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Investigation:

LC-07 (Melack / Novo / Forsberg)

LBA Dataset ID:

LC07_RESERVOIR_GHG

Originator(s):

1. KEMENES, A.
2. FORSBERG, B.R.
      3. MELACK, J.M.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

Tropical reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams are known to release significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that methane emissions downstream from hydroelectric dams can also be large. Emissions of CH4 downstream of Balbina reservoir in the central Amazon basin (Brazil) were calculated from regular measurements of degassing in the outflow of the turbines and downstream diffusive losses. Annual emissions from the reservoir surface and downstream from the dam were 34 and 39 Gg C, respectively. The downstream emission alone represented the equivalent of 3 percent of all methane released from central Amazon floodplain. Hydroelectric reservoirs can release significant quantities of CO2, but very few results are available from the tropics. The objective of the present study was to estimate the emission of CO2 from the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir in the central Brazilian Amazon. Diffusive and ebullitive emissions were estimated at regular intervals, both above and below the dam, using a combination of static chambers and submerged funnels. Gas releases immediately below the dam were calculated as the difference between gas flux at the entrance and the outflow of the hydroelectric turbines. An inundation model derived from a bathymetric map and daily stage readings was used for spatial and temporal interpolation of reservoir emissions. Annual emissions of CO2, upstream and downstream of Balbina dam for 2005, were estimated as 2450 and 81 Gg C, respectively, for a total annual flux of 2531 Gg C. Upstream emissions were predominantly diffusive with only 0.02 Gg C per yr resulting from ebullition. On average, 51 percent of the downstream emission was released by degassing at the turbine outflow, and the remainder was lost by diffusion from the downstream river. The total annual greenhouse gas emission from Balbina dam, including the CO2 equivalent of previously estimated CH4 emissions, was 3 Tg C per yr, equivalent to approximately 50 percent of the CO2 emissions derived from the burning of fossil fuels in the Brazilian metropolis of Sao Paulo.

Beginning Date:

2004-07-05

Ending Date:

2006-02-15

Metadata Last Updated on:

2013-02-13

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO LC-07 Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Balbina Reservoir, Brazil:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1143

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO LC-07 Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Balbina Reservoir, Brazil:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/LC07_Reservoir_GHG.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Kemenes, A., B.R. Forsberg, and J.M. Melack. 2013. LBA-ECO LC-07 Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Balbina Reservoir, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1143

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
CARBON DIOXIDE BIOSPHERE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS FIELD INVESTIGATION GC (GAS CHROMATOGRAPH)
METHANE BIOSPHERE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS FIELD INVESTIGATION GC (GAS CHROMATOGRAPH)
OXYGEN BIOSPHERE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS FIELD INVESTIGATION OXYGEN METERS
WATER TEMPERATURE BIOSPHERE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS FIELD INVESTIGATION TEMPERATURE PROBE

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  CARBON DIOXIDE, DEPTH PROFLIE, HYDROELECTRIC RESEVOIR, METHANE, TEMPERATURE

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  AMAZONAS (MANAUS) -0.85900 -1.98400 -59.16710 -60.74130

Related Publication(s):

Kemenes, A., B. R. Forsberg, and J. M. Melack (2007), Methane release below a tropical hydroelectric dam, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L12809, doi:10.1029/2007GL029479.

Kemenes, A., B. R. Forsberg, and J. M. Melack (2011), CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir (Balbina, Brazil), J. Geophys. Res., 116, G03004, doi:10.1029/2010JG001465.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are available in 3 comma separated ASCII files:

File #1: LC07_Dam_gas_measurements.csv

File #2: LC07_Depth_profiles_gas_measurements.csv

File #3: LC07_Downstream_gas_measurements.csv



Data are organized as follows:



File #1

File name:,LC07_Dam_gas_measurements.csv,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

File date:,3-Sept_2012,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Associated LME File:,LC07_DAM_GASES,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

1,Date ,YYYYMMDD,Sampling date,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

2,Latitude,decimal degrees S,Location of sample collection in degrees latitude south of the equator,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

3,Longitude,decimal degrees W,Location of sample collection in degrees longitude west of the prime meridian,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

4,Habitat,,Habitat type: AA = open water; FPI = slightly inundated dead forest; FI = moderately inundated dead forest; FMI = very inundated dead forest; FQS = nearly submerged dead forest ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

5,Conc_CO2_surface,mgC/m3,Concentration of carbon dioxide in the surface waters reported in milligrams of carbon per cubic meter of water,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

6,Conc_CH4_surface ,mgC/m3,Concentration of methane in the surface waters reported in milligrams of carbon per cubic meter of water,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

