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Investigation:

CD-04 (Goulden / Rocha)

LBA Dataset ID:

LBACD04METFLUXES

Originator(s):

1. MILLER, S.D.
2. GOULDEN, M.L.
      3. DA ROCHA, H.R.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

Tower flux measurements of carbon dioxide,water vapor, heat, and meteorological variables were obtained at the Tapajos National Forest, km 83 site, Santarem, Para, Brazil. For the period June 29, 2000 through March 11, 2004, 30-minute averaged and calculated quantities of fluxes of momentum, heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide, storage of carbon dioxide in the air column, are reported.
Data are reported in three comma separated files: (1) 30 minute-averages, (2) the daily (24 hour) averages, and (3) the monthly (calendar) averages. The variables measured on the 67 m tower relate to meteorology, soil moisture, respiration, fluxes of momentum, heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide, and were used to calculate storage of carbon dioxide, Net Ecosystem Exchange, and Gross Primary Productivity. Most of the variables have not been gap filled. However, CO2 flux and storage have been filled to avoid biases in Net Ecosystem Exchange; a fill index flag is included to indicate which data points were filled. Variables derived from the filled variables (respiration, NEE, GPP) are essentially filled also. Net ecosystem exchange has been filtered for calm nighttime periods.

Beginning Date:

2000-07-01

Ending Date:

2004-03-12

Metadata Last Updated on:

2009-11-10

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO CD-04 Meteorological and Flux Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=946

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO CD-04 Meteorological and Flux Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/CD04_Meteorology_Fluxes.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Miller, S., M.L. Goulden, and H.R. da Rocha. 2009. LBA-ECO CD-04 Meteorological and Flux Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/946

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
AIR TEMPERATURE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE TOWER TEMPERATURE SENSOR
CARBON DIOXIDE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY TOWER IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)
CARBON DIOXIDE FLUX ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY FLUX TOWER SONIC ANEMOMETER
CARBON DIOXIDE FLUX ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY FLUX TOWER IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)
HEAT FLUX LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS
NET RADIATION ATMOSPHERE RADIATION BUDGET TOWER NET RADIOMETER
PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION ATMOSPHERE RADIATION BUDGET TOWER QUANTUM SENSOR
PRECIPITATION AMOUNT ATMOSPHERE PRECIPITATION TOWER RAIN GAUGE
SOIL MOISTURE LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION SOIL MOISTURE PROBE
SOIL TEMPERATURE LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION THERMOCOUPLE
SOLAR RADIATION ATMOSPHERE RADIATION BUDGET TOWER PYRANOMETER
SURFACE WINDS ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC WINDS TOWER SONIC ANEMOMETER
WATER FLUX ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY FLUX TOWER SONIC ANEMOMETER
WATER FLUX ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY FLUX TOWER IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)
WATER VAPOR ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR TOWER IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  AIR TEMPERATURE, CARBON DIOXIDE, CO2, EDDY COVARIANCE, FLUX TOWER , FLUXES, H2O, HUMIDITY, KILOMETER 83, LATENT HEAT FLUX, LOGGED SITE, METEOROLOGY, PAR, PROFILES, RADIATION, SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX, SOIL HEAT FLUX, SOIL MOISTURE, SOIL TEMPERATURE, TAPAJOS FOREST, TOWER FLUX, WIND DIRECTION, WIND SPEED

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Pará Western (Santarém) km 83 Logged Forest Tower Site -3.01700 -3.01700 -54.97070 -54.97070

Related Publication(s):

Bruno, R.D., H.R. da Rocha, H.C. de Freitas, M.L. Goulden, and S.D. Miller. 2006. Soil moisture dynamics in an eastern Amazonian tropical forest. Hydrological Processes 20(12):2477-2489.

da Rocha, H.R., M.L. Goulden, S.D. Miller, M.C. Menton, L.D.V.O. Pinto, H.C. de Freitas, and A.M.E.S. Figueira. 2004. Seasonality of water and heat fluxes over a tropical forest in eastern Amazonia. Ecological Applications 14(4):S22-32.

Doughty, C.E., M.L. Goulden, S.D. Miller, and H.R. da Rocha. 2006. Circadian rhythms constrain leaf and canopy gas exchange in an Amazonian forest. Geophysical Research Letters 33(15): L15404, doi:10.1029/2006GG026750.

Goulden, M.L., S.D. Miller, and H.R. da Rocha. 2006. Nocturnal cold air drainage and pooling in a tropical forest. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 111(D8):D08S04, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006037.

Goulden, M.L., S.D. Miller, H.R. da Rocha, M.C. Menton, H.C. de Freitas, A.M.E.S. Figueira, and C.A.D. de Sousa. 2004. Diel and seasonal patterns of tropical forest CO2 exchange. Ecological Applications 14(4):S42-55.

Miller, S.D., M.L. Goulden, and H.R. da Rocha. 2007. The effect of canopy gaps on subcanopy ventilation and scalar fluxes in a tropical forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142(1):25-34.

Miller, S.D., M.L. Goulden, M.C. Menton, H.R. da Rocha, H.C. de Freitas, A.M.E.S. Figueira, and C.A.D. de Sousa. 2004. Biometric and micrometeorological measurements of tropical forest carbon balance. Ecological Applications 14(4):S114.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are provided in three comma separated ASCII files:

CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_30_min.csv

CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_dailyavg.csv

CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_monthly_avg.csv




File 1: CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_30_min.csv </b>

In CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_30_min.csv there are 64992 records (rows), each corresponding to a 30 minute interval for a total 1354 days beginning June 29, 2000 and ending March 11, 2004. The timestamp corresponds to the beginning of the 30 minute interval. The first timestamp is experiment day 181, or June 29, 2000, where experiment day counts from 0 at 00:00 hours on January 1, 2000. The last timestamp is day 1535, or March 11, 2004, the day that a tree fell on the tower. The timestamp corresponds to the beginning of the 30 minute sampling interval.


