NOTICE -- The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported.  This archive is a snapshot, as it existed in 2013, of the LBA-ECO website, maintained by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and now archived at the ORNL DAAC.  Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC.
banner
banner banner banner banner banner banner
banner banner banner banner banner banner banner
home aboutlibrarynews archivecontacts banner

spacer
banner
Investigations
Overview
Abstracts & Profiles
Publications
Research Sites
Meetings
Synthesis Groups
LBA-HYDROMET
LBA-Air-ECO
Logistics
Overview
Field Support
Travel
Visa
Shipping
Data
  Overview
Find LBA Data
Investigator Checklist
Process & Policy
Documentation & Archive
Training & Education
  Overview
Activities Summary
T&E Goals
Student Opportunities
  Folha Amazônica
 
spacer

Investigation:

CD-08 (Trumbore / Camargo)

LBA Dataset ID:

CD08_CWD_MANAUS

Originator(s):

1. CHAMBERS, J.Q.
2. SCHIMEL, J.P.
3. NOBRE, A.D.
4. HIGUCHI, N.
      5. FERREIRA, L.V.
6. MELACK, J.M.
7. TRUMBORE, S.E.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

This data sets contains data on coarse wood density, moisture content, respiration rates and decomposition rate constants in csv format from Manaus Brazil measured from 1/1/1996 through 12/31/1997. The data for respiration reports CO2 flux from coarse litter (trunks and large branches > 10 cm diameter) that was studied in central Amazon forests (Chambers et al. 2001). The respiration study took place during the transition from wet to dry season of 1997 (June�August), and sampling from the decomposition study (Chambers et al. 2000) was carried out during both the dry and wet seasons of 1996�97 (see below). Respiration rates varied over almost two orders of magnitude (1.003-0.014 micro g C g-1 C min-1, n=61), and were significantly correlated with wood density (r2adj = 0.42), and moisture content (r2adj = 0.39). Additional samples taken from a nearby pasture indicated that wood moisture content was the most important factor controlling respiration rates across sites (r2adj = 0.65). Based on average coarse litter wood density and moisture content, the mean long-term carbon loss rate due to respiration was estimated to be 0.13 yr-1 (range of 95% prediction interval (PI) = 0.11-0.15 yr-1).
Decomposition rate constants are reported as mass loss fraction per year, for boles of 155 large dead trees (> 10 cm diameter) in central Amazon forests (Chambers et al. 2000). The measurements were carried out over a 2-year period (1996â�“1997) on permanent plots monitored by the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) of the Smithsonian Institution (Lovejoy and Bierregaard 1990; Rankin-De Merona et al. 1992) and the Biomass and Nutrient Experiment (BIONTE) of the National Institute for Amazon Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia-INPA). Mortality data from 21 hectares of permanent inventory plots, monitored for 10-15 years, were used to select dead trees for sampling. A single csv formatted data file includes dates when trees died, their diameter and breast height (DBH, i.e., at 1.3 m) and taxonomic information. Measured rate constants varied by over 1.5 orders of magnitude (0.015-0.67 /yr), averaged 0.19 /yr with predicted error averaging 0.026 /yr. Wood density and bole diameter were significantly and inversely correlated with rate constants. A tree of average biomass was predicted to decompose at 0.17 /yr. Understanding how tropical forest carbon balance will respond to global change requires knowledge of individual heterotrophic and autotrophic respiratory sources, together with factors that control respiratory variability. Theses data, along with estimates of ecosystem leaf, live wood and soil respiration, were used to estimate total carbon balance as described in Chambers et al (2004).

Beginning Date:

1996-07-01

Ending Date:

1997-08-31

Metadata Last Updated on:

2009-02-16

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO CD-08 Coarse Wood Litter Respiration and Decomposition, Manaus, Brazil :  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=911

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO CD-08 Coarse Wood Litter Respiration and Decomposition, Manaus, Brazil :  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/CD08_CWD_Resp_and_Decomp_Manaus.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Chambers, J.Q., J.P. Schimel, A.D. Nobre, N. Higuchi, L.V. Ferreira, J.M. Melack, and S.E. Trumbore, 2009. LBA-ECO CD-08 Coarse Wood Litter Respiration and Decomposition, Manaus, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/911.

