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Investigation:

ND-30 (Davidson / Carvalho / Figueiredo / Vieira)

LBA Dataset ID:

ND30_REE_WATER_CHEMISTRY

Originator(s):

1. NEPSTAD, D.C.
2. DAVIDSON, E.A.
3. MARKEWITZ, D.
4. CARVALHO, E.J.M.
5. CHAMBERS, J.Q.
6. RAY, D.
7. GUERRERO, J.B.
8. LEFEBVRE, P.A.
      9. STERNBERG, L.
10. MOREIRA, M.
11. BARROS, L.
12. ISHIDA, F.Y.
13. TOHLVER, I.
14. BELK, E.L.
15. KALIF, K.
16. SCHWALBE, K.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

Moist tropical forests in Amazonia and elsewhere are subjected to increasingly severe drought episodes through the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and possibly through deforestation-driven reductions in rainfall. The effects of this trend on tropical forest canopy dynamics, emissions of greenhouse gases, and other ecological functions are potentially large but poorly understood. We established a throughfall exclusion experiment in an east-central Amazon forest (Tapajos National Forest, Brazil) to help understand these effects. Reported here are solution concentrations for a series of essentail cations and anions in rainfall, throughfall, litter leachate and soil solution in both the control and experimental plots.

Beginning Date:

1999-05-17

Ending Date:

2006-05-10

Metadata Last Updated on:

2012-10-30

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO ND-30 Water Chemistry, Rainfall Exclusion, km 67, Tapajos National Forest:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1131

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-30 Water Chemistry, Rainfall Exclusion, km 67, Tapajos National Forest:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/ND30_REE_Water_Chemistry.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Nepstad, D.C., E.A. Davidson, D. Markewitz, E.J.M. Carvalho, J.Q. Chambers, D. Ray, J.B. Guerrero, P. Lefebvre, L. Sternberg, M. Moreira, L. Barros, F.Y. Ishida, I. Tohlver, E.L. Belk, K. Kalif, and K. Schwalbe. 2012. LBA-ECO ND-30 Water Chemistry, Rainfall Exclusion, km 67, Tapajos National Forest. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1131

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
ALKALINITY TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE RAIN LABORATORY ANALYSIS
CALCIUM TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE RAIN LABORATORY ION CHROMATOGRAPH
MAGNESIUM TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE RAIN LABORATORY ION CHROMATOGRAPH
NITRATE TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE RAIN LABORATORY ION CHROMATOGRAPH
NITROGEN COMPOUNDS TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE RAIN LABORATORY ION CHROMATOGRAPH
PH TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE RAIN LABORATORY ANALYSIS
PHOSPHATE TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE RAIN LABORATORY ION CHROMATOGRAPH
POTASSIUM TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE RAIN LABORATORY ION CHROMATOGRAPH
PRECIPITATION AMOUNT BIOSPHERE FORESTS FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS
RAIN BIOSPHERE PRECIPITATION LABORATORY ANALYSIS
SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT BIOSPHERE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION LYSIMETERS

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  DROUGHT, FOREST LITTER, RAINWATER, SOIL MOISTURE, THROUGHFALL, TROPICAL FORESTS, WATER CHEMISTRY

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Pará Western (Santarém) km 67 Seca-Floresta Site -2.75000 -2.75000 -55.00000 -55.00000

Related Publication(s):

Nepstad, D.C., P. Moutinho, M.B. Dias, E. Davidson, G. Cardinot, D. Markewitz, R. Figueiredo, N. Vianna, J. Chambers, D. Ray, J.B. Guerreiros, P. Lefebvre, L. Sternberg, M. Moreira, L. Barros, F.Y. Ishida, I. Tohlver, E. Belk, K. Kalif, and K. Schwalbe. 2002. The effects of partial throughfall exclusion on canopy processes, aboveground production, and biogeochemistry of an Amazon forest. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D20).

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are provided in five comma-delimited ASCII files:

File #1: Litter_leachate.csv -- litter leachate

File #2: Rainfall.csv -- rainfall

File #3: Throughfall.csv -- throughfall

File #4: Lysimeter.csv -- lysimeter collections from 25 and 200 cm depth






File contents and organization</b>

File #1: Litter_leachate.csv




Column number Column Heading Units/format Explanation



1,Sample_code,,Sample identification code, where the leading S and U refer to seca and umido (dry and wet respectively). The numeric in the second position (1-6) corresponds to the sample collector.

