECO website, maintained by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and now archived at the ORNL DAAC.  Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC.
banner
banner banner banner banner banner banner
banner banner banner banner banner banner banner
home aboutlibrarynews archivecontacts banner

spacer
banner
Investigations
Overview
Abstracts & Profiles
Publications
Research Sites
Meetings
Synthesis Groups
LBA-HYDROMET
LBA-Air-ECO
Logistics
Overview
Field Support
Travel
Visa
Shipping
Data
  Overview
Find LBA Data
Investigator Checklist
Process & Policy
Documentation & Archive
Training & Education
  Overview
Activities Summary
T&E Goals
Student Opportunities
  Folha Amazônica
 
spacer

Investigation:

LC-07 (Melack / Novo / Forsberg)

LBA Dataset ID:

LC07_WETLANDS_FLUXES

Originator(s):

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

Extensive interfluvial wetlands occur in the upper Negro River basin (Brazil) and contain a mosaic of vegetation dominated by emergent grasses and sedges with patches of shrubs and palms. To characterize the release of carbon dioxide and methane from these habitats, diffusive and ebullitive emissions and transport through plant aerenchyma were measured monthly during from February 2005 trough January 2006 in permanently and seasonally flooded areas. Methane was consumed in unflooded environments and emitted in flooded environments with average values of -4.8 and 60 mg C m-2 day-1, respectively. Bubbles were emitted primarily during falling water periods when hydrostatic pressure at the sediment - water interface declined. CO2 and CH4 emissions increased when dissolved O2 decreased and vegetation was more abundant. Total area and seasonally varying flooded areas for two wetlands, located north and south of the Negro River were determined through analysis of synthetic aperture radar and optical remotely sensed data. The combined areas of these two wetlands (3000 km2) emitted 1147 Gg C year-1 as CO2 and 31 Gg C year-1 as CH4. If these rates are extrapolated to the area occupied by hydromorphic soils in the upper Negro basin, 63 Tg C year-1 of CO2 and 1.7 Tg C year-1 as CH4 are estimated as the regional evasion to the atmosphere

Beginning Date:

2004-03-10

Ending Date:

2006-01-31

Metadata Last Updated on:

2014-03-21

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO LC-07 CO2 and CH4 Flux from Wetlands, Negro River Basin, Brazil: 2004-2006:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1209

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO LC-07 CO2 and CH4 Flux from Wetlands, Negro River Basin, Brazil: 2004-2006:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/LC07_Wetlands_fluxes.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Belger, L., B.R. Fosberg and. J.M. Melack. 2014. LBA-ECO LC-07 CO2 and CH4 Flux from Wetlands, Negro River Basin, Brazil: 2004-2006. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1209

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
CARBON DIOXIDE TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE SURFACE WATER FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS
METHANE TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE SURFACE WATER FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  PARA WESTERN (SANTAREM) -0.28630 -1.14240 -63.09960 -64.10800

Related Publication(s):

Belger, L., B.R. Fosberg and J.M. Melack. 2011. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from interfluvial wetlands in the upper Negro River basin, Brazil. Biogeochemistry 105:171�183 DOI 10.1007/s10533-010-9536-0

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are available in three comma-separated ASCII files organized as described below. The three files are:



File #1: LC07_Daily_C_fluxes.csv

File #2: LC07_Monthly_C_fluxes.csv

File #3: LC07_Hydrologic_measurements.csv



File #1

File name:,LC07_Daily_C_fluxes.csv,,,,,,,,,,,,

File date:,13-Feb-14,,,,,,,,,,,,

Associated LME:,LC07_Wetland_fluxes,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Column,Column_headin,Units/format,Explanation,,,,,,,,,,

1,Site,,Study area,,,,,,,,,,

2,Date,YYYYMMDD,Sampling date,,,,,,,,,,

3,Dry_area,km2,Estimated extent of the non-flooded area within the study area reported in kilometers squared,,,,,,,,,,

4,CH4_flux_dry,Mg CH4 day-1,Diffusive flux of methane from the total dry area surface calculated as the dry area times a set methane uptake rate for each study based on field observation and reported in megagrams of methane per day,