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
DECOMPOSITION BIOSPHERE ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS FIELD INVESTIGATION LICOR GAS EXCHANGE SYSTEM
DECOMPOSITION BIOSPHERE ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  AMAZONAS (MANAUS) -2.58900 -2.60910 -60.11520 -60.20930

Related Publication(s):

Chambers, J.Q., E.S. Tribuzy, L.C. Toledo, B.F. Crispim, N. Higuchi, J. dos Santos, A.C. Araujo, B. Kruijt, A.D. Nobre, and S.E. Trumbore. 2004. Respiration from a tropical forest ecosystem: Partitioning of sources and low carbon use efficiency. Ecological Applications 14(4):S72.

Chambers, J.Q., J.P. Schimel, and A.D. Nobre. 2001. Respiration from coarse wood litter in central Amazon forests. Biogeochemistry 52(2):115-131.

Chambers, J.Q., N. Higuchi, J.P. Schimel, L.V. Ferreira, and J.M. Melack. (2000) Decomposition and carbon cycling of dead trees in tropical forests of the central Amazon. Oecologia 122(3):380-388.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Respiration



Data for coarse wood respiration are provided in a single comma-delimited ASCII file.



Filename: CD-08_Manaus_forest_coarse_wood_litter_respiration_data.csv





Data File Contents:



Column Number





Column Header





Units





Variable Description



1





Sample_ID





character





Sample ID is concatenation of Tree_ID from the original live tree in the INPA forest inventory plots (e.g., see respiration data file) with b, t, or m at the end of ID that refers to the bottom, top and mid-section of the sampled dead tree bole. The PASTURE samples (PSTRxx) were taken from decomposing logs in an open pasture.



2





Rate1_CO2





ppm/sec





Rate of CO2 increase in the sample chamber (parts per million CO2 per second)



3





V_smpl





mL





The volume of the wood sample placed in the respiration chamber as determined by water displacement



4





Flux





ug C/min





The flux from (2) transformed into proper units for rate calculation



5





Mass_wet





g wet weight





Wet mass of wood sample



6





Mass_dry





g dry weight





Oven dry mass of wood sample



7





Mass_C





g C





Carbon content of wood sample, using average carbon content of 47%



8





Density





g/cm3





The density of the sample (grams per cm cubed)



9





Moisture





g water/g dry weight





The moisture content of the sample (grams of water per gram dry mass)



10





Rate2_resp_flux





ug C/g C/min





The respiratory flux from the sample (micrograms of C flux per gram of C in the sample per minute)



11





Rate3_mass_loss





fraction/yr





Rate from (10) calculated as fractional carbon mass loss rate per year. From Chambers et al., Biogeochemistry 52: 115â�“131, 2001. To compare respiration rates with long-term decomposition rates (Chambers et al. 2000), 1C was also calculated as an annual carbon loss rate assuming that a constant fraction of material is lost per unit time (Olson 1963) from kc D −ln..mc − 1C/=mc/ (Eqn. 1), where 1C is in units of g C yr−1, mc is the mass of carbon in the wood, and kc is the carbon loss rate (fraction/yr).



Sample Data Records:

Filename: CD-08_Manaus_forest_coarse_wood_litter_respiration_data.csv



Column Number,Column Header,Units,Variable Description

1,Sample ID,character,Sample ID from the original live tree in the INPA forest inventory plots with b, t, and m at the end of ID refer to as bottom, top and mid-section of the sampled dead tree bole. The PASTURE samples were taken from decomposing logs in an open pasture, as described in detail in the publication noted above.

