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Investigation:

TG-10 (Yokelson / Artaxo)

LBA Dataset ID:

TG10_TROFFEE

Originator(s):

1. YOKELSON, R.J.
2. KARL, T.R.
3. ARTAXO, P.E.
4. BLAKE, D.R.
      5. CHRISTIAN, T.J.
6. GRIFFITH, D.W.T.
7. GUENTHER, A.B.
8. HAO, W.M.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE) used laboratory measurements followed by airborne and ground based field campaigns during the 2004 Amazon dry season to quantify the emissions from pristine tropical forest and several plantations as well as the emissions, fuel consumption, and fire ecology of tropical deforestation fires. The airborne campaign used an Embraer 110B aircraft outfitted with whole air sampling in canisters, mass-calibrated nephelometry, ozone by UV absorbance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to measure PM10, O3, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, HCN, NH3, OCS, DMS, CH4, and up to 48 non-methane organic compounds(NMOC). Emission factors (EF) were computed for the 19 tropical deforestation fires sampled and they largely compare well to previous work. However, the TROFFEE EF are mostly based on a much larger number of samples than previously available and they also include results for significant emissions not previously reported.
A large fraction of the total burning for 2004 likely occurred during a two-week period of very low humidity. The combined output of these fires created a massive megaplume more than 500 km across that we sampled on 8 September. The megaplume contained high PM10 and 10 to 50 ppbv of many reactive species such as O3, NH3, NO2, CH3OH, and organic acids. This is an intense and globally important chemical processing environment that is still poorly understood. The megaplume covered a large area in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay for about one month.

Beginning Date:

2004-08-29

Ending Date:

2004-09-08

Metadata Last Updated on:

2013-10-21

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO TG-10 Fire Emission Factors in Mato Grosso, Para, and Amazonas, Brazil: 2004 :  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1195

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO TG-10 Fire Emission Factors in Mato Grosso, Para, and Amazonas, Brazil: 2004 :  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/TG10_TROFFEE.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Yokelson, R.J., T. Karl, P. Artaxo, D.R. Blake, T.J. Christian, D.W.T. Griffith, A. Guenther, and W.M. Hao. 2013. LBA-ECO TG-10 Fire Emission Factors in Mato Grosso, Para, and Amazonas, Brazil: 2004. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1195

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ATMOSPHERE AIR QUALITY AIRCRAFT FTIR SPECTROMETER (FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETER)
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ATMOSPHERE AIR QUALITY AIRCRAFT PTR-MS (PROTON TRANSFER MASS SPECTROMETER)

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  AIR QUALITY, AMAZON, BRAZIL, EMISSION FACTORS, FIRE EMISSIONS, FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, MEGA-PLUME, PROTON-TRANSFER MASS SPECTROMETRY

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  MATO GROSSO -3.00700 -11.49100 -51.79800 -54.18500

Related Publication(s):

Yokelson, R.J., T. Karl, P. Artaxo, D. R. Blake, T. J. Christian, D.W.T. Griffith, A. Guenther, and W.M. Hao. 2007. The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5175�5196

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are available in two comma-separated ASCII files:

File #1:TROFFEE_AFTIR.csv

File #2:TROFFEE_PTRMS.csv





Data are organized as follows:

File #1

File name:,TROFFEE_AFTIR.csv,

File date:,26-Jul-12,

Associated LME file :,TG10_TROFFEE,



Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation,

1,Date,YYYYMMDD,Sampling date,,

2,Fire_name,,Fire identification: in the case where samples from multiple individual fires were combined this is indicated by including Mean in the Fire_name,

3,Latitude,,Fire location in decimal degrees of latitude,

4,Longitude,,Fire location in decimal degrees of longitude,

5,Obs_start,HH:MM:SS,Start time of sampling in local time,

6,Obs_end,HH:MM:SS,End time of sampling in local time,

7,EF_CO2,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for carbon dioxide reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

8,EF_CO,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for carbon monoxide reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

9,MCE,,Modified combustion efficiency not an emissions factor calculated as DeltaCO2/ (DeltaCO2+ Delta CO),

10,EF_NO,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for nitric xide reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