5,Flooded_area,km2,Estimated extent of the flooded area within the study area reported in kilometers squared,,,,,,,,,,

6,Water_level_status,,Water level variation in relation to the previous day,,,,,

7,CH4_ebullitive_flux,mg m-2 day-1,Ebullitive flux of methane from the flooded area surface. Field measurements of fluxes were found to be strongly influenced by water level status and so mean values were calculated for rising and falling floodwaters in each site. Values are reported in milligrams of methane per meter squared per day,,,,,,,,,,

8,CH4_ebullitive_total,Mg CH4 d-1,Ebullitive flux of methane from the total flooded area surface calculated as the total flooded area times the mean flux value for each site under rising or falling water conditions and reported in megagrams of methane per day,,,,,,,,,,

9,CH4_diffusive_flux ,mg CH4 m -2 d-1,Diffusive flux of methane from the flooded area surface measured once a month using chambers and funnels. On days between measuements values were calculated as the mean of the measurements that bracket the those days. Values are reported in milligrams of methane per meter squared per day,,,,,,,,,,

10,CH4_diffusive_total,Mg CH4 d-1,Diffusive flux of methane from the total flooded area surface calculated as the flooded area times the diffusive rate measured or calculated for that day and reported in megagrams of methane per day,,,,,,,,,,

11,CO2_diffusive_flux ,mg CO2 m -2 d-1,Diffusive flux of carbon dioxide from the flooded area surface measured once a month using floating chambers and funnels. On days between measuements values were calculated as the mean of the measurements that bracket the those days. Values are reported in milligrams of carbon dioxide per meter squared per day,,,,,,,,,,

12,CO2_diffusive_total,Mg CO2 d-1,Diffusive flux of carbon dioxide from the total flooded area surface calculated as the flooded area times the diffusive rate measured or calculated for that day and reported in megagrams of carbon dioxide per day,,,,,,,,,,

13,CO2_ebullitive_flux ,mg CO2 m -2 d-1,Ebullitive flux of carbon dioxide from the flooded area surface measured once a month using floating chambers and funnels. On days between measuements values were calculated as the mean of the measurements that bracket the those days. Values are reported in milligrams of carbon dioxide per meter squared per day,,,,,,,,,,

14,CO2_ebullitive_total ,Mg CO2 d-1,Ebullitive flux of carbon dioxide from the total flooded area surface calculated as the flooded area times the diffusive rate measured or calculated for that day and reported in megagrams of carbon dioxide per day,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,



Sample data for File #1:

Site,Date,Dry_area,CH4_flux_dry,Flooded_area,Water_level_status,CH4_ebullitive_flux,CH4_ebullitive_total,CH4_diffusive_flux ,CH4_diffusive_total,CO2_diffusive_flux ,CO2_diffusive_total,CO2_ebullitive_flux ,CO2_ebullitive_total

Cuini,20050201,846.3,-8.0,839.0,falling,105.2,88.3,3.3,2.8,8139.3,6828.9, 21.8,18.3

Cuini,20050202,857.0,-8.1,828.2,falling,105.2,87.1,3.3,2.7,8139.3,6741.0, 21.8,18.1

Cuini,20050203,820.5,-7.8,864.8,rising,55.4,47.9,3.3,2.9,8139.3,7038.9,21.8,18.9

Cuini,20050204,850.4,-8.1,834.8,falling,105.2,87.8,3.3,2.8,8139.3,6794.7, 21.8,18.2

Cuini,20050205,858.8,-8.2,826.5,falling,105.2,86.9,0.6,0.5,5400.4,4463.4, 31.4,26.0

....