7,Conc_CO2_bottom,mgC/m3,Concentration of carbon dioxide in the bottom waters reported in milligrams of carbon per cubic meter of water,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

8,Conc_CH4_bottom,mgC/m3,Concentration of methane in the bottom waters reported in milligrams of carbon per cubic meter of water,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

9,Flux_CH4_funnel,mgC/m2/day,Flux of methane measured using a funnel and reported in milligrams of carbon per meter squared of surface area per day,,,,,

10,Flux_CO2_funnel,mgC/m2/day,Flux of carbon dioxide measured using a funnel and reported in milligrams of carbon per meter squared of surface area per day,,

11,Flux_CH4_total,mgC/m2/day,Total flux of methane calculated from static chamber measurements,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

12,Flux_CO2_total,mgC/m2/day,Total flux of carbon dioxide calculated from static chamber measurements,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

13,Flux_CH4_diffusive ,mgC/m2/day,Diffusive flux of methane calculated by subtracting measured funnel fluxes (Column 9) from the calculated total flux value (Column 11),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

14,Flux_CO2_diffusive,mgC/m2/day,Diffusive flux of carbon dioxide calculated by subtracting measured funnel fluxes (Column 10) from the calculated total flux value (Column 12),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

15,Conc_O2_surface,mg/L,Concentration of oxygen in surface waters reported in milligrams of oxygen per liter of water,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

16,Conc_O2_bottom ,mg/L,Concentration of oxygen in bottom waters reported in milligrams of oxygen per liter of water,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

17,T_water_surface ,degrees C,Water temperature at the surface reported in degrees Celsius,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

18,T_water_bottom,degrees C,Water temperature at the bottom reported in degrees Celsius,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

19,Depth_water,m,Depth to the bottom of the reservoir reported in meters,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

20,Transparency ,m,Secchi depth transparency reported in meters,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Sample data for File #1: Date ,Latitude,Longitude,Habitat,Conc_CO2_surface,Conc_CH4_surface ,Conc_CO2_bottom,Conc_CH4_bottom,Flux_CH4_funnel,Flux_CO2_funnel,Flux_CH4_total,Flux_CO2_total,Flux_CH4_diffusive ,Flux_CO2_diffusive,Conc_O2_surface,Conc_O2_bottom ,T_water_surface ,T_water_bottom,Depth_water,Transparency

20050417,1.91094,59.50275,AA,674.2,1,823.3,3.2,0.02,0.01,44,1365.7,44,1365.7,6.7,4.2,30.5,29,13,3.2

20050417,1.88869,59.53294,FMI,534,3.2,966.2,9.9,0.04,0.01,124.6,2122.3,124.6,2122.3,7.3,6.3,30.7,30,5,2.6

20050417,1.8455,59.56139,FI,543.8,2.3,1068.9,5.5,0,0,23.8,3506.5,23.8,3506.5,6.9,5.2,31.4,30,7.5,3

20050417,1.81733,59.52356,AA,701,0.8,921.6,2.1,0,0,18.3,4060.1,18.3,4060.1,6.3,2.4,31.4,29,20,3

20050417,1.87464,59.44944,AA,626,1.7,1080.5,3.6,0,0,7.3,2842.1,7.3,2842.1,5.3,3,32,30,18,3

20050417,1.88731,59.45431,FQS,647.4,1.8,1241.3,6.2,0.03,0.01,86.1,2742.4,86.1,2742.4,6.1,3.4,31.5,30,15,2.6

20050417,1.90353,59.46053,AA,846.6,1.1,1017.1,6.1,0.1,0.01,17.6,5573.4,17.5,5573.4,6.1,4.3,31.9,31,9,2.8

20050417,1.91333,59.50336,FMI,765.3,6.1,1617.2,7.8,0.03,0.01,12.8,3838.6,12.8,3838.6,5.9,4,30.7,30,12,2.4

20050530,1.80261,59.16711,FMI,1058.2,2.9,1062.7,3.7,0,0,17.6,2882.7,17.6,2882.7,5.7,4.2,29.5,29.2,8,2.4

20050530,1.88039,59.42208,FI,1035.9,3.1,1214.5,6.7,0.46,0.02,80.6,3159.5,80.1,3159.5,5.8,4.5,29.6,29.3,6,2.6

20050530,1.87561,59.39683,FI,1177.9,4.4,1986,38.3,0.23,0.01,78.8,2096.5,78.6,2096.5,5.6,3.1,29.7,29.3,9,2.6

20050530,1.86758,59.39197,FMI,1353.8,2.9,1704.7,3.2,0,0,20.1,4015.8,20.1,4015.8,5.4,3.1,29.8,29.3,16,2.6

20050530,1.85342,59.40456,FMI,1295.7,4.1,1527.9,2.9,0,0,29.3,3654.1,29.3,3654.1,5.4,1.2,29.9,29.3,10,2.4



File #2:

File name:,LC07_Depth_profiles_gas_measurements.csv,,,,

File date:,3-Sept_2012,,,,

Associated LME File:,LC07_DAM_GASES,,,,

,,,,,

Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation,,

1,Date,YYYYMMDD,Sampling date,,

2,Depth,m,Depth in the water column at which sample was collected reported in meters (m): AR indicates a gas sample for which depth is not applicable,,

3,Conc_CH4,mgC/m3,Concentration of methane in water sample reported in milligrams of carbon per cubic meter,,

4,Conc_CO2 ,mgC/m3,Concentration of carbon dioxide in water sample reported in milligrams of carbon per cubic meter,,

5,Conc_O2 ,mg/L,Concentration of oxygen in water sample reported in milligrams of oxygen per liter,,

6,T_water,degrees C,Water temperature reported in degrees Celsius,,

,,,,,

,,,,,

missing data represented by -9999,,,,,

,,,,,

Date,Depth,Conc_CH4,Conc_CO2 ,Conc_O2 ,T_water

20040705,0,2.7,1103.7,6.8,33

20040705,2,2.9,1157.3,6.7,33

20040705,4,2.9,1245.7,6.5,32

20040705,6,2.9,1302,6.4,32

20040705,8,2.8,1481.5,6.2,31

20040705,10,2.6,1744,5.8,31

20040705,12,2.8,1744,5.5,30

20040705,14,3.1,1647.6,4.8,30

20040705,16,3.9,1521.7,4.9,30

20040705,18,20.4,1647.6,4.3,30

20040705,20,652.7,3405,4,30

20040705,22,2676.8,3405,3.9,30

20040705,24,2440.9,5392.8,3.1,30

20040705,26,3151.3,6156.3,2.8,30

20040705,28,4816.3,7233.3,1.9,29

20040705,AR,1.2,892.1,-9999,-9999

20040919,0,3.2,2044.1,6.9,32

20040919,2,3,1446.7,6.7,32



File #3:

File name:,LC07_Downstream_gas_measurements.csv,,,,,

File date:,3-Sept_2012,,,,,

Associated LME File:,LC07_DAM_GASES,,,,,

,,,,,,

Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation,,,

1,Day,YYYYMMDD,Sampling date,,,

2,Distance_downstream ,m,Sampling location in meters downstream from the dam,,,

3,Conc_CO2_surface,mgC-C/m3,Concentration of carbon dioxide in the surface water reported in milligrams of carbon per cubic meter,,,

4,Conc_CH4_surface,mgC-C/m3,Concentration of methane in the surface water reported in milligrams of carbon per cubic meter,,,

5,Flux_CH4 ,mgC/m2/hour,Flux of methane from the surface water to the atmosphere reported in milligrams of carbon per meter squared per hour,,,

6,Flux_CO2,mgC/m2/hour,Flux of carbon dioxide from the surface water to the atmosphere reported in milligrams of carbon per meter squared per hour,,,

7,Conc_O2_surface ,mg/l,Concentration of oxygen in the surface water reported in milligrams of oxygen per liter,,,

,,,,,,

missing data represented by -9999,,,,,,

,,,,,,

Day,Distance_downstream ,Conc_CO2_surface,Conc_CH4_surface,Flux_CH4 ,Flux_CO2,Conc_O2_surface

20040719,50,3508.6,1405.8,-9999,-9999,4.5

20040924,50,3263,1479.6,-9999,-9999,4.4

20041028,50,3508.6,1405.8,-9999,-9999,4.5

20041028,2000,3011.2,1325.3,-9999,-9999,4.1

20041028,3000,2729.9,1107.8,-9999,-9999,4.1

20041028,5000,2647.7,1043.4,-9999,-9999,5.3

20041028,7000,2283.4,698.2,-9999,-9999,4.4

20041028,10000,2190.5,593.9,-9999,-9999,4.3

20041127,50,3340.7,4101.5,316,370.9,4.9

20041127,2000,3113,2687.9,445.7,458.3,5

20041130,3000,3561.3,2610.2,650,503.3,4.1

20041130,5000,3191.6,2271.1,207.4,404,4.3

20041130,15000,2161.1,1493.5,1289.9,354.3,5

20051206,17000,1410.9,2186.7,485.9,226.5,5.2

20041129,30000,1634.2,895.8,402.1,301.3,-9999

20041223,50,2528.1,989.6,294.6,567.5,4.8

20041223,2000,2483.4,936.3,129.1,362,4.8

20041223,15000,2499.5,437.9,35.6,234.7,4.9

20041226,30000,1824.4,137.6,50.4,419.1,6.3

Data Application and Derivation:

Measured fluxes can be combined with estimates of surface area of the flooded zone as well as modeled depth of the waterways to calculate methane and carbon dioxide emissions on a monthly to yearly basis

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

For carbon dioxide, standards of 335 mg per L (SD = 105) and 995 mg per L (SD =

104) were used to calibrate the analyses. The detection limit was 100 mg per L.