2,Litter_sampler,,Litter sampler type: A=open (Portuguese 'aberto'), F=closed under a panel (Portuguese 'fechado'), or not recorded

3,Plot_type,,Plot type: Dry (rainfall exclusion) or Control

4,Sample_date,,Sample date (yyyy-mm-dd)

5,Month,,Sample month

6,Year,,Sample year: 1999 - 2006

7,Volume,mL,Sample volume in milliliters (mL)

8,Conductivity,uS cm-1,Conductivity in microSiemens per centimeter(uS cm-1)

9,pH,,Solution pH

10,Alk_45,uEq/L,Alkalinity concentration in microequivalents per liter(uEq/L)

11,Cl,mg/L,Chloride concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

12,NO3,mg/L,Nitrate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

13,PO4,mg/L,Phosphate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

14,SO4,mg/L,Sulfate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

15,NH4,mg/L,Ammonium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

16,Na,mg/L,Sodium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

17,Ca,mg/L,Calcium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

18,K,mg/L,Potassium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

19,Mg,mg/L,Magnesium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

20,H,uEq/L,Hydrogen concentration in microequivalents per liter(uEq/L)



,Missing data is represented by -9999 and zeros represent concentrations below the detection limit




Example data records: Litter_leachate.csv




Sample_code,Litter_sampler_type,Plot_type,Sample_date,Month,Year,Volume,Conductivity,pH,Alk_45,Cl,NO3,PO4,SO4,NH4,Na,Ca,K,Mg,H

S1L,not recorded,Dry,5/17/1999,may,1999,2330,15.6,6.02,10,0.52,1.873,-9999, 0.531,-9999,0.299,1.223,0.515,0.48,0.955,

S2L,not recorded,Dry,5/17/1999,may,1999,830,19.9,6.02,125,0.741,1.272,-9999, 1.138,0.113,0.858,0.769,1.164,0.613,0.955,

S3L,not recorded,Dry,5/17/1999,may,1999,3710,24.2,6.61,187,0.155,2.105,-9999, 0.408,0.038,0.231,1.615,0.401,1.159,0.245

U4L,not recorded,Control,5/17/1999,may,1999,3750,17.2,6.11,10,0.861,1.656, -9999,0.574,0.104,0.297,0.826,0.781,0.427,0.776

U5L,not recorded,Control,5/17/1999,may,1999,3850,57.1,5.92,171,0.78,16.891, -9999,1.695,0.247,1.936,4.594,1.602,1.772,1.202

U6L,not recorded,Control,5/17/1999,may,1999,1550,14.6,6.19,99,0.854,0.327 -9999,0.836,0.1,0.324,0.634,0.547,0.312,0.646

S1L,not recorded,Dry,6/1/1999,jun,1999,1950,12.4,5.91,114,0.376,1.35,-9999, 0.268,0.049,0.198,0.822,0.414,0.305,1.23

S2L,not recorded,Dry,6/1/1999,jun,1999,380,11.9,5.85,114,0.344,0.582,-9999, 0.187,0.055,0.421,0.405,0.587,0.315,1.413

S3L,not recorded,Dry,6/1/1999,jun,1999,1520,17.8,6.27,146,0.267,1.895,-9999, 0.311,0.023,0.225,1.418,0.404,1.059,0.537






File contents and organization</b>

File #2: Rainfall.csv -- rainfall






Column number,Column Heading,Units / Format,Explanation

1,Sample_code,,Sample collection location:Tower-1 or Tower-2

2,Plot_type,,Plot type: Dry (rainfall exclusion) or Control

3,Sample_date,yyyy-mm-dd,Sample date (yyyy-mm-dd)

4,Month,mon,Sample month

5,Year,yyyy,Sample year: 1999 - 2006

6,Volume,mL,Sample volume in milliliters (mL)

7,Conductivity,uS cm-1,Conductivity in microSiemens per centimeter (uS cm-1)

8,pH,,Solution pH

9,Alk_45,uEq/L,Alkalinity concentration in microequivalents per liter(uEq/L)

10,Cl,mg/L,Chloride concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

11,NO3,mg/L,Nitrate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

12,PO4,mg/L,Phosphate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

13,SO4,mg/L,Sulfate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

14,NH4,mg/L,Ammonium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

15,Na,mg/L,Sodium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

16,Ca,mg/L,Calcium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

17,K,mg/L,Potassium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

18,Mg,mg/L,Magnesium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

19,H,uEq/L,Hydrogen concentration in microequivalents per liter(uEq/L)



Missing data is represented by -9999 and zeros represent concentrations below the detection limit




Example data records: Rainfall.csv




Sample_code,Plot_type,Sample_date,Month,Year,Volume,Conductivity,pH,Alk_45,Cl,NO3,PO4,SO4,NH4,Na,Ca,K,Mg,H

Tower-1,Dry,5/17/1999,may,1999,2870,3.2,5.74,51,0.311,0.158,-9999, 0.115,-9999, 0.08,0.002,0.089,0.015,1.82

