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Investigation:

TG-07 (Keller / Oliveira)

LBA Dataset ID:

TG07_TRACE_GAS_PROFILES

Originator(s):

1. DO CARMO, J.B.
2. KELLER, M.M.
3. DIAS, J.D.
      4. DE CAMARGO, P.B.
5. CRILL, P.M.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

Trace gas profiles collected at the canopy level in upland forests in the Brazilian Amazon during the wet and dry seasons of 2004 and 2005.

Beginning Date:

2004-02-12

Ending Date:

2005-05-12

Metadata Last Updated on:

2012-07-18

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO TG-07 Seasonal Trace Gas Profiles in Brazilian Amazon Forests: 2004-2005 :  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1107

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO TG-07 Seasonal Trace Gas Profiles in Brazilian Amazon Forests: 2004-2005 :  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/TG07_Trace_Gas_Profiles.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

do Carmo, J.B., M. Keller, J.D. Dias, P.B. de Camargo and P. Crill. 2012. LBA-ECO TG-07 Seasonal Trace Gas Profiles in Brazilian Amazon Forests: 2004-2005. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1107

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
METHANE BIOSPHERE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS LABORATORY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHS
TRACE GASES BIOSPHERE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS FIELD INVESTIGATION IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  AIR SAMPLING, MICROMETEOROLOGY, TRACE GAS FLUX

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
    -1.74830 -11.41230 -51.45360 -60.02100

Related Publication(s):

do Carmo, J.B., M. Keller, J.D. Dias, P.B. de Camargo and P. Crill. 2006. A source of methane from upland forests in the Brazilian Amazon. Geophysical Research Letters 33:doi:10.1029/2005GL025436

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

<pre>

Data are reported in one comma-delimited ASCII file: TG07_Gas_fluxes_wet_dry_2004_05.csv



File Contents and Organization:

Column,Column heading,,Units/format,Description,,,,,,,,

1,Site,,,Sampling location: Caxiuana, Manaus, Sinop,,,,,,,,

2,Sample_date,,yyyy-mm-dd,Sample date (yyyy-mm-dd),,,,,,,,

3,Sample_time,,hh:mm,Time at which each sample was collected in local time which is GMT -5 (hh:mm, 24 hour clock),,,,,,,,

4,Season,,,Season in which samples were collected: wet or dry,,,,,,,,

5,Collection_period,,,Samples were either collected during the daylight hours (diurnal) or late at night ( nocturnal),,,,,,,,

6,Jar_ID,,,Sample identification for laboratory use,,,,,,,,

7,Height,,m,Sample height in meters above the ground,,,,,,,,

8,Conc_CO2,,ppm,Concentration of carbon dioxide in parts per million,,,,,,,,

9,Conc_N2O,,ppm,Concentration of nitrous oxide in parts per million,,,,,,,,

10,Conc_CH4,,ppm,Concentration of methane in parts per million,,,,,,,,

11,Mix_ratio_CO2,,,Height weighted average mixing ratio for carbon dioxide,,,,,,,,

12,Mix_ratio_N2O,,,Height weighted average mixing ratio for nitrous oxide,,,,,,,,

13,Mix_ratio_CH4,,,Height weighted average mixing ratio for methane,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,

Missing data is represented by -9999,,,,,,,,,,,,



Example data records:

Site,Sample_date,Sample_time,Season,Collection_period,Jar_ID,Height,Conc_CO2,Conc_N2O,Conc_CH4,Mix_ratio_CO2,Mix_ratio_N2O,Mix_ratio_CH4

