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Investigation:

ND-30 (Davidson / Carvalho / Figueiredo / Vieira)

LBA Dataset ID:

ND30_LITTER_PARA

Originator(s):

1. DAVIDSON, E.A.
2. DE CARVALHO, C.J.R.
3. FIGUEIRA, A.M.S.
4. ISHIDA, F.Y.
5. OMETTO, J.P.H.B.
6. NARDOTO, G.B.
      7. SABA, R.T.
8. HAYASHI, S.N.
9. LEAL, E.C.
10. VIEIRA, I.C.G.
11. MARTINELLI, L.A.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

In the Amazon basin, about 16 percent of the original forest area has been cleared, and about 30 to 50 percent of cleared land is estimated now to be in some stage of secondary forest succession following agricultural abandonment. Here we use forest age chronosequences to demonstrate that young successional forests growing after agricultural abandonment on highly weathered lowland tropical soils exhibit conservative N-cycling properties much like those of N-limited forests on younger soils in temperate latitudes. As secondary succession progresses, N-cycling properties recover and the dominance of a conservative P cycle typical of mature lowland tropical forests re-emerges. These successional shifts in N:P cycling ratios with forest age provide a mechanistic explanation for initially lower and then gradually increasing soil emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The patterns of N and P cycling during secondary forest succession, demonstrated here over decadal timescales, are similar to N- and P-cycling patterns during primary succession as soils age over thousands and millions of years, thus revealing that N availability in terrestrial ecosystems is ephemeral and can be disrupted by either natural or anthropogenic disturbances at several timescales.

Beginning Date:

2000-10-01

Ending Date:

2005-01-31

Metadata Last Updated on:

2012-09-25

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO ND-30 Nutrient Analysis and Gas Fluxes, Forest Chronosequences, Para, Brazil::  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1129

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-30 Nutrient Analysis and Gas Fluxes, Forest Chronosequences, Para, Brazil::  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/ND30_Litter_Para.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Davidson, E.A., C.J.R. de Carvalho, A.M. Figueira, F.Y. Ishida, J.P.H.B. Ometto, G.B. Nardoto, R.T. Saba, S.N. Hayashi, E.C. Leal, I.C.G. Vieira and L.A. Martinelli. 2012. LBA-ECO ND-30 Nutrient Analysis and Gas Fluxes, Forest Chronosequences, Para, Brazil: 2000-2005. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1129

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
CARBON BIOSPHERE VEGETATION LABORATORY CARBON ANALYZER
ISOTOPES BIOSPHERE VEGETATION LABORATORY MASS SPECTROMETER
LITTER CHARACTERISTICS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION LABORATORY CHN ANALYZER
LITTER CHARACTERISTICS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD INVESTIGATION WEIGHING BALANCE
NITROGEN BIOSPHERE VEGETATION LABORATORY CHN ANALYZER
SOIL BULK DENSITY BIOSPHERE SOILS LABORATORY ANALYSIS
SOIL CHEMISTRY BIOSPHERE SOILS LABORATORY ANALYSIS
SOIL PH BIOSPHERE SOILS LABORATORY ANALYSIS
TRACE GASES BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD SURVEY GAS CHROMATOGRAPH

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  DROUGHT, FOREST LITTER, LEAVES, SOIL CHEMISTRY, SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, TROPICAL FORESTS

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  BRAZILIAN AMAZON -1.26670 -15.93280 -47.36670 -47.78330

Related Publication(s):

Davidson, E.A., C.J. Reis de Carvalho, A.M. Figueira, F.Y. Ishida, J.P.H.B. Ometto, G.B. Nardoto, R.T. Saba, S.N. Hayashi, E.C. Leal, I.C. G. Vieira and L.A. Martinelli. 2007. Recuperation of nitrogen cycling in Amazonian forests following agricultural abandonment. Nature Vol 447 21 June 2007 doi:10.1038/nature05900

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are presented in four ASCII comma separated files.