Itu,20060128,908.4,-3.0,386.8,rising,3,1.2,20.9,8.1,5216.4,2017.7,6.8,2.6

Itu,20060129,915.4,-3.0,379.8,falling,16.1,6.1,20.9,7.9,5216.4,1981.2,6.8,2.6

Itu,20060130,921.1,-3.0,374.1,falling,16.1,6.0,20.9,7.8,5216.4,1951.5,6.8,2.5

Itu,20060131,915.0,-3.0,380.2,rising,3,1.1,20.9,7.9,5216.4,1983.3,6.8,2.6







File #2

File name:,LC07_Monthly_C_fluxes.csv,,,,,,,,,,,

File date:,7-Feb-14,,,,,,,,,,,

Associated LME:,LC07_Wetland_fluxes,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,

Column,Column_heading,Units/fomat,Explanation,,,,,,,,,

1,Site,,Sampling site name ,,,,,,,,,

2,Date,YYYYMM,Month for which flux values were calculated,,,,,,,,,

3,Dry_area_total,km2,Area within the study area not flooded (dry) for the sample month calculated as the sum of daily measures and reported in kilometers squared,,,,,,,,,

4,Flooded_area_total,km2,Area within the study area flooded for the sample month calculated as the sum of daily measures and reported in kilometers squared,,,,,,,,,

5,CH4 uptake,Mg C as CH4 per month,Methane uptake from the atmosphere in the not flooded (dry) areas reported in Megagrams of carbon per month for the study area. Calculated as the mean daily rate multiplied by the dry area for each day and all days summed for each month. Negative values indicate a flux from the atmosphere to the soil or uptake,,,,,,,,,

6,CH4_ebullitive_flux,Mg CH4 m-1,Calculated ebullitive methane (CH4) flux from the surface waters of the flooded area reported in Megagrams of methane per month for the entire study area.,,,,,,,,,

7,CH4-C_ebullitive_flux,Mg C m-1,Calculated ebullitive methane (CH4) flux from the surface waters of the flooded area reported in Megagrams of carbon per month for the entire study area,,,,,,,,,

8,CH4_diffusive_flux,Mg CH4 m-1,Calculated diffusive methane (CH4) flux from the surface waters of the flooded area reported in Megagrams of methane per month for the entire study area,,,,,,,,,

9,CH4-C_diffusive_flux,Mg C -1,Calculated diffusive methane (CH4) flux from the surface waters of the flooded area reported in Megagrams of carbon per month for the entire study area,,,,,,,,,

10,CO2_ebullitive_flux,Mg CO2 m-1,Calculated ebullitive carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from the surface waters of the flooded area reported in Megagrams of CO2 per month for the entire study area,,,,,,,,,

11,CO2-C_ebullitive_flux,Mg C m-1,Calculated ebullitive carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from the surface waters of the flooded area reported in Megagrams of carbon per month for the entire study area,,,,,,,,,

12,CO2_diffusive_flux,Mg CO2 m-1,Calculated diffusive carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from the surface waters of the flooded area reported in Megagrams of CO2 per month for the entire study area,,,,,,,,,

13,CO2-C_diffusive_flux,Mg C m-1,Calculated diffusive carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from the surface waters of the flooded area reported in Megagrams of carbon per month for the entire study area,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,



Sample data for File #2:

Site,Date,Dry_area_total,Flooded_area_total,CH4 uptake,CH4_ebullitive_flux,CH4-C_ebullitive_flux,CH4_diffusive_flux,CH4-C_diffusive_flux, CO2_ebullitive_flux,CO2-C_ebullitive_flux,CO2_diffusive_flux,CO2-C_diffusive_flux

Cuini,200502,22830.1,24356.58523,-123.2827278,1815,1361,41.7,31.3,531.1,159.3, 136568,40970

Cuini,200503,24134,28108.48588,-130.3233522,2323,1742.3,111.1,83.3,392.1,117.6, 147657,44297

Cuini,200504,23086.7,27470.4733,-124.6683242,2155,1615.9,151.8,113.8,447.8, 134.3,157403,47221

Cuini,200505,23369,28873.47832,-126.192393,2339,1753.9,538.7,404,512.5, 153.8,184186,55256

....

