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Investigation:

ND-01 (Roberts / Barreto / Soares)

LBA Dataset ID:

ND01_PASTURE_NUTRIENTS

Originator(s):

1. NUMATA, I.
2. CHADWICK, O.A.
3. ROBERTS, D.A.
4. SCHIMEL, J.P.
      5. SAMPAIO, F.
6. LEONIDAS, F.C.
7. SOARES, J.V.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

Understanding pasture degradation processes is key for sustainable development in the Amazon region. Pasture degradation can be indexed by pasture nutritional status, which is impacted by environmental and human related factors. Most studies of the biogeochemistry of Amazonian pastures have been restricted to highly acidic soils with little focus on how management affects pasture biogeochemistry. We investigated soil physical and chemical properties and grass nutrients under different edaphic conditions and management practices in Rondonia state, in the southwestern Amazon region. Our objectives were to analyze the impacts of soil order, pasture age, and pasture management on soil fertility, bulk density and plant nutrients, in order to understand sustainability needs for the future of this region. We sampled 17 study sites on Oxisols, Ultisols, and Alfisols. The pasture age classes we used consisted of 6 to10, 11 to 15, and >15 years including forest as the control. We also evaluated the impact of beef and dairy management strategies on pastures installed on Ultisols.

Beginning Date:

2003-05-01

Ending Date:

2004-05-31

Metadata Last Updated on:

2012-10-30

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1135

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/ND01_Pasture_Nutrients.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Numata, I.,O.A. Chadwick, D.A. Roberts, J.Schimel, F. Sampaio, F.C. Leonidas, and J.V. Soares. 2012. LBA-ECO ND01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1135

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
NUTRIENTS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION LABORATORY ANALYSIS
SOIL BULK DENSITY BIOSPHERE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS LABORATORY ANALYSIS
SOIL CHEMISTRY BIOSPHERE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS LABORATORY ANALYSIS
SOIL TEXTURE BIOSPHERE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS LABORATORY ANALYSIS

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  GRASS, PASTURES, SOIL CHEMISTRY, TROPICAL FORESTS

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  BRAZILIAN AMAZON -8.00000 -15.00000 -60.00000 -65.00000

Related Publication(s):

Numata,I. O.A. Chadwick, D.A. Roberts, J.P. Schimel, F.F. Sampaio, F.C. Leonidas, J.V. Soares. 2007. Temporal nutrient variation in soil and vegetation of post-forest pastures as a function of soil order, pasture age, and management, Rondonia, Brazil Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118: 159-172.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are available in four ASCII comma separated files:

File #1:Pasture_bulk_density.csv

File #2:Pasture_soil_texture.csv

File #3:Pasture_soil_nutrients.csv

File #4:Pasture_foliar_nutrients.csv





File #1

File name:,Pasture_bulk_density.csv

File date:,1-May-12

Associated LME file:,ND01_Pasture_Nutrients



Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation,

1,Site_ID,,Site identification

2,Soil_class,,Soil classification: alf- alfisol, ox- oxisol, ult-ultisol

3,Age_class,,Approximate pasture age in years: forest indicates the control site which was located in undisturbed forest. Pasture age was determined by Landsat time series and represents the age in 2003-2004

4,Pasture_type,,Pasture classification for beef cattle or dairy (milk) cattle

5,Bulk_density ,g per cm3,Soil bulk density for the 0-30 cm soil layer reported in grams per cubic centimeter



Sample data for File #1:

Site_ID,Soil_class,Age_class,Pasture_type,Bulk_density

Site3,alf,Forest,Beef,1.09

Site3,alf,Forest,Beef,1.18

Site3,alf,Forest,Beef,1.06

Site3,alf,6 to 10,Beef,1.59

Site3,alf,6 to 10,Beef,1.57

Site3,alf,6 to 10,Beef,1.57

Site2,alf,6 to 10,Beef,1.17

Site2,alf,6 to 10,Beef,1.38

Site2,alf,6 to 10,Beef,1.21

Site3,alf,11 to 15,Beef,1.73

Site3,alf,11 to 15,Beef,1.73

Site3,alf,11 to 15,Beef,1.58







File #2

File name:,Pasture_soil_texture.csv

File date:,5-Jun-12

Associated LME file:,ND01_Pasture_Nutrients



Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation,

1,Site_ID,,Site identification

2,Soil_class,,Soil classification: alf- alfisol, ox- oxisol, ult-ultisol

3,Age_class,year,Approximate pasture age in years: forest indicates the control site which was located in undisturbed forest. Pasture age was determined by Landsat time series and represents the age in 2003-2004

4,Pasture_type,,Pasture classification for beef cattle or dairy (milk) cattle

5,Sand,g/kg,Concentration of soil particles in sand texture class reported in grams of sand particles per kilogram of soil

6,Silt ,g/kg,Concentration of soil particles in silt texture class reported in grams of silt particles per kilogram of soil

7,Clay ,g/kg,Concentration of soil particles in clay texture class reported in grams of clay particles per kilogram of soil



Sample data for File #2:

Site_ID,Soil_class,Age_class,Pasture_type,Sand,Silt ,Clay

Site1,3-ox,Forest,Beef,332,148,520

Site1,3-ox,Forest,Beef,328,152,520

Site1,3-ox,Forest,Beef,350,160,490

Site1,3-ox,Forest,Beef,515,85,400

Site1,3-ox,greater than 15,Beef,478,122,400

Site1,3-ox,greater than 15,Beef,460,120,420

Site1,3-ox,greater than 15,Beef,452,68,480

Site1,3-ox,greater than 15,Beef,576,84,340

Site1,3-ox,greater than 15,Beef,405,135,460

Site2,1-alf,11 to 15,Beef,550,230,220

Site2,1-alf,11 to 15,Beef,544,176,280

Site2,1-alf,11 to 15,Beef,500,180,320

Site2,1-alf,11 to 15,Beef,424,156,420

Site2,1-alf,11 to 15,Beef,552,128,320

Site2,1-alf,greater than 15,Beef,646,154,200

Site2,1-alf,greater than 15,Beef,604,176,220

Site2,1-alf,greater than 15,Beef,662,158,180

Site2,1-alf,greater than 15,Beef,654,146,200

Site2,1-alf,greater than 15,Beef,604,176,220

Site2,1-alf,6 to 10,Beef,698,142,160





File #3

File name:,Pasture_soil_nutrients.csv

File date:,5-Jun-12

Associated LME,ND01_Pasture_Nutrients



Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation

1,Site_ID,,Site identification

2,Soil_class,,Soil classification: alf- alfisol, ox- oxisol, ult-ultisol

3,Pasture_type,,Pasture classification for beef cattle or dairy (milk) cattle

4,Age_class,year,Approximate pasture age in years: forest indicates the control site which was located in undisturbed forest

5,pH,,Soil pH

6,P,ppm,Available soil phosphorus concentration reported in parts per million (ppm)

7,Ca ,cmol/kg,Exchangeable soil calcium concentration reported in centimoles of nutrient per kilogram of soil (cmol/kg)

8,Mg,cmol/kg,Exchangeable soil magnesium concentration reported in centimoles of nutrient per kilogram of soil (cmol/kg)

9,K ,cmol/kg,Exchangeable soil potassium concentration reported in centimoles of nutrient per kilogram of soil (cmol/kg)

10,S,cmol/kg,Sum of soil calcium magnesium and potassium concentrations reported in centimoles of nutrient per kilogram of soil (cmol/kg)

11,Base_sat ,%,Base saturation reported in percent calculated as S (column 10) times 100 divided by cation exchange capacity

12,C ,g/kg,Soil carbon concentration reported in grams of carbon per kg of soil



,missing data are represented by -9999



Sample data for File #3:

Site_ID,Soil_class,Pasture_type,Age_class,pH,P,Ca ,Mg,K ,S,Base_sat ,C ,

Site2,alf,Beef,6 to 10,6.1,0.72,3.03,0.24,21.51,4.62,72.41,8.3,

Site2,alf,Beef,6 to 10,5.6,2.31,3.59,0.4,24.7,6.85,59.3,18.2,

Site2,alf,Beef,6 to 10,6.5,3.03,3.43,0.24,43.82,4.54,82.46,7.5,

Site2,alf,Beef,6 to 10,6.4,1.27,3.98,0.64,40.63,6.37,75,12.6,

Site2,alf,Beef,6 to 10,7.5,7.17,5.1,0.32,40.63,5.5,100,9.1,

Site2,alf,Beef,6 to 10,6.2,1.67,3.51,0.4,74.89,5.66,73.24,12.5,

Site2,alf,Beef,6 to 10,5.5,1.67,2.55,0.4,34.26,5.66,53.52,12.5,

Site2,alf,Beef,6 to 10,5.9,2.31,2.55,0.56,133.85,7.17,70,19.6,

Site3,alf,Beef,6 to 10,7.1,1.01,2.92,0.19,32.34,3.23,100,8.9,

Site3,alf,Beef,6 to 10,6.4,2.92,2.22,0.32,19.66,2.6,100,11.7,

Site3,alf,Beef,6 to10,6.9,1.01,2.09,0.25,17.12,3.68,65.52,9.8,

Site2,alf,Beef,11 to 15,6.6,2.83,3.2,0.6,75.18,5.21,77.14,9,

Site2,alf,Beef,11 to 15,6.1,2.31,2.53,0.52,20.1,4.84,64.62,9.3,

Site2,alf,Beef,11 to 15,6.4,1.19,3.28,0.45,37.96,5.06,76.47,11.3,



File #4

File name,Pasture_foliar_nutrients.csv

File date,5-Jun-12

Associated LME file:,ND01_Pasture_Nutrients



Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation

1,Site_ID,,Site identification

2,Soil_class,,Soil classification: alf- alfisol, ox- oxisol, ult-ultisol

3,Age_class,year,Approximate pasture age in years. Pasture age was determined by Landsat time series and represents the age in 2003-2004

4,Pasture_type,,Pasture classification for beef cattle or dairy cattle

5,Season,,Wet or dry season. Dry season samples were collected in July-August 2003

6,Status,,Foliage status either live (green) or senesced,

7,N ,g/kg,Foliar nitrogen content reported in grams of nutrient per kilogram of foliar tissue

8,P ,g/kg,Foliar phosphorus content reported in grams of nutrient per kilogram of foliar tissue

9,K ,g/kg,Foliar ppotassium content reported in grams of nutrient per kilogram of foliar tissue

10,Ca ,g/kg,Foliar calcium content reported in grams of nutrient per kilogram of foliar tissue

11,Mg ,g/kg,Foliar magnesium content reported in grams of nutrient per kilogram of foliar tissue