2,Rate1,ppm/sec,Rate of CO2 increase in the sample chamber (parts per million CO2 per second)

3,V_smpl,mL,The volume of the wood sample placed in the respiration chamber as determined by water displacement

4,flux,ug C/min,The flux from (2) transformed into proper units for rate calculation

5,Mass_wet,g biomass,Wet mass of wood sample

6,Mass_dry,g biomass,Oven dry mass of wood sample

7,Mass_C,g C,Carbon content of wood sample, using average carbon content of 47%

8,density,g/mL,The density of the sample (grams per cm cubed)

9,Moisture,g/g,The moisture content of the sample (grams of water per gram dry mass)

10,Rate2,ug C/g C min,The respiratory flux from the sample (micrograms of C flux per gram of C in the sample per minute)

11,Rate3,fraction/yr,Rate from (10) calculated as fractional carbon mass loss rate per year. From Chambers et al., Biogeochemistry 52: 115â�“131, 2001. To compare respiration rates with long-term decomposition rates (Chambers et al. 2000), 1C was also calculated as an annual carbon loss rate assuming that a constant fraction of material is lost per unit time (Olson 1963) from kc D −ln..mc − 1C/=mc/ (Eqn. 1), where 1C is in units of g C yr−1, mc is the mass of carbon in the wood, and kc is the carbon loss rate (fraction/yr).





Sample ID,Rate1,V_smpl,flux,Mass_wet,Mass_dry,Mass_C,density,Moisture,Rate2,Rate3

,ppm/sec,mL,ug C/min,g biomass,g biomass,g C,g/mL,g/g,ug C/g C min,fraction/yr

005x-b,0.1327,288,15.4,283,134,63,0.47,1.11,0.2446,0.1376

005x-t,0.1063,372,12.08,398,169,79,0.45,1.36,0.1521,0.0833

053x-m,0.1256,229,14.8,151,85,40,0.37,0.78,0.3705,0.2166

053x-t,0.0579,555,6.27,366,154,72,0.28,1.38,0.0867,0.0466

070x-b,0.0364,185,4.33,197,74,35,0.4,1.66,0.1245,0.0677

...

PSTR06,0.1429,391,16.15,374,245,115,0.63,0.53,0.1403,0.0766

PSTR07,0.02,347,2.28,457,354,166,1.02,0.29,0.0137,0.0072

PSTR08,0.0253,342,2.9,282,224,105,0.65,0.26,0.0275,0.0146

PSTR09,0.0156,412,1.76,311,251,118,0.61,0.24,0.0149,0.0079

PSTR10,0.0057,420,0.64,349,317,149,0.75,0.1,0.0043,0.0023







Decomposition



Data for coarse wood decomposition are provided in a single comma-delimited ASCII file.



Filename: CD-08_Manaus_forest_coarse_wood_litter_decomposition_data.csv





Data Description:



Column Number





Column Heading





Variable Name





Units





Variable Description



1





reserve





Reserve





character





These are reserve names at the BDFFP and Bionte projects at INPA



2





tree_ID





Tree ID Number

character



These are ID tags on the trees that died



3





species_genus





Botanical species, genus, or taxonomic group

character



Botanical classification on dead trees (species, genus, or taxonomic group) -- when genus is followed by sp, spp, or a number, this means the dead tree was only identifiable to genus and/or that species was unknown. When more than one genus given, sample was only identifiable to one of many genera, and when +++ is noted, signifies that additional genera are possible, but was not possible to further distinguish.



4





common_name





Botanical common name

character



Common names used by forest workers in Brazil . A ? in this field refers to unknown common name.



5





years_dead





Years Dead





yr





An estimate of the number of years the tree had been dead at the time of sampling (+/- 1.5 years)



6





DBH





Diameter-Breast-Height





cm





The base diameter in cm (at 1.3 m height) of the tree at the time of death



7





wood_density





Wood Density





g/cm3





The oven dry weight wood density (g per cm cubed) of the live tree for either species or genus: corresponding to species/genus data available in data column (3)



8





decomp_rate





Decomposition Rate





fraction/yr





The mass loss fraction per year. This is the mean from three disks removed with a chainsaw from the dead tree. See: Chambers J.Q., Higuchi N., Ferreira L.V., Melack J.M. & Schimel J.P. (2000). Decomposition and carbon cycling of dead trees in tropical forests of the central Amazon. Oecologia, 122, 380-388 for detailed methods for calculation of decomposition rates.







