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Investigation:

CD-02 (Ehleringer / Martinelli)

LBA Dataset ID:

LBA_CDO2_FOREST_CANOPY

Originator(s):

1. EHLERINGER, J.R.
2. MARTINELLI, L.A.
      3. OMETTO, J.P.H.B.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

This data set reports on Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Specific Leaf Area (SLA) measurements collected from forest and pasture sites in or near the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), 80 km south of the city of Santarem, Para, Brazil. The collections were between October 1999 and June 2003 from tower sites accessed via the km 67 forest entrance. There are 2 comma-delimited ASCII data files with this data set, and 1 companion data file which provides site descriptions.

Beginning Date:

1999-10-28

Ending Date:

2003-12-01

Metadata Last Updated on:

2011-05-12

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO CD-02 Forest Canopy Structure, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil: 1999-2003 :  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1009

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO CD-02 Forest Canopy Structure, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil: 1999-2003 :  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/CD02_Forest_Canopy_Structure.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Ehleringer, J., L.A. Martinelli and J.P. Ometto. 2011. LBA-ECO CD-02 Forest Canopy Structure, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil: 1999-2003. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1009

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
CANOPY CHARACTERISTICS BIOSPHERE ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS FIELD INVESTIGATION WEIGHING BALANCE
CANOPY CHARACTERISTICS BIOSPHERE ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS FIELD INVESTIGATION LEAF AREA METER
LEAF AREA INDEX BIOSPHERE ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS FIELD INVESTIGATION LEAF AREA METER
SPECIFIC LEAF AREA BIOSPHERE ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS FIELD INVESTIGATION LEAF AREA METER

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  LEAF AREA, LEAF AREA INDEX, LEAF AREA PROFILE, SPECIFIC LEAF AREA

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  PARA WESTERN (SANTAREM) 2.75000 -3.02020 54.88850 -55.00000

Related Publication(s):

Domingues, T.F., J.A. Berry, L.A. Martinelli, J.P.H.B. Ometto, and J.R. Ehleringer. 2005. Parameterization of Canopy Structure and Leaf-Level Gas Exchange for an Eastern Amazonian Tropical Rain Forest (Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil). Earth Interactions 9(17):1-23.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are presented in two comma-delimited ASCII files. File #1: CD02_LAI_measurements_TNF.csv, and File #2: CD02_SLA_measurements_TNF.csv.

Site location information is also provided in one companion, comma-delimited ASCII file: CD02_LAI_Forest_Site_Descriptions.csv.



File #1: CD02_LAI_measurements_TNF.csv

Column Heading Units/format Description

1 Sample_date yyyy/mm/dd Sampling date (yyyy-mm-dd)

2 Site_ID Sampling site (see accompanying Study Site Description file)

3 File_ID LAI 2000 file identification

4 Height m Height at which the measurements were taken,

reported in meters (m) above the ground

5 Orientation The direction the sensor was pointing during measurement 1 = north 2 = northwest 3 = west 4 = south 5 = southeast 6 = east

6 LAI m2/m2 Leaf area index measured using a LAI 2000

7 DIFN Diffuse non-interceptance, or visible fraction of the sky

8 MTA degrees Mean foliage tilt angle in degrees



Note: there are no missing values in this data file

Example data records



Sample_date,Site_ID,File_ID,Height,Orientation,LAI,DIFN,MTA

2003/03/27,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,1,36,1,0.45,0.694,0

2003/03/27,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,2,36,2,0.41,0.701,45

2003/03/27,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,3,36,3,0,1.001,57

...

2003/06/09,km 67 - Seca-Floresta, T4 (Treatment),14,4,3.25,0.069,45

2003/06/09,km 67 - Seca-Floresta, T4 (Treatment),15,2,3.51,0.059,50

2003/06/09,km 67 - Seca-Floresta, T4 (Treatment),16,0,4.48,0.023,43

...