File Contents / Variable Descriptions:

CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_30_min.csv</b>

Column heading units/format sensor description

1 exp_day experiment day (0 = January 1, 2000, 00:00 hours)

2 year yyyy year

3 month mm month

4 day dd day

5 hr hh hour at start of sampling period (GMT:24 hour clock)

6 min mm minute at start of sampling period (GMT)

7 solar_in W/m2 Kipp & Zonen CM6B downward flux of solar radiation

8 solar out W/m2 Kipp & Zonen CM6B upward flux of solar radiation

9 long_in W/m2 Kipp & Zonen CG2 downward flux of long wave radiation

10 long_out W/m2 Kipp & Zonen CG2 upward flux of long wave radiation

11 par_in micromol/m2/s Li-Cor LI190 downward flux of photosynthetically active radiation

12 par_out micromol/m2/s Li-Cor LI190 upward flux of photosynthetically active radiation

13 rnet W/m2 Rebs Q*7 net radiation 64 m

14 T64 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 air temperature at 64 m height

15 T40 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 air temperature at 40 m height

16 T10 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 air temperature at 10 m height

17 T2 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 air temperature at2 m height

18 press kPa Li-Cor LI7500 air pressure measured at 64m height

19 h2o_64 mmol/mol Li-Cor LI7500 atmospheric water content measured at 64 m height

20 Usonic_64 m/s Campbell CSAT3 wind speed measured on the sonic anenometer at 64 m height

21 WD_64 degrees Campbell CSAT3 wind direction measured on the sonic anenometer at 64 m height

22 Ucup_64 m/s Met One 014 wind speed measured on the cup anenometer at 64 m height

23 Ucup_50 m/s Met One 014 wind speed measured on the cup anenometer at 50 m height

24 Ucup_40 m/s Met One 014 wind speed measured on the cup anenometer at 40 m height

25 rain mm Texas Electronics TE525 rainfall measured at 64 m height using a tipping bucket

rain gauge

26 Tsoil_10 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 soil temperature at 10 cm depth

27 Tsoil_20 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 soil temperature at 20 cm depth

28 Tsoil_50 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 soil temperature at 50 cm depth

29 h2o_soil_10 m3/m3 Campbell Scientific CS615 soil moisture at 10 cm depth

30 h2o_soil_20 m3/m3 Campbell Scientific CS615 soil moisture at 20 cm depth

31 h2o_soil_40 m3/m3 Campbell Scientific CS615 soil moisture at 40 cm depth

32 hf_soil W/m2 REBS HFT 3.1 soil heat flux 10 cm depth

33 ustar m/s Campbell CSAT3 friction velocity 64 m height

34 hs W/m2 Campbell Scientific sensible heat flux measured at 64 m height

35 hl W/m2 Li-Cor LI7500 latent heat flux measured at 64 m height

36 co2_64 ppm Li-Cor LI7000 atmospheric CO2 concentration at 64 m height

37 fco2 umol/m2/s Li-Cor LI7000/LI7500 CO2 flux at 64 m height

38 ifco2 CO2 flux fill index ( 0= measured, 1= filled)

39 fstor umol/m2/s Li-Cor LI7000 CO2 storage below 64 m height

40 ifstor CO2 storage fill index ( 0= measured, 1= filled)

41 nee_raw umol/m2/s Net ecosystem exchange not u* corrected

42 inee_raw NEE fill index ( 0= measured, 1= filled)

43 nee umol/m2/s Net ecosystem exchange calculated as the sum of

turbulent CO2 flux at 64 m and the change in the amount

of CO2 stored in the air column below 64 m

44 ifilt NEE u* filter index (1= u* filtered)

45 gpp umol/m2/s gross primary productivity

46 igpp GPP fill index ( 0= measured, 1= filled)

47 resp_meas umol/m2/s respiration measured

48 resp_20_pts umol/m2/s respiration smoothed using the nearest 20 pts

49 ndays_20_pts umol/m2/s ndays respiration smoothed using the 20 nearest points

50 resp_par_40 umol/m2/s respiration from PAR model PAR >0 and U* > 0.22



missing data are represented by -999




Sample Data Record: CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_30_min.csv </b>

exp_day,year,month,day,hr,min,solar_in,solar_out,long_in,long_out,par_in,par_out,rnet,T64,T40,T10,T2,press,h2o_64m,Usonic_64,WD_64,Ucup_64,Ucup_50,Ucup_40,rain,Tsoil_10,Tsoil_20,Tsoil_50,h2o_soil_10,h2o_soil_20,h2o_soil_40,hf_soil,ustar,hs,hl,co2_64,fco2,ifco2,fstor,ifstor,nee_raw,inee_raw,nee,ifilt,gpp,igpp,resp_meas,resp_20_pts,ndays_20_pts,resp_par_40

181,2000,6,29,0,0,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,24.71,23.02,23.49,22.83,98.71,27.66,3.03,61.04,1.97,1.18,0.45,0.00,-999,24.36,24.44,0.43,0.49,0.46,-5.99,0.55,-999,-999,389.84,3.78,0,7.06,0,10.84,0,10.84,0,-3.93,0,-999,6.910437,8.27,7.86,

