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Investigation:

ND-02 (Davidson / Stone / Markewitz / Carvalho / Sa / Vieira / Moutinho / Figueiredo)

LBA Dataset ID:

LBA_FERT

Originator(s):

1. DAVIDSON, E.A.
2. DE CARVALHO, C.J.R.
      3. VIEIRA, I.C.G.
4. FIGUEIREDO, R.D.O.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

This data set contains soil emissions of nitric oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) measured in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km northwest of the town of Paragominas, Para, Brazil during 1999-2001. Control, pre-, and post-treatment plot trace gas emission results are reported in a single comma-separated file. A highly degraded former pasture with secondary-growth forest (capoeira -- fallow vegetation) at Fazenda Vitoria, 6.5-km northwest of the town of Paragominas, Para, was chosen for this fertilization experiment. Twelve 20 m x 20 m plots were established: three were fertilized with nitrogen (only), three were fertilized with phosphorus (only), and three were fertilized with both nitrogen and phosphorus. The remaining three plots served as the control for these treatments. Application of the fertilizers occurred Jan 19, 2000 and February 2001, at the beginning of the rainy season.

Beginning Date:

1999-11-17

Ending Date:

2001-12-12

Metadata Last Updated on:

2009-12-14

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO ND-02 Trace Gas Flux from Forest Soil, Para, Brazil : 1999-2001:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=954

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-02 Trace Gas Flux from Forest Soil, Para, Brazil : 1999-2001:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/ND02_Fertilization_Experiment.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Davidson, E.A., C.J.R. de Carvalho, I.C.G. Vieira, R.D. Figueiredo. 2009. LBA-ECO ND-02 Trace Gas Flux from Forest Soil, Para, Brazil: 1999-2001. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/954

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
METHANE BIOSPHERE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION GC-FID (GAS CHROMATOGRAPH/FLAME IONIZATION DETECTOR)
NITROGEN OXIDES BIOSPHERE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION CHEMILUMINESCENCE
NITROUS OXIDE BIOSPHERE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION GC-ECD (GAS CHROMATOGRAPH/ELECTRON CAPTURE DETECTOR)
SOIL RESPIRATION BIOSPHERE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  AMAZON, AMMONIUM, BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, BRAZIL, CARBON, CARBON DIOXIDE, CH4, CO2, LITTER, LITTER CHEMISTRY, METHANE, N2O, NET N MINERALIZATION, NET NITRIFICATION, NET NITROGEN MINERALIZATION, NITRATE, NITRIC OXIDE, NITROGEN, NITROGEN AVAILABILITY, NITROUS OXIDE, NO, NUTRIENT CYCLING, PARA, PARAGOMINAS, SECONDARY FORESTS, SLASH-AND-BURN AGRICULTURE, SOIL, SOIL CHEMISTRY, SOIL FAUNA, SOIL GAS, TRACE GAS FLUXES

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Pará Eastern (Belém) Paragominas -2.98300 -2.98300 -47.51600 -47.51600

Related Publication(s):

Davidson, E.A., C.J.R. de Carvalho, I.C.G. Vieira, R.D. Figueiredo, P. Moutinho, F.Y. Ishida, M.T.P. dos Santos, J.B. Guerrero, K. Kalif, and R.T. Saba. 2004. Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of biomass growth in a tropical secondary forest. Ecological Applications 14(4):S150. doi:10.1890/01-6006

Siddique, I., I.C.G. Vieira, S. Schmidt, D. Lamb, C.J.R. Carvalho, R.D. Figueiredo, S. Blomberg, and E.A. Davidson. 2010. Nitrogen and phosphorus additions negatively affect tree species diversity in tropical forest regrowth trajectories. Ecology 91(7):2121-2131.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

The file Paragominas_Soil_Trace_Gas.csv is a comma-delimited file containing the means and standard errors of the 9 total trace gas emissions measurements per treatment (N, P, N+P, control) per sampling date. For convenience, the Day of Year is also provided. The actual number of repetitions that were included in each mean/standard error is listed in the respective *_ Reps columns. Treatment Status indicates whether the measurements were made before or after the fertilizer was applied.





File Contents / Variable Descriptions: Paragominas_Soil_Trace_Gas.csv

Columns Units Description

Site Paragominas- Vitoria's Farm

Date YYYY/MM/DD





Day_of_Year Julian Day

Treatment_Status pre-fertilization, post-fertilization-1, post-fertilization-2

Treatment nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrogen+phosphorus, control

CO2_Mean Flux carbon dioxide (CO2) measured in the field using chambers attached to an IRGA.

CO2_Std_Err Standard error of CO2 flux.

CO2_Reps The number of replicates that were included in each mean and standard error calculations.

CO2_Units g C m^-2 h^-1

NO_Mean Flux of nitric oxide (NO) measured in the field using chambers attached to a chemiluminescent analyzer.

NO_Std_Err Standard error of NO flux.

NO_Reps The number of replicates that were included in each mean and standard error calculations.

NO_Units ng N cm^-2 h^-1

N2O_Mean Flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) measured by filling syringes in the field from static chambers and analyzed in a laboratory using gas chromatography.

N2O_Std_Err Standard error of N2O flux.

N2O_Reps The number of replicates that were included in each mean and standard error calculations.

N2O_Units ng N cm^-2 h^-1

CH4_Mean Flux of methane (CH4) measured by filling syringes in the field from static chambers and analyzed in a laboratory using gas chromatography.