File #1: Litterfall_Sao_Francisco_do_Para_2001-2002.csv

File #2: Litterfall_Capitao_Poco_2004_2005.csv

File #3: Foliar_CN_ and _isotopes_Sao_Francisco.csv

File #4: Soil_Physical_Characteristics.csv

File #5: Sao_Francisco_Trace_gas_flux.csv



The data are organized as follows:



File #1

File name:,Litterfall_Sao_Francisco_do_Para_2001-2002.csv,

File date:,25-Jun-12,

Associated LME,ND30_Litter_Para,



Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation

1,Year,,Year in which the samples were collected

2,Month,,Month in which the samples were collected

3,Forest Age,years,Forest age at the sampling site at the time of collection: mature refers to forest that was never converted to pasture.

4,Mean_dry_mass,kg/ha,Mean dry mass of fine litterfall collected; reported in kilograms per hectare. Monthly mean represents an N of six.

5,SD_dry_mass,kg/ha,Standard deviation of the mean dry mass of fine litterfall collected; reported in kilograms per hectare. Monthly mean represents an N of six.

6,Mean_N,gN/kg dry wt,Mean nitrogen concentration of fine litterfall collected; reported in grams of nitrogen per kilogram dry litter. Monthly mean represents an N of six.

7,SD_N,gN/kg dry wt,Standard deviation of the mean nitrogen concentration of fine litterfall collected; reported in grams of nitrogen per kilogram dry litter. Monthly mean represents an N of six.

8,Mean_P,gP/kg dry wt,Mean phosphorus concentration of fine litterfall collected; reported in grams of phosphorus per kilogram dry litter. Monthly mean represents an N of six.

9,SD_P,gP/kg dry wt,Standard deviation of the mean phosphorus concentration of fine litterfall collected; reported in grams of phosphorus per kilogram dry litter. Monthly mean represents an N of six.



missing data is represented by -9999





Sample data for File #1:

Year,Month,Forest Age,Mean_dry_mass,SD_dry_mass,Mean_N,SD_N,Mean_P,SD_P

2001,3,Mature,509,155,12.17,0.38,0.411,0.073

2001,3,3,197,134,8.33,0.50,0.665,0.287

2001,3,6,274,122,10.29,0.62,0.517,0.127

2001,3,10,247,118,10.19,0.77,0.517,0.157

2001,3,20,400,248,12.09,0.73,0.721,0.173

2001,3,40,437,328,12.44,0.36,0.558,0.086

2001,3,70,436,184,12.23,0.49,0.584,0.084

2001,4,Mature,915,269,11.91,0.65,0.252,0.035

2001,4,3,268,171,9.25,0.62,0.315,0.106

2001,4,6,301,117,9.84,0.26,0.317,0.042

2001,4,10,381,150,9.73,0.37,0.298,0.063

2001,4,20,504,237,12.22,0.46,0.426,0.104

2001,4,40,492,168,12.30,0.34,0.371,0.057

2001,4,70,685,319,11.93,0.36,0.400,0.379

2001,5,Mature,861,271,7.57,0.33,0.207,0.081

2001,5,3,277,247,7.65,0.78,0.686,0.363

2001,5,6,290,147,6.38,0.27,0.520,0.067

2001,5,10,304,205,7.24,0.69,0.465,0.102

2001,5,20,382,159,9.96,1.02,0.542,0.079

2001,5,40,403,132,7.81,0.32,0.503,0.194

2001,5,70,488,249,8.84,0.56,0.550,0.113

2001,6,Mature,2339,997,11.01,0.40,0.223,0.040

2001,6,3,510,402,8.43,0.49,0.294,0.061

2001,6,6,683,279,8.99,0.51,0.251,0.046

2001,6,10,678,411,10.27,0.33,0.296,0.041

2001,6,20,841,252,11.46,0.64,0.340,0.108

2001,6,40,783,303,10.97,0.54,0.358,0.192

2001,6,70,1175,390,11.71,0.41,0.384,0.295

2001,7,Mature,1253,370,10.12,0.34,0.165,0.040

2001,7,3,594,392,8.45,0.47,0.232,0.071

2001,7,6,646,253,7.74,0.55,0.209,0.035

2001,7,10,542,452,8.52,0.46,0.193,0.051

2001,7,20,784,450,10.12,0.95,0.268,0.107

2001,7,40,802,289,9.78,0.21,0.228,0.027

2001,7,70,1058,430,11.34,0.63,0.216,0.042



File #2:

File name:,Litterfall_Capitao_Poco_2004_2005.csv

File date:,25-Jun-12

Associated LME,ND30_Litter_Para



Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation

1,Month,,Month of the year in which the sample was collected

2,Year,,Year in which the sample was collected

3,Forest_age,years,Forest age at the time of collection reported in years: Mature indicates forests that were never converted to pasture

4,Collector,,Identification of sample collector

5,Dry_mass ,Mg ha-1,Total dry mass of litter collected reported in megagrams per hectare

6,N,g kg-1,Nitrogen concentration of the litterfall collected reported in grams of nitrogen per kilogram of litter

7,P,g kg-1,Phosphorus concentration of the litterfall collected reported in grams of phosphorus per kilogram of litter

8,K,g kg-1,Potassium concentration of the litterfall collected reported in grams of potassium per kilogram of litter

9,Ca,g kg-1,Calcium concentration of the litterfall collected reported in grams of calcium per kilogram of litter

10,Mg,g kg-1,Magnesium concentration of the litterfall collected reported in grams of magnesium per kilogram of litter



Sample data for File #2:

Month,Year,Forest_age,Collector,Dry_mass ,N,P,K,Ca,Mg

2,2004,6,1,0.438,11.383,0.360,0.375,3.457,1.889

2,2004,6,2,0.356,11.959,0.199,0.225,3.036,1.729

2,2004,6,3,0.183,8.218,0.377,0.200,3.152,1.207

2,2004,6,4,0.364,7.970,0.197,0.377,2.894,0.906

2,2004,6,5,0.305,9.003,0.328,0.323,2.902,1.068

2,2004,6,6,0.354,10.192,0.283,0.323,3.073,1.462

2,2004,10,1,0.458,9.877,0.326,0.300,3.108,1.697

2,2004,10,2,0.380,10.939,0.280,0.300,2.777,1.181

2,2004,10,3,0.417,8.436,0.297,0.200,3.267,1.274

2,2004,10,4,0.376,10.558,0.343,0.200,2.901,1.119

2,2004,10,5,0.469,11.181,0.276,0.199,2.696,1.313

2,2004,10,6,0.449,9.789,0.232,0.300,3.864,1.078

2,2004,20,1,0.178,10.953,0.276,0.201,3.629,1.397

2,2004,20,2,0.191,10.766,0.269,0.198,2.523,0.929

2,2004,20,3,0.305,13.133,0.423,0.556,3.131,1.408

2,2004,20,4,0.271,9.486,0.205,0.325,3.297,0.934

2,2004,20,5,0.166,11.247,0.348,0.578,3.288,1.258

2,2004,20,6,0.271,13.417,0.448,0.631,3.107,0.801





File #3:

File name:,Foliar_CN_ and _isotopes_Sao_Francisco.csv

File date:,25-Jun-12

Associated LME,ND30_Litter_Para





Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation

1,Family,,Identification of the tree sampled to scientific family

2,Species,,Identification of the tree sampled to scientific name in the format Genus species

3,Forest_age,,Age of the forest at the time of sampling,,,

4,delta_13C,per mil,Isotopic ratio of 13C/12C in leaf tissue referenced to PDB

5,Foliar_C_conc,percent,Foliar carbon concentration reported in percent by weight

6,delta_15N,per mil,Isotopic ratio of 15N/14N in leaf tissue referenced to atmospheric N

7,Foliar_N_conc,percent,Foliar nitrogen concentration reported in percent by weight



Sample data for File #3:

Family,Species,Forest_age,delta_13C,Foliar_C_conc,delta_15N,Foliar_N_conc

Annonaceae,Guatteria poeppigiana ,6,-33.63,45.97,-1.62,1.64

Annonaceae,Rollinia exsucca ,6,-30.61,46.41,-2.34,1.66

Annonaceae,Rollinia exsucca ,6,-29.38,45.06,-4.02,1.62

Annonaceae,Guatteria poeppigiana ,6,-30.98,46.48,-1.19,1.56

Annonaceae,Guatteria poeppigiana ,6,-32.50,45.70,-1.49,1.68

Annonaceae,Rollinia exsucca ,6,-30.51,45.64,-3.06,1.70

Caesalpiniaceae,Sclerolobium paraense,6,-31.41,48.00,1.96,2.81

Dichapetalaceae,Tapura amazonica ,6,-32.68,35.82,1.01,1.26

Dichapetalaceae,Tapura amazonica ,6,-30.77,37.23,2.61,1.09

Dichapetalaceae,Tapura amazonica ,6,-31.93,36.10,-0.84,1.18

Euphorbiaceae,Croton matourensis ,6,-29.08,48.28,0.00,1.97

Euphorbiaceae,Croton matourensis ,6,-28.34,48.49,0.20,2.65

Euphorbiaceae,Mabea speciosa ,6,-32.48,44.81,-0.73,1.81

Euphorbiaceae,Mabea speciosa ,6,-33.00,46.10,-1.42,1.72

Fabaceae,Dipteryx odorata ,6,-29.87,49.24,2.07,2.23

Fabaceae,Dipteryx odorata ,6,-28.93,49.34,0.00,2.25

Fabaceae,Dipteryx odorata ,6,-28.08,49.55,2.58,2.46

Fabaceae,Dipteryx odorata ,6,-28.29,48.73,0.88,2.33

Guttiferae,Vismia guianensis,6,-31.85,49.53,-2.07,1.81

Mimosaceae,Abarema jupunba var. jupunba ,6,-28.09,49.04,0.70,2.16

Mimosaceae,Abarema jupunba var. jupunba ,6,-31.47,47.99,-0.21,2.13

Mimosaceae,Inga flageliformis ,6,-29.53,48.82,0.21,2.00





File #4:

File name:,Soil_Physical_Characteristics.csv

File date:,25-Jun-12

Associated LME,ND30_Litter_Para





Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation

1,Site,,Chronosequence location

2,Forest_age,years,Age of forest at the time of sampling

3,Bulk_density,g cm-3,Mean bulk density for the top 10 cm of soil reported in grams per cubic centimeter

4,SE_BD,g cm-3,Standard error of the mean bulk density for the top 10 cm of soil reported in grams per cubic centimeter

5,Clay,g kg-1,Mean concentration of soil particles in the clay texture class reported in grams per kilogram

6,SE_Clay,g kg-1,Standard error of the mean concentration of soil particles in the clay texture class reported in grams per kilogram

7,Sand ,g kg-1,Mean concentration of soil particles in the sand texture class reported in grams per kilogram

8,SE_Sand,g kg-1,Standard error of the mean concentration of sand particles in the clay texture class reported in grams per kilogram

9,pH_H2O,,Mean pH of the soil ( 0-10 cm depth) measured in a 1: 2.5 slurry with water

10,SE_pH,,Standard error of the mean pH of the soil ( 0-10 cm depth) measured in a 1: 2.5 slurry with water

11,C,g kg-1,Mean soil carbon concentration reported in grams of carbon per kilogram of soil

12,SE_C,g kg-1,Standard error of the mean soil carbon concentration reported in grams of carbon per kilogram of soil

13,N,g kg-1,Mean soil nitrogen concentration reported in grams of carbon per kilogram of soil

14,SE_N,g kg-1,Standard error of the mean soil nitrogen concentration reported in grams of carbon per kilogram of soil

15,P_Melich,mg kg-1,Mean plant available soil phosphorus concentration based on a a Melich I dilute double acid extraction

16,SE_P_Mel,mg kg-1,Standard error of the mean plant available soil phosphorus concentration based on a a Melich I dilute double acid extraction

17,P_total,mg kg-1,Mean total soil phosphorus concentration based on a sulfuric acid/ hydrogen peroxide digestion,