File #2: CD02_SLA_measurements_TNF.csv



Column Heading Units/format Description

1 Sample_ID Sample identification number used for linking field measurements to lab analyses; sample IDs in some cases were repeated across sites

2 Sample_date yyyy/mm/dd Sampling date (yyyy/mm/dd)

3 Site_ID Site identification code

4 Latitude degrees Latitide in decimal degrees; negative values indicate south

5 Longitude degrees Longitude in decimal degrees; negative values indicate west

6 Season Season: Wet or Dry

7 Species Scientific name in the format Genus species, where determined, otherwise not provided

8 Common_name Local name, if recorded, otherwise not provided

9 Height m The distance in meters from the ground to the canopy where the leaf was collected

10 Functional_group Vegetation type (Liana, Tree, Sapling or Grass) Note sapling refers to any non-grass life form in the pasture and can include shrubs, young trees and/or young lianas

11 Position Canopy position (for forest sites only):

Understory, Mid-canopy, Upper-canopy (top canopy layer), or not provided; for pasture site, canopy position is indicated as not applicable

12 Leaf_area m^2 Leaf area measured by tracing leaf contour on paper sheet while in the field. In the lab, areas were determined using NIH 1.63 software after scanning drawings

13 Leaf_weight g Leaf dry weight (in grams) after leaves were dried in 65C ovens for 48 hours

14 SLA m^2 g-1 Specific leaf area: the ratio of leaf area to its dry weight, reported as m^2 g-1



Missing numeric data values are indicated by -9999; missing character values are indicated as not provided.



Example data records



Sample_ID,Sample_date,Site_ID,Latitude,Longitude,Season,Species,Common_name,

Height,Functional_group,Position,Leaf_area,Leaf_weight,SLA

178,2000/02/28,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,-2.85611,-54.95806,Wet,Not provided,Murta,

1,Tree,Understory,0.0036,0.2383,0.0149

177,2000/02/28,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,-2.85611,-54.95806,Wet,Not provided,Murta,

1,Tree,Understory,0.0053,0.3735,0.0142

176,2000/02/28,km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,-2.85611,-54.95806,Wet,Not provided,Not provided,

1,Tree,Understory,0.0099,0.5206,0.0191

...

5,1999/10/28,km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Control), -2.89833,-54.95583,Dry,Tachigalia myrmecophila,Not provided,

27,Tree,Upper-canopy,0.0089,-9999, -9999

4,1999/10/28,km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Control),-2.89833,-54.95583,Dry,Tachigalia myrmecophila, Not provided,

27, Tree,Upper-canopy, 0.0068,-9999, -9999

3,1999/10/28,km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Control),-2.89833,-54.95583, Dry,Tachigalia myrmecophila,Not provided,

27, Tree,Upper-canopy, 0.007, -9999, -9999

...



Companion file: CD02_LAI_Forest_Site_Descriptions.csv

Column Heading Units/format Description

1 Site_ID Site Identification code

2 Site_description Study site description

3 Tower_height m Tower height in meters, if applicable; pasture site samples were not collected from the tower.

4 Latitude degrees Site location latitude in decimal degrees; negative values indicate south

5 Longitude degrees Site location longitude in decimal degrees; negative values indicate west

6 In_LAI Indicates whether LAI was measured at this site

7 In_SLA Indicates whether LAI was measured at this site

Example data records



Site_ID,Site_description,

Tower_height, Latitude, Longitude, In_LAI, In_SLA

km 67 - Primary Forest Tower,km 67 - Primary Forest - Tower Site; collections were done from the walk-up tower adjacent to the eddy flux tower,

40, -2.85611,-54.95806,Yes,Yes

...

km 83 - Forest Tower (before logging),km 83 - Forest Tower Site - collections were done from the walk up tower adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the km 83 forest entrance; collections of the area surrounding the tower were conducted both prior to and after reduced-impact logging that occurred between March-October 2001

40, -3.01806,-54.96889,No,Yes

...

km 67 - Seca-Floresta T4 (Treatment),Seca-Floresta - Tower 4 (Rainfall Exclusion Experiment Treatment Plot),

25, -2.89833,-54.95583,Yes,No

Data Application and Derivation:

These data can be used for the computation of gross primary productivity (GPP) and for the evaluation of the biological control exerted by local vegetation over carbon and water fluxes.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

The data have been reviewed and there are no known problems at this time.