Chamber emissions for each deployment were estimated from the regression of CO2 concentration against time. All regressions had r2 > 0.90, indicating that

emissions were predominantly diffusive.



We developed a new sampler, called the Kemenes sampler, designed to avoid degassing losses during the collection of deepwater samples. The sampler consists of a weighted housing which secures a 60 ml polyethylene syringe in a vertical position. Before lowering, a solenoid valve at the mouth of the syringe is closed and a vacuum is applied to the syringe by pulling the syringe piston and securing it in an extended position. At the sample depth the

solenoid valve is opened to collect the sample. The sampler and syringe are maintained in a vertical position during retrieval to ensure that any gas bubbles released during the process are retained in the syringe. At the surface, the syringe is treated as indicated in the headspace method described above, ensuring that both the equilibrated gas and any released bubbles are included in the final gas sample.



To quantify the degassing error, we made 11 parallel collections of hypolimnetic waters near the turbine inflows of Balbina, Tucurui and Samuel reservoirs, using both the Ruttner and Kemenes samplers. The samples were collected between September 2004 and February 2006, following the methodology described above. For depths greater than 20 m, which included most of the depth range expected to contribute to turbine flow in these three systems, the CO2 and

CH4 concentrations in water samples collected with the Kemenes sampler averaged 34% and 116% higher than those collected with the Ruttner sampler, respectively. The greater difference encountered for CH4 reflects the lower

solubility of this gas and greater tendency to form bubbles when hydrostatic pressure is reduced.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Balbina reservoir, the largest hydroelectric reservoir in the Amazon, was formed

by impounding the Uatuma River in 1987. It has an average flooded area of 1,770 km2 and an installed generating capacity of 250 MW (Fearnside, 1989; Kemenes, 2006). The waters are dilute (conductance varying from 6 to 10 uS per cm) and slightly acid (pH varying from 6.0 to 7.4) with a dissolved organic carbon concentration ranging from 2.7 to 7.1 mg per liter. The reservoir is stratified near the dam resulting in the development of near anoxia and high concentrations

of methane in bottom waters through most of the year.



Reservoir surface emissions were measured at 10 to 14 sites at monthly intervals between January and November of 2005 using static chambers. The chambers were subsampled with 60 ml polyethylene syringes at 5 minute intervals during a period of 20 minutes, after which the gas samples were transferred to 20 ml glass serum bottles with high density butyl rubber stoppers and stored until analysis. Chamber emissions in the reservoir were assumed to include both diffusive and ebullitive fluxes. Average areal emission rates (mg C per m2 per day) were determined monthly and interpolated spatially and temporally using a digital inundation model derived from a detailed bathymetric map of the reservoir and daily stage readings. Daily emissions for the entire reservoir were obtained by multiplying the total flooded area, estimated from the inundation model for a given day, by the average monthly areal emission rate. Dissolved methane concentrations were estimated with the head space method (Johnson et al., 1990). Surface water samples below the dam were collected directly with 60 ml syringes. Water samples above the dam were collected with a Ruttner sampler at the depth of the turbine inflow (approx. 30 m) and transferred to syringes. Water samples in syringes were equilibrated with atmospheric air (30 ml water: 30 ml air) and the air faction was then transferred to a serum vial and stored until analysis. Methane and carbon dioxide concentrations in all samples were determined using a dual column gas chromatograph (Shimadzu GC-14A) following the methodology of Hamilton et al. (1995).

References:

Fearnside, P. M. (1989), Brazil\'s Balbina Dam: Environmental versus the

legacy of the Pharaohs in Amazonia, Environ. Manage. N. Y., 13, 401-423.



Hamilton, S. K., S. J. Sippel, and J. M. Melack (1995), Oxygen depletion,

carbon dioxide and methane production in waters of Pantanal wetland of

Brazil, Biogeochemistry, 30, 115â�â�œ141.



Johnson, K. M., J. E. Hughes, P. L. Donaghay, and J. M. Sieburth (1990),

Bottle-calibration static head space method for determination of methane

dissolved in seawater, Anal. Chem., 62, 2408â�â�œ2412.



Kemenes, A. (2006), Emissao de metano e gas carbonico pela Hidreletrica

de Balbina, Ph.D. thesis, 98 pp., Inst. Nac. de Pesqui. da Amazonia,

Manaus, Brazil.

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