18,SE_P_tot,mg kg-1,Standard error of the mean total soil phosphorus concentration based on a sulfuric acid/ hydrogen peroxide digestion



missing data are represented by -9999



Sample data for File #4:

Site,Forest_age,Bulk_density,SE_BD,Clay,SE_Clay,Sand ,SE_Sand,pH_H2O,SE_pH,C,SE_C,N,SE_N,P_Melich,SE_P_Mel,P_total,SE_P_tot

Sao Francisco do Para,3,1.35,0.03,65,17,898,27,5.3,0.2,10.5,0.4,0.74,0.03,1.2, 0.2,33,3

Sao Francisco do Para,6,1.37,0.03,85,17,785,28,5.1,0.2,11.9,0.6,0.7,0.1,2, 0.3,47,8

Sao Francisco do Para,10,1.3,0.04,60,18,873,31,5.3,0.2,9.5,0.5,0.73,0.05,1.3, 0.1,32,3

Sao Francisco do Para,20,1.29,0.05,110,10,775,26,4.9,0.4,11.4,0.6,0.82,0.07, 3.2,1.1,49,7

Sao Francisco do Para,40,1.29,0.04,65,17,830,25,4.9,0.3,10.9,1.3,0.63,0.11,1, 0.1,30,4

Sao Francisco do Para,70,1.29,0.04,90,13,790,15,4.9,0.3,11.3,0.6,0.89,0.16,1.6, 0.2,30,3

Sao Francisco do Para,Mature,1.25,0.03,100,0,755,25,4.4,0.4,14.7,1.4,1.11,0.04, 2,0.1,62,2

Capitao Poco,3,-9999,-9999,149,10,799,20,5.4,0.1,13.5,1.4,0.85,0.15,4.2,0.7,87,2

Capitao Poco,10,-9999,-9999,100,13,819,12,5.1,0.1,11.6,0.1,0.8,0,6.5,1.5,67,6







File #5

File name,Sao_Francisco_Trace_gas_flux.csv

File date,2-Jul-12

Associated LME:,Litter_Para



Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation

1,Year,YYYY,Year in which samples were measured

2,Month,,Month in which samples were collected

3,Season,,Season in which samples were collected either wet or dry

4,Class,,Forest Class: sites were classifed as young; intermediate; advanced or mature based on the age of the forest. Samples were also measured in a pepper plantation identified here

5,Age,years,Forest age in years at the time of sampling ; age recorded only for the regrowth forests

6,Site,,For each age there were two sites identified here as a and b

7,Plot,,Plot identifiication within the site

8,Chamber,,Chamber identification

9,Flux_N2O,ng N cm-2 h-1,Flux of nitrous oxide reported in nanograms of nitrogen per centimeter squared per hour (ng N cm-2 h-1)

10,Flux_CH4,mg CH4 m-2 d-1,Flux of methane reported in milligrams of methane per meter squared per day (mg CH4 m-2 d-1)

11,Flux_CO2,g C m-2 h-1,Flux of carbon dioxide reported in grams of carbon per meter squared per hour ( g C m-2h-1)

12,Flux_NO,ng N cm-2 h-1,Flux of nitric oxide reported in nanograms of nitrogen per centimeter squared per hour (ng N cm-2 h-1)



,missing data are represented by -9999

Sample data for File #5:

Year,Month,Season,Class,Age,Site,Plot,Chamber,Flux_N2O,Flux_CH4,Flux_CO2,Flux_NO

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,3,a,1,1,-0.61,-1.4,0.1,0.24

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,3,a,1,2,-0.59,-1.87,0.08,0.19

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,3,a,1,3,-0.4,-1.98,0.11,0.24

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,3,a,2,1,-0.39,-1.11,0.07,0.17

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,3,a,2,2,-0.48,-0.62,0.11,0.26

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,3,a,2,3,-0.92,-1.61,0.1,0.24

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,6,a,1,1,0.25,-1.27,0.07,0.03

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,6,a,1,2,-0.2,-1.36,0.1,0.08