The LAI-2000 assumes a random distribution of leaves and cannot distinguish leaf area from non-leaf area (stems and branches); therefore it measures plant area index (Weiss et al. 2004)

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Field sites

All measurements were done in or near the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), 80 km south of the city of Santarem in the state of Para.



LAI measurement sites:

Leaf area indices were measured throughout the canopy profile from four walk-up towers.



The accumulation of leaf area index (LAI) through the forest canopy profile was determined in June 2003. LAI estimates were derived from the differences between simultaneous readings from two LAI-2000 sensors (Licor). One of the sensors was fixed at the top of the canopy, while the other was carried through the canopy. Measurements were taken every 1.5 meter at the rainfall exclusion towers and every 2 meters at the km 67 tower.



1. The first tower was 40 m tall, located adjacent to the eddy flux tower and is identified as km 67 tower; Site_ID: km 67 - Primary Forest Tower.

2. The second and third towers were located approximately 10 km southeast of the first tower in the rainfall exclusion experiment control plots (Control plot at Seca-Floresta site towers 1 and 2; Nepstad et al. 2002) and were 25 meters tall; Site_IDs: km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Control) km 67 - Seca-Floresta T2 (Control).

3. The fourth tower was located in the rainfall exclusion experiment dry-down treatment plot at Seca-Floresta site (tower 4) and was also 25 meters tall; Site_ID: km 67 - Seca-Floresta T4 (Treatment).



SLA measurements:

For the leaf mass and specific leaf area measurements collections were taken from walk-up towers to allow access to the full canopy in the forest sites.



Leaves from all branches within reach of the towers were sampled for leaf mass per unit area (LMA) determination. For LMA determination contours of individual leaves were traced on paper sheets immediately upon collection. Paper sheets with leaf tracings were scanned in the laboratory and the area of individual leaves was determined with National Institute of Health (NIH)-Image software version 1.6. The actual leaves collected were taken to the laboratory for weight determination after being dried for 24 hours at 65 degrees C in convection ovens.



Eight locations within or near the TNF were included:

1. Towers 1 and 3 in the rainfall exclusion experiment control plot; Site_IDs: km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Control) and km 67 - Seca-Floresta T3 (Control).

2. Towers 1, 2 and 3 in the rainfall exclusion experiment dry-down treatment plot at km 67; Site_IDs: km 67 - Seca-Floresta T1 (Treatment), km 67 - Seca-Floresta T2 (Treatment), and km 67 - Seca-Floresta T3 (Treatment).

3. The walk-up tower adjacent to the eddy flux tower at km 67; Site_ID: km 67 - Primary Forest Tower.

4. The walk-up tower adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the km 83 forest entrance. Collections were done both prior to and after reduced impact logging that occurred between March-October 2001 in the area surrounding the tower; Site_IDs: km 83 - Forest Tower (before logging) and km 83 - Forest Tower (after logging).

5. Location in a pasture adjacent to the eddy flux tower at km 77 and did not require a tower for canopy access; Site_ID: km 77



Pasture Measurements

For the leaf mass and specific leaf area measurement samples, grasses and sapling leaves were collected and taken to the laboratory for weight determination after being dried for 24 hours at 65 degrees C in convection ovens. There were no pasture LAI measurements.

References:

Nepstad D.C. et al. 2002. The effects of partial throughfall exclusion on canopy processes, aboveground production and biogeochemistry of an Amazon forest. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8085, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000360



Weiss, M., F. Baret, G.J. Smith, I. Jonckheere and P. Copin. 2004. Review of methods for in situ leaf area index (LAI) determination. Part II. Estimation of LAI, errors and sampling. Agric. For. Meteor. 121 37-53.

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