CH4_Std_Err Standard error of CH4 flux.

CH4_Reps The number of replicates that were included in each mean and standard error calculations.

CH4_Units mg CH4 m^-2 d^-1



-9999 has been listed wherever values are missing.

Three measurement chambers were located in each plot, providing a total of 9 replicates for each treatment type per date.



Note that positive values indicate emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; negative values indicate net uptake by the soils of atmospheric gases. CO2 = carbon dioxide NO = nitric oxide N2O = nitrous oxide CH4 = methane



Example Data Record:

Site,Date,Day_of_Year,Treatment_Status,Treatment,CO2_Mean,CO2_Std_Err,CO2_Reps,CO2_Units,

NO_Mean,NO_Std_Err,NO_Reps,NO_Units,N2O_Mean,N2O_Std_Err,N2O_Reps,N2O_Units,

CH4_Mean,CH4_Std_Err,CH4_Reps,CH4_Units



Paragominas- Vitoria's Farm,1999/11/18,322,pre-fertilization,nitrogen,-9999,-9999,0,g C m^-2 h^-1,

-9999,-9999,0,ng N cm^-2 h^-1,0.16,0.21,9,ng N cm^-2 h^-1,

-1.59,0.16,9,mg CH4 m^-2 d^-1

Paragominas- Vitoria's Farm,1999/11/18,322,pre-fertilization,phosphorus,-9999,-9999,0,g C m^-2 h^-1,

-9999,-9999,0,ng N cm^-2 h^-1,0.37,0.24,9,ng N cm^-2 h^-1,

-1.1,0.3,9,mg CH4 m^-2 d^-1

...

Paragominas- Vitoria's Farm,2001/12/12,346,post-fertilization-2,nitrogen+phosphorus,0.14,0.01,9,g C m^-2 h^-1,

-99999,-99999,0,ng N cm^-2 h^-1,0.01,0.06,9,ng N cm^-2 h^-1,

2,1.04,9,mg CH4 m^-2 d^-1

Paragominas- Vitoria's Farm,2001/12/12,346,post-fertilization-2,control,0.12,0.01,9,g C m^-2 h^-1,

-99999,-99999,0,ng N cm^-2 h^-1,0.01,0.12,9,ng N cm^-2 h^-1,

-0.95,0.22,9,mg CH4 m^-2 d^-1



Data Application and Derivation:

Understanding secondary successional processes in Amazonian terrestrial ecosystems is becoming increasingly important as continued deforestation expands the area that has become secondary forest, or at least has been through a recent phase of secondary forest growth. Most Amazonian soils are highly weathered and relatively nutrient poor, but the role of nutrients as a factor determining successional processes is unclear. Soils testing and chronosequence studies have yielded equivocal results regarding the possible role of nutrient limitation. The most striking result of this study so far is the significant response of tree growth to N fertilization. Repeated fire and other losses of N from degraded pastures may render tree growth N limited in some young Amazonian forests. Changes in species composition and monitoring of long-term effects on biomass accumulation will be addressed as this experiment is continued.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

The quality checks for flux measurement are described. Equipment failure caused missing data for NO measurements on three dates.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

A highly degraded former pasture with secondary-growth forest (capoeira -- fallow vegetation) at Fazenda Vitoria, 6.5-km northwest of the town of Paragominas, Para, was chosen for this fertilization experiment. Four treatments applied to twelve 20 m x 20 m plots at the Paragominas Fazenda Vitoria site.



Three of the twelve 20 m x 20 m plots were fertilized with nitrogen (100 kg N/ha); three were fertilized with phosphorus (50 kg P/ha); three were fertilized with both nitrogen and phosphorus (100 kg N/ha and 50 kg P/ha). The remaining three plots were not fertilized and served as the experimental control. Fertilization was carried out in the beginning of the rainy season in 2000 and again in 2001.



Three chamber bases made of PVC pipe were placed in each of the 12 plots in November 1999. Fluxes were measured in November 1999 and twice in January 2000, about one week before and one week after the fertilization application. Measurements were repeated in April, September, and December 2000, and a similar schedule was followed in 2001. The three chambers in each plot provided a total of 9 replicates of CO2, NO, N2O and CH4 for each treatment type per date (total measurements = 36).



Fluxes of NO and CO2 are measured in the field using dynamic chambers connected to a Scintrex LMA-3 chemiluminescent analyzer and a Licor 6252 IRGA. Fluxes of N2O and CH4 are measured by filling syringes with gas from static chamber headspace at 10-minute intervals, and analyzing the samples in a laboratory using gas chromatography.

References:

Davidson, E.A., C.J.R. de Carvalho, I.C.G. Vieira, R.D. Figueiredo, P. Moutinho, F.Y. Ishida, M.T.P. dos Santos, J.B. Guerrero, K. Kalif, and R.T. Saba. 2004. Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of biomass growth in a tropical secondary forest. Ecological Applications 14(4):S150. doi:10.1890/01-6006



Verchot, L.V., E.A. Davidson, J.H. Cattonio, and I.L. Ackerman. 2000. Land-use change and biogeochemical controls of methane fluxes in soils of eastern Amazonia. Ecosystems 3:41-56. doi:10.1007/s100210000009



Verchot, L.V., E.A. Davidson, J.H. Cattonio, I.L. Ackerman, H.E. Erickson, and M. Keller. 1999. Land use change and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen oxide emissions from soils in eastern Amazonia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13:31-46. doi:10.1029/1998GB900019

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