Tower-2,Control,5/17/1999,may,1999,2960,3.3,5.42,8,0.315,0.154,-9999, 0.103, -9999,0.075,0.008,0.082,0.017,3.802

Tower-1,Dry,6/1/1999,jun,1999,2530,2.4,5.55,59,0.298,-9999,-9999,0.071, 0.038, 0.155,0.049,0.15,0.018,2.818

Tower-2,Control,6/1/1999,jun,1999,2540,1.9,5.58,81,0.246,0.121,-9999,0,0.055, 0.178,0.057,0.171,0.011,2.63,

Tower-1,Dry,6/15/1999,jun,1999,1020,8.8,6.17,84,0.476,0.174,-9999,0.192,0.086, 0.432,0.048,0.481,0.039,0.676

Tower-2,Control,6/15/1999,jun,1999,980,18.3,5.94,162,0.458,-9999,-9999,0.302, 0.098,0.516,0.298,0.481,0.187,1.148

Tower-1,Dry,6/29/1999,jun,1999,2200,4.2,5.48,47,0.376,-9999,-9999,0.134,0.056, 0.321,0.056,0.174,0.025,3.311






File contents and organization</b>

File #3: Throughfall.csv -- throughfall




Column number Column Heading Units/format Explanation



1,Sample_code,,Sample code

2,Plot_type,,Plot type: Dry (rainfall exclusion), Control, or not recorded (prior to treatment application)

3,Sample_type,,Sample type: TF = throughfall

4,Sample_date,yyyy-mm-dd,Sample date (yyyy-mm-dd)

5,Month,mon,Sample month

6,Year,yyyy,Sample year: 1999 - 2006

7,Volume,mL,Sample volume in milliliters (mL)

8,Conductivity,uS cm-1,Conductivity in microSiemens per centimeter(uS cm-1)

9,pH,,Solution pH

10,Alk_45,uEq/L,Alkalinity concentration in microequivalents per liter(uEq/L)

11,Cl,mg/L,Chloride concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

12,NO3,mg/L,Nitrate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

13,PO4,mg/L,Phosphate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

14,SO4,mg/L,Sulfate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

15,NH4,mg/L,Ammonium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

16,Na,mg/L,Sodium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

17,Ca,mg/L,Calcium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

18,K,mg/L,Potassium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

19,Mg,mg/L,Magnesium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

20,H,uEq/L,Hydrogen concentration in microequivalents per liter(uEq/L)





Missing data is represented by -9999 and zeros represent concentrations below the detection limit




Example data records: Throughfall.csv




Sample_code,Plot_type,Sample_type,Sample_date,Month,Year,Volume,Conductivity,pH,Alk_45,Cl,NO3,PO4,SO4,NH4,Na,Ca,K,Mg,H

C-4,Not recorded,TF,5/17/1999,may,1999,2275,7.1,5.91,78,0.509,-9999,-9999, 0.396,-9999,0.373,0.117,0.615,0.174,1.23

C-5,Not recorded,TF,5/17/1999,may,1999,3450,18.8,6.13,157,0.82,-9999,-9999, 0.351,-9999,0.314,0.123,0.492,0.169,0.741

C-6,Not recorded,TF,5/17/1999,may,1999,2890,7.9,5.83,78,0.284,-9999,-9999, 0.153,-9999,0.552,0.211,0.181,0.196,1.479

C-7,Not recorded,TF,5/17/1999,may,1999,1370,13.6,6.47,128,0.445,-9999,-9999, 0.472,-9999,0.846,0.29,0.676,0.302,0.339

D-4,Not recorded,TF,5/17/1999,may,1999,2100,16.3,6.31,151,2.469,-9999,-9999, 0.314,-9999,1.601,0.28,1.273,0.449,0.49

D-5,Not recorded,TF,5/17/1999,may,1999,2080,8,5.45,76,0.354,-9999,-9999,0.368, -9999,0.194,0.357,0.433,0.191,3.548

D-6,Not recorded,TF,5/17/1999,may,1999,2780,7.4,5.9,75,0.569,-9999,-9999,0.106, -9999,0.193,0.225,0.33,0.181,1.259






File contents and organization</b>

File #4: Lysimeter.csv




Column number Column Heading Units/format Explanation



1,Sample_code,,Sample code: first letter indicates dry (S= seca in portugues) or control (U= umido wet in portugese); follow by pit identification number ( 1-6) and a alphanumeric code for the sample type

2,Plot_type,,Plot type: Dry (rainfall exclusion) or Control

3,Sample_type,,Sample type: T25 = tension lysimeter at 25 cm depth, T200 = tension lysimeter at 200 cm depth

4,Lysimeter type,,Lysimeter type: Originally teflon tension lysimeters were installed; ceramic tension lysimeters were added later

5,Sample_date,yyyy-mm-dd,Sample date (yyyy-mm-dd)