Itu,200510,27563,12588.17872,-6.738951981,122,91.5,167.5,125.6,80.7,24.2,137249,41175

Itu,200511,27096.4,11759.63703,-6.624857524,116,87.2,94.9,71.2,60.5,18.2,122789,36837

Itu,200512,27965.7,12185.5402,-6.837394079,118,88.8,162.4,121.8,101.6,30.5,95834,28750

Itu,200601,28555.5,11595.74384,-6.981594865,122,91.5,219.4,164.5,84,25.2,68413,20524





File #3

File name:,LC07_Hydrologic_measurements.csv,,,,

File date:,1-Feb-14,,,,

Associated LME:,LC07_Wetland_fluxes,,,,

,,,,,

Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation,,

1,Site,,Sampling site name,,

2,Date,YYYYMMDD,Sampling date,,

3,Depth_wetland,cm,Depth of floodwater measured at sampling station reported in centimeters,,

4,T_water,C,Water temperature reported in degrees C,,

5,T_air,C,Air temperature reported in degrees C,,

6,Rainfall,mm,Recorded rainfall for this date reported in millimeters,,

,,,,,

,missing data indicated by -9999,,,,

,,,,,



Sample data for File #3:

Site,Date,Depth_wetland,T_water,T_air,Rainfall

Araca,20040429,104,30.4,23.8,65

Araca,20040430,120,28.0,23.8,0

Araca,20040501,116,31.0,24.6,64

Araca,20040502,128,29.2,25.1,0

Araca,20040503,130,30.2,24.9,23

....

Cuini,20060108,113,25.6,23.2,0

Cuini,20060109,109,26.6,24.0,0

Cuini,20060110,105,27.8,25.4,0

Cuini,20060111,101,28.1,25.0,0

Cuini,20060112,98,28.0,24.7,0

Cuini,20060113,97,27.8,23.9,-9999

Data Application and Derivation:

Emissions data from these wetlands can be scaled up using estimates of areal extent of similar ecosystems to better constrain the carbon budget of the Amazon Basin on seasonal and annual timescales.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Gas fluxes



The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in chambers and funnels were determined with a gas chromatograph (Shimadzu GC14A) equipped with a flame ionization detector for the analysis of CH4 and thermal conductivity detector for CO2, as described by Hamilton et al. (1995). Two standards were used of each gas: 335 and 995 ppm forCO2 and 10 and 50 ppm for CH4. Detection limits were 100 ppm for CO2 and 0.1 ppm for CH4.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Sites:

The study was done in three interfluvial wetlands of the Negro River basin, located in the northwestern Brazilian Amazon. The Cuini wetland is located on the southern side of the Negro River between the Cuini and Ararira rivers. The Itu wetland is located on the northern side of the Negro River in the headwaters of the Itu River. The Araca wetland is located on the western side of the Araca River. Flooding varied seasonally, and extensive parts of the Cuini wetland were permanently flooded while the Itu and Araca wetlands dried several months per year. In the high-water season, the Cuini site was no more than 0.6 m deep (with the exception of stream channels), while Itu site was up to 1.3 m deep and Araca site was up to 0.8 m deep. The soils and sediments at the Itu and Araca sites were composed predominantly of coarse sand while the sediments at the Cuini site consisted of fine grained organic mud.



Sampling:

At the Cuini and Itu sites measurements were made monthly from February 2005 to January 2006 at stations where boardwalks were constructed to avoid release of gases caused by the person making the collections. At the Itu site a total of eight stations representing palms, shrubs, grasses or open water were selected. At the Cuini site five stations were sampled because palm dominated locations did not occur and only one open water locale was sampled. Supplementary measurements were made occasionally at other points in Itu and Cuini wetlands.



Depth and temperature were measured at the deepest locale found in each of the three wetlands by pressure transducers and thermistors linked to data loggers (Levelogger Solinst model 3001); data were recorded daily at midnight. Rainfall was recorded at each site with tipping bucket rain gauges. Staff gauges graduated in centimeters were installed on the banks of the Negro River and Araca River and read daily by local observers.



Determination of gas emissions:

Emissions of CO2 and CH4 were measured in the Cuini and Itu wetlands with floating chambers and inverted funnels when habitats were flooded and with terrestrial chambers when the environment was not flooded based on methodology described in Rosenqvist et al. (2002). Chambers were vented to adjust for pressure changes during deployment and contained a fan to circulate air inside.



Floating chambers were 25 cm in diameter and had an internal headspace volume of 10 liters. Terrestrial chambers were 31 cm in diameter. Their internal volume was 15 liters, but it was reduced after deployment, and headspace volume for each chamber was revised based on five height measurements.