11,EF_NO2,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for nitrogen dioxide reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

12,EF_NOx,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for NOx (measured as NO) reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

13,EF_HONO,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for nitrous acid reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

14,EF_CH4,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for methane reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

15,EF_C2H4,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for ethylene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

16,EF_C2H2,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for acetylene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

17,EF_C2H6,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for ethane reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

18,EF_C3H6,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for propene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

19,EF_HCHO,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for formaldehyde reported ingrams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

20,EF_CH3OH,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for methanol reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

21,EF_CH3COOH,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for accetic acid reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

22,EF_HCOOH,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for formic acid reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

23,EF_NH3,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for ammonia reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

24,EF_HCN,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for hydrogen cyanide reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,

,missing data is represented by -9999,



Sample data for File #1:

Date,Fire_name,Latitude,Longitude,Obs_start,Obs_end,EF_CO2,EF_CO,EF_MCE,EF_NO,EF_NO2,EF_NOx,EF_HONO,EF_CH4,EF_C2H4,EF_C2H2,EF_C2H6,EF_C3H6,EF_HCHO,EF_CH3OH,EF_CH3COOH,EF_HCOOH,EF_NH3,EF_HCN

20040829,29 Aug Fire 1,-10.27,-52.159,13:41:54,14:17:10,1638,95.72,0.916,0.238, 1.979,1.574,0.345,4.213,0.747,0.094,0.548,0.452,1.277,2.077,3.134,0.398,1.127,0.665

20040829,29 Aug Fire 2,-10.357,-52.019,14:30:07,14:43:30,1591,112.08,0.9,-9999,0.93,0.606,0.167,6.916,1.238,-9999,1.137,0.728,1.912,2.874,4.172,0.519, 1.364,0.537

20040830,30 Aug Fire Mean,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,1567,133.45,0.882,0.281, 1.157,1.035,-9999,5.751,0.958,0.083,0.917,0.424,1.674,2.724,3.635,0.377, 1.093,0.699

20040830,SC Fire,-11.488,-54.458,14:36:25,14:43:59,1579,124.82,0.89,0.514, 0.509,0.846,-9999,7.544,1.215,0.101,1.157,0.606,1.783,3.371,3.59,0.223, 1.769,0.582



File #2:

File name:,TROFFEE_PTRMS.csv,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

File date:,26-Jul-12,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Associated LME file :,TG10_TROFFEE,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

1,Date,YYYYMMDD,Sampling date,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

2,Fire_name,,Fire identification: in the case where samples from multiple individual fires were combined this is indicated by including Mean in the Fire_name,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

3,Latitude,,Fire location in decimal degrees of latitude,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

4,Longitude,,Fire location in decimal degrees of longitude,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

5,Obs_start,HH:MM:SS,Start time of sampling in local time,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

6,Obs_end,HH:MM:SS,End time of sampling in local time,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

7,EF_Acetonitrile,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for acetonitrile reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

8,EF_Acetaldehyde,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for acetaldehyde reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

9,EF_Acrylonitrile,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for acrylonitrile reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

10,EF_Acrolein,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for acrolein reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

11,EF_Acetone,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for acetone reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

12,EF_Propanal,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for propanal reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

13,EF_Isoprene,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for isoprene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

14,EF_Furan,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for furan reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

15,EF_Methylvinyl_ketone,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for methylvinyl ketone reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

16,EF_Methacrolein,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for methacrolein reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,

17,EF_Crotonaldehyde,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for crotonaldehyde reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,

18,EF_Methylethyl_ketone,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for methylethyl ketone reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

19,EF_Methyl_propanal,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for methyl propanal reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

20,EF_Acetol_ and_Methylacetate,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for acetol plus methylacetate reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

21,EF_Benzene,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for benzene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,

22,EF_C6_Carbonyls,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for C6 carbonyls reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,

23,EF_3-Methylfuran,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for 3-methylfuran reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,

24,EF_2-Methylfuran,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for 2-methylfuran reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,

25,EF_Hexanal,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for hexanal reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,

26,EF_2_3-Butanedione,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for 2 3-butanedione reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

27,EF_2-Pentanone,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for 2-pentanone reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