Site_ID,Soil_class,Age_class,Pasture_type,Season,Status,N ,P ,K ,Ca ,Mg

Site2,alf,6 to 10,Beef,wet,live,10.28,1.74,21.6,4.25,2.17

Site2,alf,6 to 10,Beef,wet,live,9.83,2.24,22.8,2.17,2.29

Site2,alf,6 to 10,Beef,wet,live,12.31,2.05,19.8,3.55,2.41

Site2,alf,11 to 15,Beef,wet,live,12.16,2.1,22.5,2.52,2.35

Site2,alf,11 to 15,Beef,wet,live,9.14,1.51,17.7,3.9,2.46

Site2,alf,11 to 15,Beef,wet,live,10.16,1.6,18.6,3.37,2.73

Site2,alf,greater than 15,Beef,wet,live,9.14,2.16,16.8,3.37,3.22

Site2,alf,greater than 15,Beef,wet,live,10.85,2.41,18,3.6,3.23

Site2,alf,greater than 15,Beef,wet,live,8.49,2.41,16.5,3.48,3.22

Site2,alf,greater than 15,Beef,wet,live,10.85,2.05,22.5,2.57,2.64

Site3,alf,6 to 10,Beef,wet,live,8.19,2.05,19.8,2.67,2.2

Site3,alf,6 to 10,Beef,wet,live,10.91,1.99,19.5,1.88,2.23

Site3,alf,6 to 10,Beef,wet,live,10.22,2.05,18,1.99,2.16

Site3,alf,11 to 15,Beef,wet,live,11.81,1.99,17.7,1.47,2.58

Site3,alf,11 to 15,Beef,wet,live,10.13,1.74,15.6,2.69,2.97

Site3,alf,11 to 15,Beef,wet,live,8.01,1.99,14.4,1.85,2.53

Site3,alf,greater than 15,Beef,wet,live,13.66,2.28,20.1,1.94,2.34

Data Application and Derivation:

The data set provides soil chemical and physical properties and grass foliar nutrient of several pastures established across different soil types with different lengths of land use in Rondonia, the southwestern Amazon region. The data can be useful for modeling soil-plant nutrient dynamics after forest conversion in the tropics as well as developing adequate management practices for Amazonian pastures according to soil properties as well as the lengths of land use.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

The data analyses were conducted according to the methods well established by EMBRAPA (see the next section). No problems regarding the data quality were reported.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Study site:

The state of Rondonia is located in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. The vegetation is upland terra firme forest that receives annual precipitation of around 2250 mm with a well-defined dry season during July and August. The average temperature is 24 degrees C, while relative humidity varies between 80% and 85% (RADAMBRASIL, 1978). Soil orders are related to geology and topography of this region. Dystrophic Oxisols and Ultisols are found mostly over the Precambrian granitoid and meta-supracrustal rocks with predominantly flat topography in the north of the state, while Alfisols are distributed mainly in central Rondonia to the south, where they are on intrusive basic and ultrabasic rocks with gently rolling topography (EMBRAPA, 1983; CPRM,1997; Holmes et al., 2004).



Land-cover conversion has been concentrated along BR368 and adjacent roads. Pasture size can vary from less than 20 ha to more than 5000 ha. Dairy pastures are found in the central region bounded by the settlements of Ouro Preto and Ji-Parana, while beef pastures are located to the north and south and distributed within the central region(IDARON, 2004). Other land-uses in Rondonia include perennial crops such as coffee, and annual crops such as corn, rice and soybean (Pedlowski et al., 1997; IBGE, 2002).



Field surveys were conducted in May and July through August 2003, and May 2004, covering the late rainy season (May) and the dry season (July through August). For this study, 17 cattle ranches were selected within the region between Porto Velho and Presidente Medici of Rondonia. Of them, four ranches with Ultisols support dairy cattle and the rest have beef cattle pastures dispersed across three soil orders: Oxisols, Ultisols, and Alfisols. Most of the beef cattle pastures were converted directly from primary forest, while some dairy pastures had diverse land-use history such as coffee, rice and corn, before the pastures were established. The predominant grass species for beef pasture across the study sites is Brachiaria brizantha, while dairy pastures are composed of a mixture of different grass species, predominantly Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha and Pennestum clandestinum. The pastures in this study have never been fertilized, and we avoided the small areas that had been treated with CaCO3 to neutralize acidity. Most of the properties were burned soon after deforestation, but have not been burned since then. Pasture ages ranged from 1 year to more than 30 years. We grouped pasture ages into three classes (6 to 10 years, 11 to 15 years, and more than 15 years) based on a land-use history map derived from Landsat time series data (Roberts et al., 2002). Nearby primary forest sites were sampled to provide data on the original soil properties for each soil order.