181.020833,2000,6,29,0,30,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,24.41,22.80,23.33,22.72,98.67,27.98,2.39,84.73,1.84,1.29,0.45,0.00,-999,24.37,24.44,0.43,0.49,0.46,-6.41,0.46,16.02,-999,389.07,5.92,0,1.45,0,7.37,0,7.37,0,-0.46,0,-999,6.910437,8.27,7.85,

181.041667,2000,6,29,1,0,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,24.41,22.75,23.14,22.60,98.61,27.23,1.83,78.52,2.68,1.71,0.45,0.00,-999,24.37,24.44,0.43,0.49,0.46,-6.49,0.50,-999,-999,391.31,9.95,0,-4.09,0,5.87,0,5.87,0,1.04,0,-999,6.910437,8.27,7.84,

181.0625,2000,6,29,1,30,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,24.52,22.66,22.93,22.38,98.56,-999,1.37,96.18,2.74,1.68,0.45,0.00,-999,24.37,24.44,0.43,0.49,0.46,-7.05,0.20,-999,-999,393.14,5.45,1,0.26,0,5.72,1,5.72,0,1.19,1,-999,6.910437,8.27,7.83,

181.083333,2000,6,29,2,0,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,24.66,22.53,22.77,22.29,98.53,-999,1.23,107.90,2.81,1.76,0.45,0.00,-999,24.37,24.44,0.43,0.49,0.46,-7.46,0.71,-999,-999,393.99,0.96,1,1.73,0,2.69,1,2.69,0,4.22,1,-999,6.910437,8.27,7.83,

181.104167,2000,6,29,2,30,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,24.86,22.65,22.66,22.29,98.51,26.70,1.40,72.62,2.79,1.80,0.45,0.00,-999,24.37,24.44,0.43,0.49,0.46,-7.51,0.47,-999,-999,394.84,-3.54,0,1.26,0,-2.28,0,-2.28,0,9.19,0,-999,6.910437,8.27,7.82,




File 2: CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_dailyavg.csv </b>


File Contents / Variable Descriptions:

CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_dailyavg.csv</b>

Column heading units/format sensor description

1 exp_day experiment day (0 = January 1, 2000, 00:00 hours)

2 year yyyy year

3 month mm month

4 day dd day

5 solar_in W/m2 Kipp & Zonen CM6B mean daily downward flux of solar radiation

6 solar_out W/m2 Kipp & Zonen CM6B mean daily upward flux of solar radiation

7 long_in W/m2 Kipp & Zonen CG2 mean daily downward flux of long wave radiation

8 long_out W/m2 Kipp & Zonen CG2 mean daily upward flux of long wave radiation

9 par_in micromol/m2/s Li-Cor LI190 mean daily downward flux of photosynthetically active radiation

10 par_out micromol/m2/s Li-Cor LI190 mean daily upward flux of photosynthetically active radiation

11 rnet W/m2 Rebs Q*7 mean daily net radiation 64 m

12 T64 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 mean daily air temperature at 64 m height

13 T40 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 mean daily air temperature at 40 m height

14 T10 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 mean daily air temperature at 10 m height

15 T2 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 mean daily air temperature at2 m height

16 h2o_64 mmol/mol Li-Cor LI7500 mean daily atmospheric water content measured at 64 m height

17 press kPa Li-Cor LI7500 mean daily air pressure measured at 64m height

18 WS_64 m/s Campbell CSAT3 mean daily wind speed measured on the sonic anemometer

at 64 m height

19 WD_64 degrees Campbell CSAT3 mean daily wind direction measured on the sonic anemometer

at 64 m height

20 rain mm Texas Electronics TE525 mean daily rainfall measured at 64 m height using a

tipping bucket rain gauge

21 Tsoil_10 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 mean daily soil temperature at 10 cm depth

22 Tsoil_20 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 mean daily soil temperature at 20 cm depth

23 Tsoil_50 degrees C Campbell Scientific T107 mean daily soil temperature at 50 cm depth

24 h2o_soil_10 m3/m3 Campbell Scientific CS615 mean daily soil moisture at 10 cm depth

25 h2o_soil_20 m3/m3 Campbell Scientific CS615 mean daily soil moisture at 20 cm depth

26 h2o_soil_40 m3/m3 Campbell Scientific CS615 mean daily soil moisture at 40 cm depth

27 hf_soil W/m2 REBS HFT 3.1 mean daily soil heat flux 10 cm depth

28 ustar m/s Campbell CSAT3 mean daily friction velocity 64 m height

29 hs W/m2 Campbell Scientific mean daily sensible heat flux measured at 64 m height

30 hl W/m2 Li-Cor LI7500 mean daily latent heat flux measured at 64 m height

31 co2_64 ppm Li-Cor LI7000 mean daily atmospheric CO2 concentration at 64 m height

32 fco2 umol/m2/s Li-Cor LI7000/LI7500 mean daily CO2 flux at 64 m height

33 fstor umol/m2/s Li-Cor LI7000 mean daily CO2 storage below 64 m height

34 nee umol/m2/s mean daily Net ecosystem exchange calculated as the sum of

turbulent CO2 flux at 64 m and the change in the

amount of CO2 stored in the air column below 64 m

35 resp umol/m2/s mean daily ecosystem respiration

36 gpp umol/m2/s mean daily gross primary productivity



missing data are represented by -999






Sample Data Record: CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_dailyavg.csv</b>

exp_day,year,month,day,solar_in,solar_out,long_in,long_out,par_in,par_out,rnet,T64,T40,T10,T2,h2o_64,press,WS_64,WD_64,rain,Tsoil_10,Tsoil_20,Tsoil_50,h2o_soil_10,h2o_soil_20,h2o_soil_40,hf_soil,ustar,hs,hl,co2_64,fco2,fstor,nee,resp,gpp