6,Month,mon,Sample month

7,Year,yyyy,Sample year: 1999 - 2006

8,Volume,mL,Sample volume in milliliters (mL)

9,Conductivity,uS cm-1,Conductivity in microSiemens per centimeter (uS cm-1)

10,pH,,Solution pH

11,Alk_45,uEq/L,Alkalinity concentration in microequivalents per liter(uEq/L)

12,Cl,mg/L,Chloride concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

13,NO3,mg/L,Nitrate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

14,PO4,mg/L,Phosphate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

15,SO4,mg/L,Sulfate concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

16,NH4,mg/L,Ammonium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

17,Na,mg/L,Sodium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

18,Ca,mg/L,Calcium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

19,K,mg/L,Potassium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

20,Mg,mg/L,Magnesium concentration in milligrams per liter (mg/L)

21,H,uEq/L,Hydrogen concentration in microequivalents per liter(uEq/L)



Missing data is represented by -9999 and zeros represent concentrations below the detection limit




Example data records: Lysimeter.csv




Sample_code,Plot_type,Sample_type,Lysimeter_type,Sample_date,Month,Year,Volume,Conductivity,pH,Alk_45,Cl,NO3,PO4,SO4,NH4,Na,Ca,K,Mg,H

S1T25,Dry,T25,Teflon,5/17/1999,may,1999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999, -9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

S2T25,Dry,T25,Teflon,5/17/1999,may,1999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999, -9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

S3T25,Dry,T25,Teflon,5/17/1999,may,1999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999, -9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

U4T25,Control,T25,Teflon,5/17/1999,may,1999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999, -9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

U5T25,Control,T25,Teflon,5/17/1999,may,1999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999, -9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

U6T25,Control,T25,Teflon,5/17/1999,may,1999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999, -9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

S1T25,Dry,T25,Teflon,6/1/1999,jun,1999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999, -9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

S2T25,Dry,T25,Teflon,6/1/1999,jun,1999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999, -9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

S3T25,Dry,T25,Teflon,6/1/1999,jun,1999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999, -9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

U4T25,Control,T25,Teflon,6/1/1999,jun,1999,-9999,63.7,5.72,114,0.795,23.322, -9999,1.387,0.828,1.544,1.215,0.236,0.78,1.905

Data Application and Derivation:

These data can provide insight into the effects of seasonal and extreme (experimental) variations in throughfall on nutrient deposition and nutrient availability in soil solution.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Users should be aware that inclusion of zeros in the dataset for concentration signifies concentrations below minimum detection limits. In the case of alkalinity a reported zero value relative to an endpoint titration to pH 4.5 may indicate negative alkalinity or acidity but this was not measured.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Methodology:


We selected two floristically and structurally similar, 1-ha (100 x 100 m) plots for the experiment from an initial survey of 20 ha of forest. Bulk precipitation inputs were collected with a 16-cm diameter funnel located above the canopy in each 1-ha plot. Throughfall collections were made using ten bottles with 16-cm diameter funnels located below the canopy in each plot. These ten bottles were randomly redistributed on the grid of permanent sampling points after every 2-week collection period. The funnels were supported above the throughfall exclusion panels and connected to the collection bottles with plastic tubing. Solutions passing through the forest litter layer were collected in three locations per hectare using PVC troughs of 30 x 9 cm. In the exclusion plot litter leachate collectors were placed beneath openings in the panels. Tension lysimeters were installed at 25 and 200 cm in three soil pits running in a transect through each plot. Samples were collected from the field every two weeks. After collection, samples were taken to a laboratory in Santarem, and measured for conductivity, pH and alkalinity (Clesceri et al., 1998), filtered through 0.4 mm polycarbonate filters, and placed in cold storage for later chemical analysis. Analysis for NO3, NH4, PO4, K, Ca, Mg, SO4, Na, and Cl was performed by ion chromatography at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura at the Univ. de Sao Paulo.(Nepstad et al., 2002)

References:

Clesceri, L. S., A. E. Greenberg, and A. D. Eaton (Eds) (1998), Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th ed. United Book Press, Baltimore, Maryland.



Instrument:

<BR>Dionex DX 500, Sunnyvale, California, USA



Nepstad, D.C., P. Moutinho, M.B. Dias, E. Davidson, G. Cardinot, D. Markewitz, R. Figueiredo, N. Vianna, J. Chambers, D. Ray, J.B. Guerreiros, P. Lefebvre, L. Sternberg, M. Moreira, L. Barros, F.Y. Ishida, I. Tohlver, E. Belk, K. Kalif, and K. Schwalbe. 2002. The effects of partial throughfall exclusion on canopy processes, aboveground production, and biogeochemistry of an Amazon forest. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D20).

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