28,EF_3-Pentanone,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for 3-pentanone reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

29,EF_Toluene,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for toluene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,

30,EF_Phenol,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for phenol reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,

31,EF_Other_Substituted_Furans,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for other substituted furans reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

32,EF_Furaldehydes,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for furaldehydes reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

33,EF_Xylenes,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for xylenes reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

34,EF_Ethylbenzene,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for ethylbenzene reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

35,EF_PM_10,gkg-1,Initial emissions factor for PM-10 reported in grams of compound emitted per kilogram of dry fuel: For the megaplume this represents the effective emissions factor measured downwind from the source,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

, missing data is represented by -9999,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Date,Fire_name,Latitude,Longitude,Obs_start,Obs_end,EF_Acetonitrile,EF_Acetaldehyde,EF_Acrylonitrile,EF_Acrolein,EF_Acetone,EF_Propanal,EF_Isoprene,EF_Furan,EF_Methylvinyl_ketone,EF_Methacrolein,EF_Crotonaldehyde,EF_Methylethyl_ketone,EF_Methyl_propanal,EF_Acetol_ and_Methylacetate,EF_Benzene,EF_C6_Carbonyls,EF_3-Methylfuran,EF_2-Methylfuran,EF_Hexanal,EF_2_3-Butanedione,EF_2-Pentanone,EF_3-Pentanone,EF_Toluene,EF_Phenol,EF_Other_Substituted_Furans,EF_Furaldehydes,EF_Xylenes,EF_Ethylbenzene,EF_PM_10

20040829,29 Aug Fire 1,-10.27,-52.159,13:41:54,14:17:10,0.574,1.255,0.051,-9999,0.429,0.067,0.236,0.207,0.166,0.066,0.1,0.229,0.081,-9999,0.189,0.98,0.252,0.036,0.006,0.317,0.032,0.014,0.102,-9999,-9999,-9999,0.086,0.053,17.61

20040829,29 Aug Fire 2,-10.357,-52.019,14:30:07,14:43:30,0.276,1.202,-9999,-9999,0.525,0.082,0.366,0.32,0.499,0.198,0.302,0.469,0.165,-9999,0.381,0.307,0.707,0.101,0.017,0.79,0.085,0.038,0.109,-9999,-9999,-9999,0.092,0.084,14.43

20040830,30 Aug Fire Mean,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,0.27,1.167,0.038,-9999,0.645,0.101,0.402,0.352,0.34,0.135,0.205,-9999,-9999,0.649,0.168,0.105,0.434,0.062,0.01,0.509,0.052,0.023,0.126,-9999,-9999,-9999,0.076,0.047,17.94

Data Application and Derivation:

Airborne measurements of fire emission factors are needed as model input and for

bottom-up emissions estimates at any scale

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

The sensitivity of the PTR-MS instrument during this study was typically on the order of 70 Hz/ppbv (counts per second per ppbv) for acetone and 50 Hz/ppbv for methanol at 2.3 mbar buffer gas pressure with a reaction time of 110 us and 3 to 4 MHz H3O+ ions, and thus inferred a signal to noise ratio of 60% at a concentration of 20 pptv and a 2 s integration time.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

The TROFFEE airborne campaign consisted of 44.5 flight hours between 27 August and 8 September of 2004 on an Embraer Bandeirante operated by the Brazilian

National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)). The major instruments deployed on the aircraft included: (1) real-time ozone, condensation particle counter, and mass-calibrated nephelometry

(University of Sao Paulo); (2) PTR-MS (National Center for Atmospheric Research); (3) Whole air sampling in canisters with subsequent GC analysis using flame ionization, mass selective, and electron capture detection (FID, MSD, and ECD; University of California at Irvine); and (4) airborne FTIR (University of Montana). This suite of instruments was well suited for measuring CO2, CO, PM10, CH4, NOx, O3, and more than 40 non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) including the important biogenic emissions isoprene and methanol.