Emission measurements made by floating and terrestrial chambers lasted 15 min, and samples of gas were taken at 5 min intervals with 60 ml polyethylene syringes. Funnels were 10 cm in diameter and were placed just under the water surface. They were deployed for 24 h and accumulated gas was collected with 10 ml polyethylene syringes and the volume was noted. Samples were transferred to 25 ml serum bottles capped with high density black butyl rubber stoppers until analysis. Monthly measurements were made at each station in duplicate. A total of 156 sample pairs were taken, nine when locales were not flooded and 33 with insufficient depth for use of the inverted funnels.



The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 were determined with a gas chromatograph (Shimadzu GC14A) equipped with a flame ionization detector for the analysis of CH4 and thermal conductivity detector for CO2, as described by Hamilton et al. (1995). Two standards were used of each gas: 335 and 995 ppm forCO2 and 10 and 50 ppm for CH4. Detection limits were 100 ppm for CO2 and 0.1 ppm for CH4.



Funnels measured ebullition and floating chambers determined primarily diffusive emissions. Following Smith et al. (2000), if the linear regression of gas flux versus time had p less than 0.05, the flux was considered diffusive. We used an additional criterion of R2 greater than 0.8 to consider emission measured in chamber only diffusive. Chamber results that did not meet these criteria were analyzed one by one. An abrupt increase in gas concentration was considered ebullition. The amount of gas emitted by ebullition was calculated as the distance between the extensions of two parallel lines formed by diffusive emission rates before and after the bubbling.



Diffusive and ebullitive emissions of CO2 and CH4 were estimated for the Itu and Cuini wetlands. These were calculated by multiplying the daily measured emissions by the daily inundated area estimated for each site.



As CH4 ebullitive emission differed mainly between periods of rising and falling water level, daily ebullitive emissions were determined by only this factor. When the level at the Cuini site was lower than the level of the previous day, the average daily flux value used in the calculations was 105 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. When the level was rising, the average daily flux value used was 55 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. When water level at the Itu site was falling, the average daily flux value used for the calculations of total emissions was 16 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. When the level was rising, the average daily flux value used was 3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1.



CH4 flux from the unflooded (dry) area was calculated as an average of the rates measured in the terrestrial chambers. The diffusive CO2 emission when environment not flooded was considered zero, since the terrestrial chambers registered no or very low emissions at this time.





Image analysis

Synthetic aperture radar data from Radarsat [C-band (6 cm), HH polarization] on 24 dates in 2004 and 2005 were used to determine inundated area in the Cuini and Itu wetlands. To reduce speckle, single look pixels were binned 4 - 1 resulting in 25 m resolution. A Landsat Thematic Mapper image obtained on 19 January 2003 was also used as part of the analysis, and additional LandsatTM images were used qualitatively. A wetland mask derived from an L-band SAR mosaic was used to mask uplands (Hess et al. 2003). A backscatter threshold (expressed as sigma), indicative of flooding, was selected to discriminate flooded and unflooded regions on the date of each Radarsat acquisition.

References:

Hamilton SK, Sippel SJ, Melack JM (1995) Oxygen depletion and carbon-dioxide and methane production in waters of the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. Biogeochemistry 30:115–141



Hess LL, Melack JM, Novo EMLN, Barbosa CCF, Gastil M(2003) Dual-season mapping of wetland inundation and vegetation for the central Amazon basin. Remote Sens

Environ 87:404–428



Rosenqvist A, Forsberg BR, Pimentel T, Rauste YA, Richey JE (2002) The use of spaceborne radar data to model inundation patterns and trace gas emissions in the central Amazon floodplain. Int J Remote Sens 33:1303–1328



Smith LK, Lewis WM, Chanton JP, Cronin G, Hamilton SK(2000) Methane emissions from the Orinoco River floodplain, Venezuela. Biogeochemistry 51:113–140

Skip navigation linksHOME | ABOUT | LIBRARY | NEWS ARCHIVE | CONTACTS | INVESTIGATIONS | LOGISTICS | DATA |TRAINING & EDUCATION

NASA logo
ORNL DAAC
Get Acrobat Reader