211.5,2000,7,204,-999,-999,-999,426.10,13.24,140.39,26.75,24.83,24.30,23.56,25.98,98.73,2.01,-999,162.56,-999,24.21,24.32,0.43,0.49,0.45,-1.05,0.27,21.58,112.45,390.21,-1.46,-0.06,-0.12,7.66,5.55,6.52,8.26,29.10,0.81,9.81,0.42,0.55,0.21,-999,0.02,3.71,8.23,0.49,0.19,0.57,1.58,0.52,31,25,25,25,25,15,23,19,0,31,25,17,14,23,23,21,86,21

242.5,2000,8,229,-999,-999,-999,478.21,14.01,154.76,26.43,25.86,25.15,24.45,26.55,98.54,2.24,95.79,62.48,-999,25.07,24.91,0.42,0.48,0.45,-0.81,0.30,26.82,121.11,394.41,-1.63,0.04,0.35,9.38,6.79,9.10,9.34,26.19,0.63,9.05,0.31,0.18,0.11,9.99,0.02,2.96,6.25,0.44,0.14,0.70,1.43,0.78,31,29,29,29,27,27,23,28,23,31,29,18,15,29,23,23,114,23

273,2000,9,210,-999,-999,-999,438.18,12.30,143.07,25.80,25.35,24.60,24.18,26.08,98.60,2.14,107.34,73.41,-999,24.81,24.93,0.40,0.48,0.44,-1.49,0.29,27.60,118.27,396.26,-2.39,0,-0.22,9.66,9.30,12.08,10.21,35.50,0.82,11.97,0.50,0.48,0.10,10.81,0.02,4.94,6.52,0.64,0.13,0.71,1.09,0.67,30,25,25,25,25,22,25,25,21,30,25,9,9,22,25,19,86,19

303.5,2000,10,194,-999,-999,-999,404.52,12.51,137.24,26.59,26.19,25.31,24.95,27.21,98.47,2.24,104.89,94.49,25.29,25.23,25.20,0.36,0.46,0.43,-0.39,0.30,16.97,106.46,395.09,-2.53,-0.02,-1.53,8.28,7.60,9.35,10.33,31.17,0.85,11.21,0.36,0.19,0.13,10.40,0.02,4.98,8.09,0.58,0.12,0.59,1.12,0.48,31,30,28,30,30,28,24,28,30,31,30,14,14,29,24,22,104,22

334,2000,11,183,-999,-999,-999,381.43,12.65,125.28,26.95,25.86,24.94,24.56,25.54,98.46,2.32,86.80,44.45,25.12,25.10,25.17,0.34,0.45,0.42,-0.77,0.31,19.19,105.11,389.51,-2.92,-0.08,-1.57,7.81,6.99,8.63,9.53,16.40,0.51,6.41,0.27,0.58,0.10,8.31,0.02,3.28,5.09,0.53,0.13,0.51,1.49,0.64,30,28,26,28,28,22,22,27,23,30,27,23,23,26,22,22,77,22

364.5,2000,12,148,-999,-999,-999,308.29,9.96,98.78,23.97,24.49,23.97,23.69,23.77,98.53,2.08,108.00,194.82,24.56,24.62,24.88,0.38,0.47,0.43,-1.05,0.31,19.27,107.10,389.73,-1.37,-0.01,-0.88,8.76,8.35,10.40,9.74,27.36,0.94,9.84,0.46,0.26,0.17,10.58,0.02,4.00,10.80,0.49,0.16,0.45,0.93,0.59,31,31,28,31,29,30,31,29,30,31,27,8,8,27,30,26,201,26




File 3: CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_monthly_avg.csv</b>


File Contents / Variable Descriptions:

CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_monthly_avg.csv</b>

column heading units description

1 exp_day experiment day (0 = January 1,2000, 00:00 hours)