In phase 1, the aircraft was based in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso in the southern Amazon from 27 August through 5 September where the local dry/burning season was well underway. Regional haze due mostly to diluted biomass-burning smoke of unknown age and the nascent (minutes-old) emissions from 15 fires (mostly deforestation fires) were sampled in the states of Mato Grosso and Para within about one-hour flight time of Alta Floresta. In phase 2, the aircraft was based in Manaus, Amazonas from 5 to 8 September. The local dry season was just beginning there and the air was much cleaner and mostly unaffected by fires; especially in the mornings. The biogenic emissions were sampled from forests, several plantations east of Manaus, and the pristine forest at the ZF-14 tower north of Manaus. In addition, four more fires were sampled around noon in the Manaus region. On 8 September from 8 to 13 degrees S we sampled a smoke plume hundreds of km wide that contained the combined emissions from a huge number of fires. These fires represented a significant fraction of the total Amazon burning for 2004 and they generated a mega-plume.



Flight plans and sampling protocols

While based in Alta Floresta (27 August through 5 September) background air (defined here as air not within a visible biomass burning plume) was characterized at various altitudes (up to 3352 m). These were afternoon flights conducted to search for and sample fires and most of the measurements were made below the top of the (hazy) mixed layer. While based in Manaus cleaner background air was sampled during morning flights over a similar altitude range. The Manaus flights included both continuous-spiral and \'parking-garage\'-type vertical profiles over the instrumented ZF-14 Tower and a constant-altitude \'racetrack\' pattern that sampled several regionally important ecosystems (undisturbed forest, flooded forest, and various plantations) east of Manaus (Karl et al., 2007b).



Nearly all the fires we observed in Mato Grosso and southern Para were related to the expansion of existing, large farms or ranches. All but 3 of these fires were located on the edge of forested areas that were adjacent to large tracts of cleared, often cultivated, land. However, the second fire sampled on 29 August was in a grass meadow and no large fuels were visible from the air. This was probably a maintenance fire for an older pasture. The other exception was two small fires observed on 31 August adjacent to the Xingu River in the center of an indigenous reserve and far from any visible clearings or roads. These fires were likely due to shifting cultivation and the one we sampled is labeled the SC fire. Complete burning of logging slash to prepare for mechanized agriculture can be promoted by bulldozing the fuel into long piles (windrows) that were observed from the aircraft on at least one group of fires (30 August Fires 1 through 4). In all areas, the fires frequently occurred in clusters. TROFFEE supported a planned, deforestation fire on a farm near Alta Floresta under the supervision of Joao Carvalho (University of Estadual Paulista) and Ernesto Alvarado (University of Washington).





When sampling background air in either region, the PTR-MS continuously cycled through a suite of mass channels with a resulting measurement frequency for individual species ranging from 10 to 20 s. Overall, twenty-one canisters were used to grab background samples at key locations. The airborne FTIR (AFTIR) was operated either continuously (time resolution of 0.83 to 18 s) or to acquire 133 grab samples of background air.



To measure the initial emissions from fires in both regions, we sampled smoke less than several minutes old by penetrating the column of smoke 200 to 1000m above the flame front. The AFTIR system and cans obtained grab samples in the plume (and paired background samples just outside the plume). The other instruments measured their species continuously while passing through the plume. More than a few kilometers downwind from the source, smoke plume samples are \'chemically aged\' and better for probing post emission chemistry than estimating initial emissions (Hobbs et al., 2003; de Gouw et al., 2006).





Airborne FTIR (AFTIR) and whole air sampling in canisters



The basic design and operation of the AFTIR system has been described in detail by Yokelson et al. (1999, 2003a, b). A summary description is given here followed by the details of how AFTIR was used to fill canisters. The AFTIR has a

dedicated, halocarbon-wax, coated inlet that directs ram air through a Pyrex, multipass cell. Infrared spectra of the cell contents are acquired continuously (every 0.83 s) throughout each flight and the flow-control valves are normally open, which flushes the cell with outside air every 2 to 4 s. The fast-acting

flow control valves allow the system flow to be temporarily stopped for signal averaging and improved accuracy on grab samples. The IR spectra are later analyzed to quantify the compounds responsible for all the major peaks. This