Sinop,2004-04-18,12:20,wet,diurnal,18,32,380.72,320.45,1.78,265.18,248.71,1.23

Sinop,2004-04-18,12:23,wet,diurnal,39,10,390.72,403.07,1.8,62.65,60.24,0.28

Sinop,2004-04-18,12:27,wet,diurnal,11,5,411.23,368.05,1.76,50.67,43.45,0.22

Sinop,2004-04-18,12:31,wet,diurnal,44,1,399.51,327.14,1.76,10.33,8.16,0.04

Sinop,2004-04-18,12:35,wet,diurnal,3,0.2,426.86,325.95,1.78,2.67,2.04,0.01

Sinop,2004-04-18,21:06,wet,nocturnal,68,32,524.54,375.09,1.77,199.62,131.89,0.67

Sinop,2004-04-18,21:26,wet,nocturnal,64,20,540.1,328.32,1.78,167.42,110.99,0.56

Sinop,2004-04-18,21:11,wet,nocturnal,66,10,531.37,382.05,1.78,83.45,55.73,0.28

Sinop,2004-04-18,21:14,wet,nocturnal,54,5,536.75,331.24,1.79,67.58,45.46,0.23

Sinop,2004-04-18,21:17,wet,nocturnal,45,1,544.56,396.09,1.81,13.71,9.17,0.05

Sinop,2004-04-18,21:21,wet,nocturnal,14,0.2,552.28,337.35,1.81,3.45,2.11,0.01

Sinop,2004-04-18,23:08,wet,nocturnal,63,32,587.54,469.52,1.79,225.46,155.95,0.67

Sinop,2004-04-18,23:10,wet,nocturnal,83,20,614.89,362.21,1.8,189.18,107.49,0.56

Sinop,2004-04-18,23:23,wet,nocturnal,58,10,595.87,325.75,1.81,93.68,51.4,0.28

Sinop,2004-04-18,23:13,wet,nocturnal,56,5,603.17,332.12,1.81,75.64,42.11,0.23

Sinop,2004-04-18,23:19,wet,nocturnal,57,1,607.08,341.59,1.83,15.23,11.87,0.05

.... [records intentionally omitted]

Manaus,2004-01-12,14:36,wet,diurnal,50,45,360.92,326.52,1.77,159.43,145.34,0.79

Manaus,2004-01-12,14:46,wet,diurnal,3,25,356.53,327.5,1.77,163.34,146.13,0.79

Manaus,2004-01-12,14:54,wet,diurnal,4,5,378.5,330.07,1.78,36.62,41.49,0.16

Manaus,2004-01-12,14:56,wet,diurnal,36,1,445.42,603.48,1.8,8.48,8.4,0.03

Manaus,2004-01-12,15:00,wet,diurnal,22,0.2,508.41,341.36,1.81,2.26,1.52,0.01

Manaus,2004-01-12,20:31,wet,nocturnal,39,45,364.83,444.4,1.77,169.96,183.66,0.79

Manaus,2004-01-12,20:34,wet,nocturnal,21,25,399.99,382.05,1.78,182.44,173.91,0.79

Manaus,2004-01-12,20:37,wet,nocturnal,38,5,421,400.55,1.76,37.96,32.58,0.16

Manaus,2004-01-12,20:41,wet,nocturnal,26,1,433.21,332.41,1.79,7.79,5.9,0.03

.... [records intentionally omitted]

Caxiuana,2004-11-07,22:15,dry,nocturnal,23,40,413.67,337.01,1.77,164.28,156.66,0.66

Caxiuana,2004-11-07,22:20,dry,nocturnal,69,25,462.51,331.39,1.76,116.54,104.49,0.44

Caxiuana,2004-11-07,22:27,dry,nocturnal,31,15,469.84,337.34,1.78,115.38,108.12,0.45

Caxiuana,2004-11-07,22:35,dry,nocturnal,91,5,453.23,354.63,1.84,46.1,43.21,0.18

Caxiuana,2004-11-07,22:42,dry,nocturnal,30,1,468.86,336.69,1.77,9.61,8.42,0.04

Caxiuana,2004-11-07,22:48,dry,nocturnal,37,0.2,491.81,-9999,1.77,2.46,-9999,0.01

Caxiuana,2004-11-08,13:59,dry,diurnal,58,40,376.55,329.93,1.75,139.74,164.83,0.65

Caxiuana,2004-11-08,14:11,dry,diurnal,45,25,368.74,373.35,1.73,93.35,111.24,0.44

Caxiuana,2004-11-08,14:23,dry,diurnal,56,15,378.02,338.57,1.77,98.05,103.18,0.44

Caxiuana,2004-11-08,14:34,dry,diurnal,13,5,406.34,321.78,1.77,41.93,39.84,0.18

Caxiuana,2004-11-08,14:45,dry,diurnal,53,1,432.25,315.69,1.75,9.14,8.09,0.04

Caxiuana,2004-11-08,14:56,dry,diurnal,44,0.2,482.05,331.55,1.77,2.41,2.07,0.01

</pre>

Data Application and Derivation:

Trace gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical forests are important components of the global carbon and nitrogen budgets. These time series of soil-atmosphere gas exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 reveal important seasonal and diurnal variations in flux and provide insight to the environmental and biological controls in this ecosystem.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

The IRGA was calibrated with secondary standards traceable to NOAA CMDL standards before and after each campaign. Span and zero drifts were less than 1 ppm. The analytical accuracy was traceable to NOAA CMDL standards. The precision expressed as the standard error of the mean for multiple measurements from standards was better than 1 ppm CO2.



Analytical accuracy was better than 0.02 ppm CH4 and precision was better than 0.005 ppm expressed as the standard error of the mean for multiple measurements of standards.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Sampling sites

Dry and wet season measurements were made at three towers used for micrometeorological studies in upland old growth forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The Caxiuana National Forest site, located near Melgaco, in the state of Amazonas has mean annual precipitation of 2060 mm and a dry period from September through November. The Manaus site in the Cuieiras Reserve has mean annual precipitation of 2250 mm with a dry season from July to September.