2 year yyyy year

3 month mm month

4 solar_in W/m2 solar radiation incoming 64 m

5 solar_out W/m2 solar radiation outgoing 64 m

6 long_in W/m2 longwave radiation incoming 64 m

7 long_out W/m2 longwave radiation outgoing 64 m

8 par_in umol/m2/s par incoming 64 m

9 par_out umol/m2/s par outgoing 64 m

10 rnet W/m2 net radiation 64 m

11 T64 degrees C air temperature 64 m

12 T40 degrees C air temperature 40 m

13 T10 degrees C air temperature 10 m

14 T2 degrees C air temperature 2 m

15 h2o_64 mmol/mol h2o concentration 64 m

16 press kPa pressure 64 m

17 WS_64 m/s wind speed sonic anemometer 64 m

18 WD_64 degrees wind direction sonic anemometer 64 m (meteorological convention)

19 rain mm rain 64 m

20 Tsoil_10 degrees C soil temperature 10 cm

21 Tsoil_20 degrees C soil temperature 20 cm

22 Tsoil_50 degrees C soil temperature 50 cm

23 h2o_soil_10 m3/m3 soil moisture 10 cm

24 h2o_soil_20 m3/m3 soil moisture 20 cm

25 h2o_soil_40 m3/m3 soil moisture 40 cm

26 hf_soil W/m2 soil heat flux 10 cm depth

27 ustar m/s friction velocity ustar 64 m

28 hs W/m2 sensible heat flux 64 m

29 hl W/m2 latent heat flux 64 m

30 co2_64 ppm co2 concentration 64 m

31 fco2 umol/m2/s co2 flux 64 m

32 fstor umol/m2/s co2 storage below 64 m

33 nee umol/m2/s net ecosystem exchange

34 resp umol/m2/s respiration

35 resp_2 umol/m2/s respiration linear par model

36 resp_3 umol/m2/s respiration calculated using the par model

37 gpp umol/m2/s gross primary productivity

38 CI_par_in umol/m2/s 95 percent confidence interval for par incoming 64 m

39 CI_par_out umol/m2/s 95 percent confidence interval for par outgoing 64 m

40 CI_rnet W/m2 95 percent confidence interval for net radiation 64 m

41 CI_T64 degrees C 95 percent confidence interval for air temperature 64 m

42 CI_h2o mmol/mol 95 percent confidence interval for h2o concentration 64 m

43 CI_WS m/s 95 percent confidence interval for wind speed sonic anemometer 64 m

44 CI_WD degrees 95 percent confidence interval for wind direction sonic anemometer 64 m

45 CI_ustar m/s 95 percent confidence interval for friction velocity ustar 64 m

46 CI_hs W/m2 95 percent confidence interval for sensible heat flux 64 m

47 CI_hl W/m2 95 percent confidence interval for latent heat flux 64 m

48 CI_fco2 umol/m2/s 95 percent confidence interval for co2 flux 64 m

49 CI_fstor umol/m2/s 95 percent confidence interval for co2 storage below 64 m

50 CI_nee umol/m2/s 95 percent confidence interval for NEE

51 CI_resp umol/m2/s 95 percent confidence interval for respiration

52 CI_gpp umol/m2/s 95 percent confidence interval for GPP

53 Ndays number of days included in the calendar month

54 Ndays_par_in number of days included in the calculation of mean par_in

55 Ndays_par_out number of days included in the calculation of mean par_out

56 Ndays_rnet number of days included in the calculation of mean net radiation

57 Ndays_T64 number of days included in the calculation of mean air temperature at 64 m

58 Ndays_h2o number of days included in the calculation of mean water concentration at 64 m

59 Ndays_co2 number of days included in the calculation of mean CO2 concentration at 64 m

60 Ndays_WS number of days included in the calculation of mean wind speed

61 Ndays_WD number of days included in the calculation of mean wind direction

62 Ndays_rain number of days included in the calculation of mean rainfall

63 Ndays_ustar number of days included in the calculation of mean friction velocity

64 Ndays_hs number of days included in the calculation of mean sensible heat flux

65 Ndays_hl number of days included in the calculation of mean latent heat flux

66 Ndays_fco2 number of days included in the calculation of mean CO2 flux

67 Ndays_fstor number of days included in the calculation of mean CO2 storage

68 Ndays_nee number of days included in the calculation of mean net ecosystem exchange

69 Ndays_resp number of days included in the calculation of mean respiration

70 Ndays_gpp number of days included in the calculation of mean gross primary productivity



missing data are represented by -999




Sample Data Record: CD04_km83_tower_fluxes_monthly_avg.csv</b>

exp_day,,month,solar_in,solar_out,long_in,long_out,par_in,par_out,rnet,T64,T40,T10,T2,h2o_64,press,WS_64,WD_64,rain,Tsoil_10,Tsoil_20,Tsoil_50,h2o_soil_10,h2o_soil_20,h2o_soil_40,hf_soil,ustar,hs,hl,co2_64,fco2,fstor,nee,resp,resp_2,resp_3,gpp,CI_par_in,CI_par_out,CI_rnet,CI_T64,CI_h2o,CI_WS,CI_WD,CI_ustar,CI_hs,CI_hl,CI_fco2,CI_fstor,CI_nee,CI_resp,CI_gpp,Ndays,Ndays_par_in,Ndays_par_out,Ndays_rnet,Ndays_T64,Ndays_h2o,Ndays_co2,Ndays_WS,Ndays_WD,Ndays_rain,Ndays_ustar,Ndays_hs,Ndays_hl,Ndays_fco2,Ndays_fstor,Ndays_nee,Ndays_resp,Ndays_gpp

211.5,2000,7,204,-999,-999,-999,426.10,13.24,140.39,26.75,24.83,24.30,23.56,25.98,98.73,2.01,-999,162.56,-999,24.21,24.32,0.43,0.49,0.45,-1.05,0.27,21.58,112.45,390.21,-1.46,-0.06,-0.12,7.66,5.55,6.52,8.26,29.10,0.81,9.81,0.42,0.55,0.21,-999,0.02,3.71,8.23,0.49,0.19,0.57,1.58,0.52,31,25,25,25,25,15,23,19,0,31,25,17,14,23,23,21,86,21

242.5,2000,8,229,-999,-999,-999,478.21,14.01,154.76,26.43,25.86,25.15,24.45,26.55,98.54,2.24,95.79,62.48,-999,25.07,24.91,0.42,0.48,0.45,-0.81,0.30,26.82,121.11,394.41,-1.63,0.04,0.35,9.38,6.79,9.10,9.34,26.19,0.63,9.05,0.31,0.18,0.11,9.99,0.02,2.96,6.25,0.44,0.14,0.70,1.43,0.78,31,29,29,29,27,27,23,28,23,31,29,18,15,29,23,23,114,23