Sample Data Records:

Filename: CD-08_Manaus_forest_coarse_wood_litter_decomposition_data.csv

Column Number,Column heading,Variable Name,Units,Variable Description,

1,reserve,Reserve,character,These are reserve names at the BDFFP and Bionte projects at INPA,

2,tree_ID,Tree ID Number,character,These are ID tags on the trees that died,

3,species_genus,Botanical species, genus, or taxonomic group,character,Botanical classification on dead trees (species, genus, or taxonomic group) -- when genus is followed by sp, spp, or a number, this means the dead tree was only identifiable to genus and/or that species was unknown. When more than one genus given, sample was only identifiable to one of many genera, and when +++ is noted, signifies that additional genera are possible, but was not possible to further distinguish.,

4,common_name,Botanical common name,character,Common names used by forest workers in Brazil. A ? in this field refers to unknown common name. ,

5,years_dead,Years Dead,yr,An estimate of the number of years the tree had been dead at the time of sampling,

6,DBH,Diameter-Breast-Height,cm,The base diameter in cm (at 1.3 m height) of the tree at the time of death,

7,wood_density,Wood Density,g/cm3,The oven dry weight wood density (g per cm cubed) of the live tree for either species or genus: corresponding to species/genus data available in data column (3),

8,decomp_rate,Decomposition Rate,fraction/yr,The mass loss fraction per year. This is the mean from three disks removed with a chainsaw from the dead tree. See: Chambers J.Q., Higuchi N., Ferreira L.V., Melack J.M. & Schimel J.P. (2000). Decomposition and carbon cycling of dead trees in tropical forests of the central Amazon. Oecologia, 122, 380-388, for detailed methods for calculation of decomposition rates.

,,,,,,,

reserve,tree_ID,species_genus,common_name,years_dead,DBH,wood_density,decomp_rate

character,character,character,character,yr,cm,g/cm3,fraction/yr

B1S2,268x,Virola sp.,Lacre da mata,3.5,14.7,0.44,0.64

B1S2,269X,Osteophloeum platyspermum,Lacre de Mata,3.5,11.7,0.52,0.381

B1S2,111X,Swartzia ulei,Muirajiboia Jerimum,5.5,23.7,0.91,0.288

B1S2,1026,Onychopetalum amazonicum,Envira Preta,5.5,26,0.64,0.276

B1S2,350X,Pourouma longipendula,Embaubarana,3.5,21.5,0.35,0.233

...

PAL,4919,Ocotea rubra,Louro gamela,9.25,60.8,0.55,0.087

PAL,3497,Eschweilera odora,Ripeiro preto,9.25,26,0.82,0.069

PAL,3395,Couepia longipendula,Castanha da galinha,9.25,36.7,0.7,0.061

PAL,4954,Licania canesons *,Macucu,10.5,52.7,0.77,0.052

PAL,5662,Aniba burchelli,Louro,10.5,17.4,0.53,0.029

Data Application and Derivation:

Respiration



These data can be used to estimate the carbon flux from decomposing dead trees, and relationships between flux and moisture content and wood density.



Decomposition



These data can be used to estimate total mass loss rates (decomposition) for dead trees as a function of wood density and bole diameter.



Understanding how tropical forest carbon balance will respond to global change requires knowledge of individual heterotrophic and autotrophic respiratory sources, together with factors that control respiratory variability. Theses data, along with estimates of ecosystem leaf, live wood and soil respiration, were used to estimate total carbon balance as described in Chambers et al. (2004).

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Respiration



One major problem in collecting these data was removing samples from dead tree boles using a chainsaw. Basically, many hours are needed for trapped CO2 to outgas before the actual metabolic production rate can be measured. Details of these issues are available in this publication:



Chambers et al.( 2001).



Decomposition



Errors in mass loss rates are associated with information on time of death, wood density for the live trees, and other factors, with details provided in:



Chambers et al. (2000).

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Respiration



These data were collected using a LiCor 6252 and closed dynamic chambers which allow CO2 to accumulate in the head space, and this accumulation rate provides a flux estimate in ppm CO2 per second.





Field methods: Boles from 155 dead trees were previously sampled for a coarse litter decomposition study (Chambers et al. 2000). Briefly, these 155 samples were randomly chosen from a larger population of 880 dead trees using mortality data from the BDFFP and BIONTE plots. This population was stratified by DBH, wood density, and time since death, to ensure adequate representation of large trees, low and high wood densities, and decomposition time intervals. Cross-sections (usually 3) were removed from the boles with a chainsaw, or a machete for boles in advanced stages of decomposition. Decomposition (mass loss) rate was estimated using the original mass, the mass at the time of sampling, and the time decomposing, assuming first order decay. Rates were inversely correlated with wood density and bole diameter.