accounts for most of the trace gases present in the cell above 5 to 20 ppbv (Goode et al., 1999). For TROFFEE, a Teflon valve was added to the AFTIR cell that connected to two options for filling evacuated canisters. For a canister sample of a plume, we used a teflon diaphragm pump to pressurize the can with gas from the AFTIR cell, which already contained a grab sample of the plume. Pressurizing the cans allows more sensitive and/or a wider variety of analyses and also prevents contamination in the event of a slow leak. Operationally-simpler canister samples of background air were obtained by diverting a portion

of the flow through the AFTIR cell into the cans. The .635 cm outside diameter Teflon tubing connecting to the canisters had a pressure higher than the cabin pressure and attached to the can with Ultra-Torr fittings. We flushed the connecting tubing with cell air by loosening the fitting for a few minutes.

Once the fitting was retightened the pre-evacuated can was opened and filled to cell pressure within seconds. The filling time of each can was shown by a sharp, (logged) pressure response in the AFTIR cell. The canisters were later

analyzed at UCI using GC/FID-MSD-ECD (Colman et al., 2001).



PTR-MS

A detailed description of the PTR-MS instrument is given elsewhere (Lindinger et al., 1998). Briefly, H3O+ ions are used to ionize volatile organic compounds (VOC) via proton transfer reactions. The value for E/N (E the electric field

strength and N the buffer gas density) in the drift tube was kept at about 123 Townsend, which is high enough to avoid strong clustering of H3O+ ions with water and thus a humidity dependent sensitivity. The sensitivity of the PTR-MS

instrument during this study was typically on the order of 70 Hz/ppbv (counts per second per ppbv) for acetone and 50 Hz/ppbv for methanol at 2.3 mbar buffer gas pressure with a reaction time of 110 us and 3 to 4MHz H3O+ ions, and thus inferred a signal to noise ratio of 60% at a concentration of 20 pptv and a 2 s integration time. The PTR-MS sampled air through a dedicated, rear-facing, Teflon inlet. About 17 mass channels were monitored during flight with a measurement period for each species of 1 to 20 s. Higher sampling rates were used in the plumes. More details about the PTR-MS in this campaign are given by Karl et al. (2007a).



Calculation of emission factors



A widely used, derived quantity is the normalized excess mixing ratio where DeltaX is compared to a simultaneously measured plume tracer such as DeltaCO or

DeltaCO2. A measurement of DeltaX/DeltaCO or DeltaX/DeltaCO2 made in a nascent plume (seconds to a few minutes old) is an emission ratio (ER). The ER DeltaCO/DeltaCO2 and the modified combustion efficiency (MCE, DeltaCO2/(DeltaCO2+DeltaCO)) are useful to indicate the relative amount of flaming and smoldering combustion for biomass burning. Higher DeltaCO/DeltaCO2 or lower

MCE indicates more smoldering (Ward and Radke, 1993).



For any carbonaceous fuel, a set of ER to CO2 for the other major carbon emissions (i.e. CO, CH4, a suite of NMOC, particulate carbon) can be used to calculate emission factors (EF, g compound emitted/kg dry fuel) for all the gases quantified from the source using the carbon mass-balance method

(Yokelson et al., 1996). EFs are combined with fuel consumption measurements to estimate total emissions at various scales. In this project, the primary data needed to calculate EF was provided by AFTIR measurements of CO2, CO,

CH4, and many NMOC. However, the PTR-MS and canister sampling added numerous, important NMOC that were below AFTIR detection limits or not amenable to IR detection. The PM10 data allowed inclusion of particle carbon.



We estimated fire-average, initial EF for PM10 and each observed trace gas from our fire-average, initial ER using the carbon mass balance method (Ward and Radke, 1993) as described by Yokelson et al. (1999). Briefly, we assume that

all the volatilized carbon is detected and that the fuel carbon content is known. For purposes of the carbon mass balance we assume the particles are 60% C by mass (Ferek et al., 1998). By ignoring unmeasured gases we are probably inflating the emission factors by 1 to 2% (Andreae and Merlet, 2001). We assumed in our EF calculations that all the fires burned in fuels containing 50% carbon by mass. This is in good agreement with previous studies of tropical biomass (Susott et al., 1996), but the actual fuel carbon percentage may vary by plus or minus 10% of our nominal value. (Emission factors scale linearly with assumed fuel carbon percentage.)