273,2000,9,210,-999,-999,-999,438.18,12.30,143.07,25.80,25.35,24.60,24.18,26.08,98.60,2.14,107.34,73.41,-999,24.81,24.93,0.40,0.48,0.44,-1.49,0.29,27.60,118.27,396.26,-2.39,0,-0.22,9.66,9.30,12.08,10.21,35.50,0.82,11.97,0.50,0.48,0.10,10.81,0.02,4.94,6.52,0.64,0.13,0.71,1.09,0.67,30,25,25,25,25,22,25,25,21,30,25,9,9,22,25,19,86,19

303.5,2000,10,194,-999,-999,-999,404.52,12.51,137.24,26.59,26.19,25.31,24.95,27.21,98.47,2.24,104.89,94.49,25.29,25.23,25.20,0.36,0.46,0.43,-0.39,0.30,16.97,106.46,395.09,-2.53,-0.02,-1.53,8.28,7.60,9.35,10.33,31.17,0.85,11.21,0.36,0.19,0.13,10.40,0.02,4.98,8.09,0.58,0.12,0.59,1.12,0.48,31,30,28,30,30,28,24,28,30,31,30,14,14,29,24,22,104,22

334,2000,11,183,-999,-999,-999,381.43,12.65,125.28,26.95,25.86,24.94,24.56,25.54,98.46,2.32,86.80,44.45,25.12,25.10,25.17,0.34,0.45,0.42,-0.77,0.31,19.19,105.11,389.51,-2.92,-0.08,-1.57,7.81,6.99,8.63,9.53,16.40,0.51,6.41,0.27,0.58,0.10,8.31,0.02,3.28,5.09,0.53,0.13,0.51,1.49,0.64,30,28,26,28,28,22,22,27,23,30,27,23,23,26,22,22,77,22

364.5,2000,12,148,-999,-999,-999,308.29,9.96,98.78,23.97,24.49,23.97,23.69,23.77,98.53,2.08,108.00,194.82,24.56,24.62,24.88,0.38,0.47,0.43,-1.05,0.31,19.27,107.10,389.73,-1.37,-0.01,-0.88,8.76,8.35,10.40,9.74,27.36,0.94,9.84,0.46,0.26,0.17,10.58,0.02,4.00,10.80,0.49,0.16,0.45,0.93,0.59,31,31,28,31,29,30,31,29,30,31,27,8,8,27,30,26,201,26

395.5,2001,1,153,-999,-999,-999,319.04,9.84,108.97,24.59,23.76,23.49,23.70,23.75,98.57,1.87,115.03,299.47,24.22,24.33,24.47,0.43,0.49,0.45,-0.81,0.30,19.45,99.01,391.71,-0.83,0.05,-0.47,8.80,8.25,9.61,8.85,34.14,0.88,12.25,0.47,0.25,0.16,14.11,0.03,7.73,9.82,0.73,0.21,0.78,1.15,0.63,31,21,22,22,24,21,24,22,22,31,18,6,6,18,24,17,161,17

425,2001,2,157,-999,-999,-999,326.84,9.06,108.04,25.01,23.91,23.67,25.15,23.97,98.58,1.90,130.59,212.09,24.60,24.78,24.89,0.43,0.49,0.45,-1.40,0.29,19.39,96.92,392.37,-0.50,0.02,-0.01,8.86,6.05,7.77,8.97,30.08,0.74,10.44,0.28,0.23,0.14,14.38,0.03,4.21,12.18,0.71,0.23,0.79,1.26,0.65,28,27,24,28,28,27,28,26,26,28,20,8,8,18,26,16,106,16

454.5,2001,3,167,-999,-999,-999,347.85,9.49,111.23,25.36,24.26,24.02,25.74,24.58,98.51,1.94,132.12,307.59,25.22,25.27,25.27,0.43,0.49,0.46,-1.84,0.28,27.96,103.36,390.74,-0.38,0.03,-0.08,8.17,8.12,9.86,8.57,50.19,1.12,17.68,0.23,0.30,0.14,21.35,0.02,13.92,24.17,0.50,0.16,0.52,0.97,0.63,31,24,24,24,26,23,28,22,22,31,21,5,5,21,28,21,199,21

485,2001,4,179,-999,-999,-999,372.51,10.86,119.74,25.83,24.65,24.37,24.20,25.45,98.57,2.00,106.12,164.34,25.05,25.10,25.03,0.43,0.49,0.46,-0.48,0.27,17.93,100.93,395.72,0.31,-0.01,1.88,9.67,7.82,9.33,8.77,48.42,1.11,17.06,0.32,0.28,0.16,13.34,0.04,24.44,10.74,0.74,0.17,0.59,2.21,0.75,30,20,18,20,27,20,29,20,19,30,8,2,2,7,28,7,45,7

515.5,2001,5,177,-999,-999,-999,370.28,10.30,117.28,25.83,24.56,24.14,23.93,24.77,98.66,1.94,110.93,171.70,24.97,25.05,25.14,0.42,0.49,0.46,-0.81,0.25,22.62,92.98,388.71,-0.17,0.03,1.29,9.20,5.41,8.71,7.73,29.71,0.77,9.85,0.35,0.32,0.12,10.61,0.02,3.69,8.78,0.40,0.19,0.55,1.94,0.54,31,29,30,30,30,29,30,29,30,31,29,15,13,28,30,27,78,27

