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Investigation:

ND-01 (Roberts / Barreto / Soares)

LBA Dataset ID:

ND01_WATERSHED_DEFOR

Originator(s):

1. BIGGS, T.W.
2. DUNNE, T.
      3. ROBERTS, D.A.
4. MATRICARDI, E.A.T.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

The rate and extent of deforestation determine the timing and magnitude of disturbance to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Rapid change can lead to transient impacts to hydrology and biogeochemistry, while complete and permanent conversion to other land uses can lead to chronic changes. A large population of watershed boundaries (N equals 4788) and a time series of Landsat TM imagery (1975–1999) in the southwestern Amazon Basin showed that even small watersheds (2.5–15 km2) were deforested relatively slowly over 7 to 21 years. Less than 1% of all small watersheds were more than 50% cleared in a single year, and clearing rates averaged 5.6%/yr during active clearing. A large proportion (26%) of the small watersheds had a cumulative deforestation extent of more than 75%. Approximately 85% of the cleared area remained in pasture, so deforestation in watersheds of Rondonia was a relatively slow, permanent, and complete transition to pasture, rather than a rapid, transient, and partial cutting with regrowth.

Beginning Date:

1999-01-01

Ending Date:

1999-12-31

Metadata Last Updated on:

2013-05-20

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO ND-01 Watershed Deforestation from Landsat TM Series, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999 :  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1159

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-01 Watershed Deforestation from Landsat TM Series, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999 :  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/ND01_Watershed_Defor.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Biggs, T.W., T. Dunne, D.A. Roberts and E. Matricardi. 2013. LBA-ECO ND-01 Watershed Deforestation from Landsat TM Series, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1159

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
MAPS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL DIGITIZER
WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL DIGITIZER

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  DEFORESTATION, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL, RONDONIA, STREAM ORDER, WATERSHED

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  RONDONIA -8.00000 -13.50000 -60.00000 -65.00000

Related Publication(s):

Biggs, T.W., T. Dunne, D.A. Roberts and E. Matricardi. 2008. The rate and extent of deforestation in watersheds of the southwestern Amazon Basin. Ecological Applications 18: 31-48.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

There are 7 GIS data files with this data set as well as one ASCII comma separated file. The filenames for the GIS files have the file extension .zip. These are zipped ESRI ArcGIS shapefiles. When unzipped, each shape file contains six files (*.shx, *.bdf, *.prj, *.sbn, *.sbx, and *.shp). Each shape file contains polygon geometry, with the following projection parameters:

Projected Coordinate System: WGS_1984_UTM_Zone_20S

Projection: Transverse_Mercator

False_Easting: 500000.00000000

False_NorthinTg: 10000000.00000000

Central_Meridian: -63.00000000

Scale_Factor: 0.99960000

Latitude_Of_Origin: 0.00000000

Linear Unit: Meter

Geographic Coordinate System: GCS_WGS_1984

Datum: D_WGS_1984

Prime Meridian: Greenwich

Angular Unit: Degree

Study Area: State of Rondonia, Brazil

Fields common to all files:

FID: Unique object ID

Shape: Type of shape, equal to Polygon for all objects

Orderx_: ID of the watershed, order x. For order 2, this field is O2CJJ_

Area_: Watershed area in square meters

Order7: The ID of the seventh-order watershed containing the polygon

X_coord: UTM x-coordinate of the watershed centroid

Y_coord: UTM y-coordinate of the watershed centroid



The ASCII comma separated file titled Deforestation_watersheds.csv contains calculated cumulative deforestation for each watershed. The data are organized as follows:



File name:,Deforestation_watersheds.csv,,,,

File date:,13-Apr-12,,,,

Associated LME:,ND01_Watershed_Defor,,,,

,,,,,

Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation,,

1,Stream_order,,Stream order,,

2,ID,,Stream identification,,

3,Area_m2,m2,Watershed area in meters squared,,

4,Area_km2,km2,Watershed area in kilometers squared,,

5,Deforestation99_timeseries,,Proportion of the watershed area identified as deforested using a timeseries approach (corresponds to f1999 in Biggs et al 2008),

6,Deforestation98_mosaic,,Proportion of the watershed area identified as deforested from the 1998 snapshot mosaic (as used in Biggs et al 2004),



Stream_order,ID,Area_m2,Area_km2,Deforestation99_timeseries,Deforestation98_mosaic

1,6879,2510000,2.51,0.86,0.85

1,6022,2510000,2.51,0.12,0.34

1,7810,2510000,2.51,0.92,0.87

1,10823,2510000,2.51,0.07,0.07

1,378,2510000,2.51,0.8,0.8

1,10858,2510000,2.51,0.03,0.02

1,6615,2520000,2.52,0.31,0.32

1,4869,2520000,2.52,0.97,0.93

1,5260,2520000,2.52,0.67,0.63

1,9645,2520000,2.52,0.93,0.89

1,7351,2520000,2.52,0.97,0.96

1,8236,2520000,2.52,0.76,0.7

Data Application and Derivation:

Typical application of data: Cartography.

The delineation was performed using a digital elevation model (DEM) from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, 90 m resolution. The delineation was implemented in ARCINFO�s hydrologic analysis tools, including sinkfill, flow direction, flow accumulation, watershed delineation, and stream order. Stream ordering follows the Strahler method. The threshold determining the smallest watershed delineated was 2.5 km2, which resulted in a stream network that corresponded most closely with the blue lines on available topographic maps (1:100,000).