References:

Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P. 2001. Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15, 955â�â�œ 966, doi:10.1029/2000GB001382



Colman, J. J., Swanson, A. L., Meinardi, S., Sive, B. C., Blake, D. R., and Rowland, F. S. 2001. Description of the analysis of a wide range of volatile organic compounds in whole air samples collected during PEM tropics A and B, Anal. Chem., 73, 3723â�â�œ 3731.



de Gouw, J. A.,Warneke, C., Stohl, A., et al. 2006. Volatile organic compounds composition of merged and aged forest fire plumes from Alaska and western Canada, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D10303, doi:10.1029/2005JD006175



Ferek, R. J., Reid, J. S., Hobbs, P. V., Blake, D. R., and Liousse, C. 1998. Emission factors of hydrocarbons, halocarbons, trace gases, and particles from biomass burning in Brazil, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 32 107â�â�œ32 118, doi:10.1029/98JD00692



Goode, J. G., Yokelson, R. J., Susott, R. A., and Ward, D. E. 1999. Trace gas emissions from laboratory biomass fires measured by openpath FTIR: Fires in grass and surface fuels, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 21 237â�â�œ21 245, doi:10.1029/1999JD900360



Hobbs, P. V., Sinha, P., Yokelson, R. J., Christian, T. J., Blake, D. R., Gao, S., Kirchstetter, T.W., Novakov, T., and Pilewskie, P. 2003. Evolution of gases and particles from a savanna fire in South Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8485, doi:10.1029/2002JD002352



Karl, T. G., Christian, T. J., Yokelson, R. J., Artaxo, P., Hao, W. M., and Guenther, A. 2007a. The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Method evaluation of volatile organic compound emissions measured by PTR-MS, FTIR, and GC from tropical biomass burning, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 7, 8755â�â�œ8793.



Karl, T. G., Guenther, A., Yokelson, R. J., Greenberg, J., Potosnak, M. J., Blake, D. R., and Artaxo P. 2007b. The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D18302, doi:10.1029/2007JD008539



Lindinger, W., Jordan, A., and Hansel, A. 1998. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTRâ�â�œMS): on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds at pptv levels, Chem. Soc. Rev., 27, 347â�â�œ375, doi:10.1039/a827347z



Susott, R. A., Olbu, G. J., Baker, S. P.,Ward, D. E., Kauffman, J. B., and Shea, R. 1996. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and thermogravimetric analysis of tropical ecosystem biomass, in: Biomass Burning and Global Change, edited by: Levine, J. S., p. 350â�â�œ360, MIT Press, Cambridge



Ward, D. E. and Radke, L. F. 1993. Emissions measurements from vegetation fires: A comparative evaluation of methods and results, in: Fire in the Environment: The Ecological, Atmospheric and Climatic Importance of Vegetation Fires, edited by: Crutzen, P. J. and Goldammer, J. G., p. 53â�â�œ76, John Wiley, New York.



Yokelson, R. J., Griffith, D. W. T., and Ward, D. E.: 1996. Openpath Fourier transform infrared studies of large-scale laboratory biomass fires, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 21 067â�â�œ21 080, doi:10.1029/96JD01800.



Yokelson, R. J., Goode, J. G., Ward, D. E., Susott, R. A., Babbitt, R. E., Wade, D. D., Bertschi, I., Griffith, D. W. T., and Hao, W. M. 1999. Emissions of formaldehyde, acetic acid, methanol, and other trace gases from biomass fires in North Carolina measured by airborne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 30 109â�â�œ30 126, doi:10.1029/1999JD900817



Yokelson, R. J., Bertschi, I. T., Christian, T. J., Hobbs, P. V., Ward, D. E., and Hao,W. M. 2003a.Trace gas measurements in nascent, aged, and cloud-processed smoke from African savanna fires by airborne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (AFTIR), J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8478, doi:10.1029/2002JD002322



Yokelson, R. J., Christian, T. J., Bertschi, I. T., and Hao, W. M. 2003b.Evaluation of adsorption effects on measurements of ammonia, acetic acid, and methanol, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D20), 4649, doi:10.1029/2003JD003549

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