546,2001,6,189,-999,-999,-999,394.42,10.88,124.95,25.70,24.55,23.99,23.71,24.25,98.74,2.01,122.25,52.58,24.58,24.65,24.77,0.40,0.47,0.45,-0.48,0.26,22.14,91.96,385.94,-0.62,0.02,0.44,7.91,6.48,7.23,7.89,36.13,0.81,12.11,0.44,0.23,0.12,23.40,0.02,3.74,9.26,0.45,0.19,0.44,1.11,0.47,30,26,24,26,27,25,26,22,26,30,26,18,18,26,23,21,110,21

576.5,2001,7,231,30.63,407.57,459.09,482.24,12.26,153.24,27.08,25.61,24.38,24.02,22.86,98.77,2.09,111.50,25.91,24.81,24.90,24.91,0.34,0.42,0.43,-0.53,0.26,23.93,104.46,383.73,-1.63,0.01,-0.61,7.41,5.72,7.46,7.12,22.13,0.48,7.28,0.32,0.72,0.15,14.00,0.02,2.30,6.74,0.29,0.17,0.32,1.66,0.44,31,30,30,30,30,29,31,26,28,31,30,23,22,30,30,29,83,29

Data Application and Derivation:

Data Calculations



For the storage flux, molar densities of CO2 and H2O in the profile were determined using an IRGA. The amount of CO2 stored beneath the eddy flux sensors (64 m) was calculated by integrating the profile between 0 and 64 m. The storage flux was then calculated by differentiating this quantity with respect to time.



Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was calculated for each half-hour interval as the sum of the turbulent CO2 flux at 64 m and the change in the amount of CO2 in the air column beneath 64 m (the storage flux).



Ecosystem respiration was calculated from nighttime measurements of NEE during periods with sufficient vertical mixing; i.e., friction velocity ms-1 [Miller et al., 2004]. The necessary -threshold at this site was determined by comparing flux tower estimates of with several independent lines of evidence (scaled-up estimates of respiration components [Chambers et al., 2004b], and radon-based estimates of nocturnal mixing [Martens et al., 2004]. Uncertainties in the calculation of respiration and NEE at the Tapajos sites are discussed in detail in Saleska et al. [2003] and Miller et al. [2004].





Gross primary productivity was calculated by subtracting NEE from ecosystem respiration. Continuous 30-minute GPP were averaged to construct daily and monthly estimates of GPP. Uncertainty in monthly and annual GPP was calculated as the 95% confidence interval based on averaging daily GPP.





An additional estimate of respiration (R) was calcuated as the intercept (PAR=0) of a non-linear least squares fit of a light curve model, NEE = R + (A*PAR)./(PAR+B), using measured PAR and NEE (when PAR>0 umol/m2/s and u*>0.22 m/s) , and A and B and R are the regression constants. For each day, the light model was applied to all available data within 20 days, thus a 40 day window.



Gap filling



Missing flux intervals in the yearly record were filled differently depending up on the length of the data gap and whether the gap was biased towards certain meteorological conditions. All gaps in NEE shorter than 2 hours were filled using linear interpolation. Longer gaps that were not considered biased to certain meteorological conditions were filled using mean diurnal variation (Falge et al. 2001). We used 20 days of reliable data nearest the missing interval to fill the gap. Missing intervals due to window obstruction of the open-path IRGA were distributed unevenly over the day. Daytime gaps were biased towards cloudy conditions and to account for that these gaps in NEE were filled using a light-curve model based on this dataset.



Applications



Analysis of eddy covariance observations provides information useful for identifying which physiological and physical processes play dominant roles in controlling CO2 exchange. In turn, this information contributes to the development and improvement of models of ecosystem- atmosphere CO2 exchange and to understanding which processes are particularly sensitive to future change.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Missing values or data that were flagged as unreliable either by an objective

algorithm or subjective inspection have been given a value of -999. It is up

to the end-user to fill these values if necessary. Separate columns are included for CO2 flux, storage, NEE, and GPP that indicate that the value was measured/calculated, or filled. These columns can be used by the end-user to substitute their own filling strategy.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Flux measurements were made from a 67 m tall tower, additional measurements were made on two 2 m tripods installed on the forest floor. The data acquisition computer and closed-path gas analyzers were located in an air-conditioned hut 8 m south of the tower base. Data acquisition and control systems were automated and data were downloaded weekly. Five data loggers connected by a coaxial network collected the instrument data in two types of files: slow files with 30 min statistics and fast files with 4- or 0.5 Hz observations which was then stored on the data acquisition computer.

The turbulent fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, CO2, and momentum at 64 m were determined with the eddy covariance technique. The signals directly required for flux calculation were digitized and stored at 4 Hz. Wind and temperature were measured with a 3-axis sonic anemometer pointed due east (Campbell Scientific, Logan UT). Winds from the east predominate at 64 m, accounting for about 85% of day and night intervals.

The densities of CO2 and H2O at 64 m were measured with two independent InfraRed Gas Analyzers (IRGAs). The first measurement was made by drawing 20 to 24 standard liter min-1 (slpm) of air through a closed-path IRGA (LI-COR LI7000 or, before Dec. 2000, a LI 6262, Lincoln NE) in the instrument hut. Air was drawn through a coarse polyethylene screen inlet 50 cm above the sonic anemometer, down a 9.5-mm-inner-diameter 75-m-long Teflon PFA tube, and through a 1 micron pore 142 mm diameter Teflon filter. The sample tube was encased in an insulated heating bundle that maintained its entire length at 65oC (Unitherm 2256, Cape Coral FL) to prevent condensation and reduce water vapor exchange with the wall. The pressure in the IRGA cell was actively controlled at 85 kPa (MKS Instruments, Andover MA). The IRGA reference cell was flushed with 1 slpm of CO2 and H2O free air from a purge air generator (Matheson GEN PGW 28 LC, Montgomeryville, PA). The IRGA was calibrated daily at 2300 local time by sequentially sampling purge air, CO2 standard in air (+-1% Scott Marin, Riverside CA), CO2 free air (Scott Marin, Riverside CA), and room air drawn through a thermoelectrically cooled condensing column at 16o C (LI-COR LI610, Lincoln NE). The LI-7000 absorbances were recorded and the gains, zeros, instrument non-linearity, temperature, pressure and effects of water vapor accounted for in subsequent processing.