The Sinop site is located north of that city in the state of Mato Grosso on a 20 km2 patch of undisturbed forest surrounded by selectively logged forest. Mean annual rainfall is 2037 mm with four dry months from June through September. Annual mean temperatures across sites range from 24.1 to 26.7 degrees C. Studies of ecosystem-atmosphere exchanges of energy, water and CO2 at these site have been described by Carswell et al. [2002], Araujo et al. [2002], Vourlitis et al. [2001, 2002] and Priante Filho et al. [2004].



Field sampling



We used a portable profile system for gas measurement and sampling. Four approximately 6 mm o.d. nylon tubes were mounted on each tower at heights of 5 to 45 m and two tubes were placed at 0.2 and 1 m height about 10 m distant

from the tower base. Teflon filters (0.45 mm pore size, Cole Parmer, Vernon Hills, IL, USA) protected each tube inlet.

Six levels were sampled at Caxiuana and Sinop. Only five levels were sampled at Manaus. A valve manifold received six tubes that were flushed continuously at 1 liter per minute using separate pumps (UNMP08L, KNF, Trenton, NJ, USA). Sequential selection of each tube outflow to an infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA) (Li-6262, LiCor, Lincoln, NE, USA) allowed us to monitor CO2 mixing ratios corrected for the effects of water vapor in real time. The IRGA was calibrated

with secondary standards traceable to NOAA CMDL standards before and after each campaign. Span and zero drifts were less than 1 ppm. The analytical accuracy was traceable to NOAA CMDL standards. The precision expressed as the

standard error of the mean for multiple measurements from standards was better than 1 ppm CO2. Air samples were collected from each level 3 to 5 times on several nights and at least once during well-mixed daytime conditions during each campaign for a total of 75 profiles on 19 dates. Air samples were pressurized to 2 atm using a secondary pump (MOA-P101-HJ, GAST Manufacturing, Benton Harbor, MI, USA) into 500 ml electropolished stainless steel canisters closed with stainless steel valves (SS-14DPM-A, Swagelok, Solon, OH, USA) and stored for up to 10 days prior to analysis. Tests of air samples and standards lasting up to 60 days showed no appreciable drift.



Methane analysis

Samples were analyzed for CH4 using flame ionization gas chromatography off site [Varner et al., 2003]. An automated analysis routine was used to inject canister samples and CH4 standards traceable to NOAA CMDL standards. Samples and standards passed through Drierite1 to remove water vapor prior to analysis. Each canister sample was analyzed at least twice. Analytical accuracy was better than 0.02 ppm CH4 and precision was better than 0.005 ppm expressed as the standard error of the mean for multiple measurements of standards.



Mixing ratio calculations

We calculated a height weighted average mixing ratio of each gas for the canopy layer (defined as ground level to maximum sampling height) by linear interpolation between levels. We estimated CH4 emission using a canopy layer

budget [Trumbore et al., 1990] calculated as



dC/dt equals P- k(C-Ct)



where C is the mixing ratio of the gas in the canopy layer, P is the net production in that layer including the soil atmosphere flux, k is an exchange coefficient between the canopy layer and the overlying atmosphere and Ct is the

mixing ratio of the gas in the overlying atmosphere.

References:

Araujo, A. C., et al. (2002), Comparative measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes from two nearby towers in a central Amazonian rainforest: The Manaus LBA site, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D20), 8090, doi:10.1029/2001JD000676.



Carswell, F. E., et al. (2002), Seasonality in CO2 and H2O flux at an eastern Amazonian rain forest, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D20), 8076, doi:10.1029/2000JD000284.



do Carmo, J.B., M. Keller, J.D. Dias, P.B. de Camargo and P. Crill. 2006. A source of methane from upland forests in the Brazilian Amazon. Geophysical Research Letters 33:doi:10.1029/2005GL025436



Priante Filho, N., et al. (2004), Comparison of the mass and energy exchange of a pasture and a mature transitional tropical forest of the southern Amazon Basin during a seasonal transition, Global Change Biol., 10, 863-876.



Trumbore, S. E., M. Keller, S. C. Wofsy, and J. M. Costa (1990), Measurements of soil and canopy exchange rates in the Amazon rain forest using 222Rn, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 16,865� 16,873.



Vourlitis, G. L., N. Priante Filho, M. M. S. Hayashi, J. S. Nogueira, F. T. Caseiro, and J. H. Campelo Jr. (2001), Seasonal variations in the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a mature Amazonian tropical transitional forest (cerradao) Functional Ecol., 15, 388-395.



Vourlitis, G. L., N. P. Filho, M. M. S. Hayashi, J. de S. Nogueira, F. T. Caseiro, and J. H. Campelo Jr. (2002), Seasonal variations in the evapotranspiration of a transitional tropical forest of Mato Grosso, Brazil, Water Resources Research, 38(6), 1094, doi:10.1029/2000WR000122.

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