For this study, two additional cross-sections were removed from 61 of the previously sampled boles at least 1 m from previous cuts. A wedge was removed from the cross-sections using a machete. The sample was placed in a plastic container (3.8 L, Rubbermaid) and the seal was coated with a small amount of high-vacuum grease (Dow Corning) to minimize leaking. The change in chamber headspace CO2 concentration was measured as ppm CO2 s−1 (or mmol CO2 mol−1 air s−1, 1CO2) using an infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA, LiCor 6200). The chamber was modified to create an air-tight seal with the IRGA sensor head.



Decomposition



Mass at a known time after the tree died was obtained by removing samples with a chainsaw, and measuring sample mass in the field with a portable balance. Samples were transported to an INPA lab to determine oven dry weight.



The measurements were carried out over a 2-year period (1996â�“1997) on permanent plots monitored by the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) of the Smithsonian Institution (Lovejoy and Bierregaard 1990; Rankin-De Merona et al. 1992) and the Biomass and Nutrient Experiment (BIONTE) of the National Institute for Amazon Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia-INPA). Data from permanent plots included dates when trees died, their diameter and breast height (DBH, i.e., at 1.3 m) and taxonomic information. Plots spanned a 50´ 40 km area (~2°30â�™ S, 60° W) approximately 70 km north of Manaus in the Brazilian Amazon with an elevation of 100â�“150 m.



Bole sampling: Three cross-sections were cut from each selected dead tree to determine mass loss rate. First, the length of the bole from the base to the first major branch point was measured. The bole was then divided into three equal-length segments and cross-sections (5â�“10 cm thick) were cut from the center of each section using a chainsaw or, for friable wood, a machete. Cross-sections were weighed on a portable electronic balance and the average thickness was measured. Wedges from each cross-section were removed with a machete, weighed, and returned to the laboratory. Moisture content was determined by drying wood to constant weight at ~70°C in a drying oven..



Estimating decomposition rates: Decomposition rate constants (kd) were calculated using a single exponential model that assumes that a constant fraction of the mass is lost per unit time (Olson 1963) given by:



kd= �ln(Mt/Mo)/t



where Mt is the mass at time t and Mo is the original mass of a cross-section, and decomposition rates are given as fractional mass lost per year. Mt was measured by weighing crosssections in the field and subtracting moisture content after drying.

References:

Chambers J.Q., Tribuzy E.S., Toledo L.C., Crispim B.F., Higuchi N., dos Santos J., Arajo A.C., Kruijt B., Nobre A.D. & Trumbore S.E. 2004. Respiration from a tropical forest ecosystem: Partitioning of sources and low carbon use efficiency. Ecological Applications, 14, S72-S88. doi:10.1890/01-6012



Chambers, J.Q., J.P. Schimel, and A.D. Nobre. 2001. Respiration from coarse wood litter in central Amazon forests. Biogeochemistry 52(2):115-131.doi:10.1023/A:1006473530673



Chambers J.Q., Higuchi N., Ferreira L.V., Melack J.M. & Schimel J.P. 2000. Decomposition and carbon cycling of dead trees in tropical forests of the central Amazon. Oecologia, 122, 380-388.doi:10.1007/s004420050044



Lovejoy T, Bierregaard R 1990. Central Amazonian forests and the Minimum Critical Size of Ecosystem Project. In: Gentry A (eds) Central Amazonian forests and the Minimum Critical Size of Ecosystem Project. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 60�71



Olson, J. S. 1963. Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44:322�331.doi:10.2307/1932179



Rankin-De Merona JM, Prance GTH, Hutchings RW, Silva MFD, Rodrigues WA, Uehling ME 1992. Preliminary results of a large-scale tree inventory of upland rain forest in the central Amazon. Acta Amazon 22:493�534

Skip navigation linksHOME | ABOUT | LIBRARY | NEWS ARCHIVE | CONTACTS | INVESTIGATIONS | LOGISTICS | DATA |TRAINING & EDUCATION

NASA logo
ORNL DAAC
Get Acrobat Reader