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,6,a,1,3,-0.28,0.97,0.08,0.06

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,6,a,2,1,-0.28,0.61,0.08,0.04

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,6,a,2,2,-0.09,-0.61,0.12,0.13

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,6,a,2,3,-0.46,-1.33,0.08,0.06

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,10,a,1,1,-0.46,-1.19,0.12,0.09

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,10,a,1,2,0.01,-1.1,0.05,0.01

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,10,a,1,3,-0.77,-1.45,0.05,0.01

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,10,a,2,1,-0.27,-1.1,0.08,0.1

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,10,a,2,2,-0.76,-1.12,0.05,0.05

2000,Oct,Dry,Young,10,a,2,3,-0.28,-1.32,0.07,0.07

2000,Oct,Dry,Intermediate,20,a,1,1,-0.43,-1.42,0.08,0.05

2000,Oct,Dry,Intermediate,20,a,1,2,-0.05,-1,-9999,0.06

2000,Oct,Dry,Intermediate,20,a,1,3,0.09,-0.99,0.09,0.09

2000,Oct,Dry,Intermediate,20,a,2,1,-0.21,-1.26,0.09,0.03

2000,Oct,Dry,Intermediate,20,a,2,2,-0.08,-2.18,0.06,0.06

Data Application and Derivation:

These data were used to examine patterns in N cycling over the course of secondary succession and their implications for nutrient limitation of successional forests in the tropics.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Lab analyses were all done according to standard protocols with calibration curves and standards included in every run.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Site descriptions:

Sao Francisco do Para and Capitao Poco are located in northeastern Para, southeast of the city of Belem. Mean annual precipitation is 2,200 mm for Sao Francisco do Para and Capitao Poco. The dominant soils are Typic Hapludults. Human settlement in this region expanded during the era of rubber extraction in the late nineteenth century. Government programmes for distributing rural lands for agricultural development, mostly by small landholders, increased forest clearing in the mid-twentieth century. Many farms have now undergone nine or more cycles of slash-and-burn agriculture.



Methods:

Three collections (0.25 m2 per collection) of fine litterfall were made monthly for a year in each plot at both chronosequences. Fresh foliar samples were collected in the 6-, 20- and 40-yr-old successional forests and the mature forest plots. At Sao Francisco do Para, fully expanded leaves were collected for the dominant species at each site, according to the species importance values indices. Finely ground foliar samples were analysed for C and N concentrations using a Carlo-Erba CHN analyser, for C and N stable isotope ratios using a Delta Plus ThermoQuest-Finnigan mass spectrometer, and for P by acid digestion followed by colorimetric spectrophotometry. Foliar C, N and isotope anlayses were done at CENA in Piracicaba using their standard methods (for more details see Ometto et al. 2006). Soil nutrient analyses and foliar analyses other than C, N and stable isotopes were all done at EMBRAPA Belem using their standard protocols (Silva 1999).



Soil emissions of N2O were measured at Sao Francisco do Para using syringe sampling of static chambers and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (Verchot et al 1999). Three chamber fluxes were measured per date in each of the twenty-six plots at Sao Francisco do Para, with five dates in each of the dry and wet seasons.

References:

Ometto, J.P.H.B., Ehleringer, J.R., Domingues, T.F., Berry, J.A., Ishida, F.Y., Mazzi, E., Higuchi, N., Flanagan, L.B., Nardoto, G.B., and Martinelli, L.A. 2006. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of vegetation in tropical forests of the Amazon Basin, Brazil, Biogeochemistry, 79, 251--274.



Silva, F.C. d. 1999. Manual de analises quimicas de solos,plantas e fertilizantes. EMBRAPA Communicacao para Transferencia de Technologia. Brasilia, Brasil.





Vieira, I.C.G. et al. 2003.Classifying successional forests using Landsat spectral properties and ecological characteristics in eastern Amazonia. Remote Sens. Environ. 87, 470--481.



Verchot, L.V. et al. 1999. Land use change and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen oxide emissions from soils in eastern Amazonia. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13,31--46.

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