An independent measurement of CO2 and H2O at 64 m was made with an open path IRGA (LI-COR LI7500, Lincoln NE) positioned 40-cm south of the sonic anemometer. The open path was calibrated by comparison with the simultaneous measurements made with the closed-path eddy covariance IRGA. The open path IRGA CO2 and H2O signals were corrected for the simultaneous fluctuations in air density using two approaches: applying the ideal gas law to the individual 4 Hz observations using the humidity-corrected sonic temperature, and applying the corrections to the 30-minute statistics.

The CO2 fluxes for both the open and closed path IRGAs were calculated as the 30-minute covariance of the vertical wind velocity (w) and the CO2 mixing ratio after subtracting the 30-minute mean (c\'). The time lag for the closed path IRGA (typically 11 s) was determined by maximizing the correlation between w and c\'. The fluxes were rotated to the plane with no mean vertical or cross wind.

A third IRGA (LI-COR LI7000 or, before Dec. 2000, a LI800, Lincoln NE) sequentially measured the densities of CO2 and H2O at 12 altitudes (0.1, 0.35, 0.7, 1.4, 3, 10.7, 20, 35, 40, 50, 64 m above the ground) every 48 minutes. Four slpm of air was drawn through a 2 micron filter at each altitude, down 5.5-mm inner-diameter polyethylene lined tubing (Furon Dekabon 1300), through a solenoid manifold in an enclosure at the base of the tower (Parker General Valve, Fairfield NJ), into the equipment hut, and through the IRGA cell. The pressure in the IRGA cell was actively controlled at 83 kPa (MKS Instruments, Andover MA). The IRGA was calibrated for CO2 and water vapor daily by sequentially sampling purge air, CO2 standard in air (+-1% Scott Marin, Riverside CA), CO2 free air (Scott Marin, Riverside CA), and 16o C dew point air (LI-COR LI610, Lincoln NE).



Observations about the physical environment were archived at 0.5 Hz and all measurements were done at 64 m height unless otherwise noted. Precipitation was measured with a tipping bucket gauge (TE525: Texas Electronics Dallas). Atmospheric pressure was measured by the L17500. Incoming and reflected photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD) was measured with silicon quantum sensors (Li-Cor LI190). Net radiation was measured with a thermopile net radiometer (REBS Q*7.1: REBS). Incoming solar radiation was measured with a thermopile pyranometer (model CM6: Kipp and Xonene, Delft, The Netherlands). Air temperatures at 64, 40, 10 and 2 m heights were measured with ventilated thermistors (model 076B, Met One). Horizontal wind speeds at 64, 50, and 40 m height were measured with cup anemometers (model 014; Met One). Soil temperatures at 19 locations at depths of 0.02 to 0.25m were measured with copper constantan thermocouples (Omega Engineering) and soil heat flux at 2 cm depths was measured with 5 flux plates (REBS HFT3.1). Soil moisture at depths between 0.1 and 2.5m across 20 locations was measured with water content reflectometers (Campbell Scientific CS615). Litter moisture was measured using 6 fuel moisture probes position immediately above the forest floor.



Soil respiration was measured beginning in August 2001 with 15 automated chambers (Goulden and Crill 1997) located in intact forest approximately 50 m east of the tower and 50 m from the nearest logging-created gap. These chambers were sampled sequentially at 12 min intervals and soil respiration calculated from the increase in chamber CO2 concentrations over the sampling period.

References:

Goulden ML, and PM Crill. 1997. Automated measurements of CO2 exchange at the moss surface of a black spruce forest. Tree Physiology 17: 537-542



Miller, SD, ML Goulden, MC Menton, HR da Rocha, HC de Freitas, AM Figueira and CAD de Sousa. 2004. Biometric and micrometeorological measurements of tropical forest carbon balance. Ecological Applications 14: S114-S126



Chambers, JQ, ES Tribuzy, LC Toledo, BF Crispim, N Higuchi, J. dos Santos, AC Araujo, B Kruijt, AD Nobre, and SE Trumbore. 2004. Respiration from a tropical forest ecosystem: partitioning sources and low carbon use efficiency. Ecological Applications 14: S72-S88.



Martens CS, Shay TJ, HP Mendlovitz, DM Matross, SR Saleska, SC Wofsy, WS Woodward, MC Menton, JMS De Moura, PM Crill, OLL De Moraes, and RL Lima. 2004. Radon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems of Brazilian Amazonia: night-time CO2 net ecosystem exchange derived from radon and eddy covariance methods. Global Change Biology 10: 618-629.



Saleska SR, SD Miller, DM Matross, ML Goulden, SC Wofsy, HR da Rocha, PB de Camargo, P Crill, BC Daube, HC de Freitas, L Hutyra, M Keller, V Kirchhoff, M Menton, JW Munger, EH Pyle, AH Rice, H Silva H. 2003. Carbon in amazon forests: Unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses. Science 302:1554-1557


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