Soil analyses

Soil samples were collected from 0 to 30 cm depth in topographically homogeneous locations within each study site and for each pasture type. We composited three samples at each sample location to have a soil sample for analysis. Soil samples were dried at 110 degrees C for 24 hours, and passed through a 2 mm sieve. In total, 209 composited soil samples were collected. Soil chemical analyses included soil pH, available phosphorus (P), and exchangeable potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), and calculated base saturation, according to the techniques described in EMBRAPA (1997). The Melich extractor was used to extract available P and exchangeable K. This extraction procedure utilizes 0.025N of H2SO4, and 0.05N of HCl to remove labile forms of these nutrients. Phosphorus was determined using spectrophotometry by the method molybdate blue, while exchangeable K was determined by flame photometry. Exchangeable Ca and Mg were extracted with 1N KCl, and quantified by titration with EDTA. Exchangeable Al was extracted with 1N KCl and quantified by titration with 0.025N NaOH. Soil pH was measured using a standard calomel electrode pH meter. Most of the soil chemistry analyses were run by EMBRAPA Rio de Janeiro with some samples run by EMBRAPA Rondonia.



Soil texture (clay, silt, and sand), was determined using sedimentation as described in Bouyoucos (1951)at the Universidade Luterano de Brasil Ji-Parana. For soil bulk density, two samples were collected at 0 to15 and 16 to 30 cm depths by using a ring with a known volume (68 cm3) and the soil samples removed were dried and weighed. Reported bulk density is the average of these two measures over 0 to 30 cm. Soil bulk density analyses were all conducted at the Universidade Luterano de Brasil Ji-Parana.



Pasture foliar nutrient data were obtained from 11 pastures: 2 beef on Alfisols, 3 beef on Oxisols and 3 beef and 3 dairy on Ultisols during July through August 2003. For each age class in a study site, samples were taken along a 100 m transect. Aboveground grass biomass was clipped in 50 cm by 50 cm plots at a 20 m interval along transects, having six biomass samples for each transect. Each biomass sample was separated into live and senesced materials dried at 60 degrees Cfor 36 hours and weighed. For foliar chemical analyses, the dried live and senesced materials were analyzed. Total nitrogen (N) was extracted using a modified Kjeldhal method. Foliar total P was measured by colorimetric determination after hot-acid digestion. Base cations such as Ca, Mg, and K were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. All foliar analyses were run at EMBRAPA Rondonia.

References:

Bouyoucos, G.J.A., 1951. Recalibration of the hydrometer method for

making analysis of soils. Agron. J. 43, 434-437.



CPRM, 1997. Mapa Geologico do Estado de Rondonia. Porto Velho, RO.



EMBRAPA. 1983. Mapa de levantamento de reconhecimento de meia

intensidade dos solos do estado de Rondonia, 1:500.000. Comissao

Estadual de Planejamento AgrÃâ�žÃ‚±cola, Porto Velho.



Holmes, K.W., Roberts, D.A., Sweeney, S., Numata, I., Matricardi, E.,

Biggs, T.W., Batista, G.T., Chadwick, O.A., 2004. Soil databases and the

problem of establishing regional biogeochemical trends. Global Change

Biol. 10, 796�814.



IBGE, 2002. Censo agropecuario de 1995�1996, Instituto Brasileiro de

Geografia e Estatistica.



IDARON, 2004. Relatiorio: Informe semetral de campo referente a 16a

etapa de vacianacao contra febre aftosa em Rondonia. IDARON, Porto

Velho.



Pedlowski, M.A., Dale, D.H., Matricardi, E.A.T., Filho, E.P.S., 1997.

Patterns and impacts of deforestation in RondoÃâ�¹Ã¢ï¿½Â nia, Brazil. Landsc.

Urban Plann. 38, 149�157.



RADAMBRASIL, editor 1978. Folha SC 20 Porto Velho: geologia, geomorfologia,

pedologia, vegetacao e uso potencial da terra.

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