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Positional accuracy: DEM resolution and quality sets the spatial resolution and quality of the dataset. The most uncertain boundaries are for small watersheds in flat areas, where the flow direction and delineation algorithms have difficulty and generate long, thin watersheds. This is most prevalent in the northern part of the study area for order 1 and order 2 watersheds. Watershed boundaries for all other watersheds is deemed accurate based on field knowledge and comparison with watersheds delineated using topographic maps.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Site:

The Brazilian State of Rondonia lies in the southwestern Amazon Basin on the border with Bolivia. Closed- and open-canopy tropical rainforest dominate the original vegetation cover (RADAMBRASIL 1978). Large-scale colonization

of Rondonia began with the construction of the BR-364 highway in the late 1960s (Goza 1994). The population reached 1.3 million people by the year 2000,

and approximately 53,000 km2 (25%) of the forest was cleared for cropping and pasture by 1993 (Pedlowski et al. 1997). Land in Rondonia has been zoned for different uses, including agriculture (51% of the State\'s area), extraction

of forest products such as nuts, rubber, fruit, and limited selective logging (14%), and protection of forest for indigenous peoples, parks, and biological reserves (35%). The main agricultural corridor accounted for 99% of the area zoned for agriculture in Rondonia in 1999. The corridor consists of one contiguous block of land that encompasses 117,940 km2, and extends approximately 600 km along the highway BR-364 and extends 115â�â�œ300 km wide, perpendicular to the highway. The 35 protected areas in the State border the agricultural zone on both sides and encompass 83,000 km2. Ninety percent of

the protected area occurs in seven separate zones between 2150 and 42,000 km2.



Data acquisition:



Watershed boundary delineation:

SRTM DEM data are freely available http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/.



A 90-m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) from NASA\'s Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was used to delineate watershed boundaries. The final data

set had 8994 watersheds of seven Strahler orders with drainage areas ranging from 2.5 to 64,127 km2 (the Ji-Parana basin). An eight-direction flow-accumulation algorithm delineated the stream network and watershed boundaries, as coded in ARC/INFO (Jenson and Dominique 1988). The minimum watershed area was set to 2.5 km2, which yielded a stream network that most closely matched the stream network of 1:100 000 topographic maps. A digital elevation model with higher resolution and accuracy may yield slightly different watershed boundaries, particularly in relatively flat areas, which can generate artifacts such as long, straight watersheds (Tribe 1992). Most of the Rondonia study

area had sufficient relief to yield channel networks that closely matched the blue lines of the 1:100 000 topographic maps. The seven Strahler orders did not have mutually exclusive area bins; e.g., the largest watersheds of order 2 were larger than the smallest watersheds of order 3. Watersheds less than 90% covered by the Landsat TM data were excluded from the analysis.





Deforestation:

The main agricultural corridor and surrounding forested areas of Rondonia were covered by five Landsat TM scenes. A time series of deforestation maps from 1975 to 1999 was made for those scenes by Roberts et al. (2002), who classified the imagery into seven classes (primary forest, pasture, second growth,

soil/urban, rock/savanna, water, and cloud) using spectral mixture analysis. Two aggregate classes of forest and deforested were defined from those seven

classes. The forest aggregate class contained primary forest, water, cloud, and rock/savanna. The deforested class included pasture, soil/urban, and second growth. The forest, pasture, and second growth classes accounted for 98% of the study area; so, including water, cloud, and rock/savanna with the forest class and soil/urban with the deforested class had minimal impact on the results. The cumulative deforested area for each year included all areas that classified as deforested in the given year and any previous image. The accuracy, assessed by Roberts et al. (2002) using airborne videography, was greater than 85%. Images were not available for all years. The cumulative deforestation extent in 1999

(f1999) was determined using all five scenes. The deforested area included all pixels that classified as pasture or secondary growth using spectral mixture

analysis. This represents a heterogeneous mix of pasture in different conditions and secondary vegetation in varying stages of regrowth. The remote sensing definition of deforestation did not include other anthropogenic

processes, including subcanopy fires or disturbances smaller than 30 by 30 m which may impact tropical forests (Nepstad et al. 1999).

References:

Biggs, T. W., T. Dunne, and L. A. Martinelli. 2004. Natural controls and human impacts on stream nutrient concentrations in a deforested region of the Brazilian Amazon basin. Biogeochemistry 68:227-257.



Goza, F. 1994. Brazilian frontier settlement the case of Rondonia. Population and Environment 16:37-60.



Jenson, S. K., and J. O. Dominique. 1988. Extracting topographic structure from digital elevation data for geographic information system analysis. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 54:1593-1600.



Nepstad, D. C., A. Verissimo, A. Alencar, C. Nobre, E. Lima, P. Lefebvre, P. Schlesinger, C. Potter, P. Moutinho, E. Mendoza, M. Cochrane, and V. Brooks. 1999. Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire. Nature 398:505-508.



Pedlowski, M. A., V. H. Dale, E. A. T. Matricardi, and E. P. da Silva Filho. 1997. Patterns and impacts of deforestation in Rondonia, Brazil. Landscape and Urban Planning 38:149-157.



RADAMBRASIL. 1978. Levantamento de recursos naturais. Ministerio das Minas e Energia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil



Roberts, D. A., I. Numata, K. Holmes, G. Batista, T. Krug, A. Monteiro, B. Powell, and O. A. Chadwick. 2002. Large area mapping of land-cover change in Rondonia using multitemporal spectral mixture analysis and decision tree classifiers.Journal of Geophysical Research 107: 8073, JD000374.



Tribe, A. 1992. Automated recognition of valley lines and drainage networks from grid digital elevation models: a review and a new method. Journal of Hydrology 139:263-293.

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