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Investigation:

CD-03 (Fitzjarrald / Moraes)

LBA Dataset ID:

MD_CD03_MESOSCALE

Originator(s):

1. FITZJARRALD, D.R.
2. SAKAI, R.K.
      3. DE MORAES, O.L.L.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

A mesoscale network has been set up in the Santarem region of Para, Brazil. This network consists of eight meteorological stations named Belterra, Km 117 (Fazenda Sr. Davi), Mojui, Jamaraqua, Guarana, Embrapa (Cacoal Grande), Vila Franca and Sudam (Curua Una). Belterra and Km117 stations have been almost continuously collecting data since August, 1998, respectively. Mojui, Jamaraqua, and Guarana have been collecting data since July, 2000. Embrapa, Vila Franca and Sudam stations have been collecting data since 2002.  Data are presented in 52 individual comma-separated ASCII files. Each file contains data from one calendar year for one site; both site and year are identified clearly in the data file name and all files follow the same header information and organizational structure. Measurements include air temperature and pressure, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, downward solar radiation, and at some stations soil temperature and moisture.

Beginning Date:

1998-08-20

Ending Date:

2006-12-31

Metadata Last Updated on:

2009-09-29

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO CD-03 Mesoscale Meteorological Data, Santarem Region, Para, Brazil: 1998-2006:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=944

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO CD-03 Mesoscale Meteorological Data, Santarem Region, Para, Brazil: 1998-2006:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/CD03_Mesoscale_Meteorology.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Fitzjarrald, D.R., R.K. Sakai and O.L.L. de Moraes. 2009. LBA-ECO CD-03 Mesoscale Meteorological Data, Santarem Region, Para, Brazil: 1998-2006. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/944

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
AIR TEMPERATURE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE METEOROLOGICAL STATION AIR THERMOMETER
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE METEOROLOGICAL STATION PRESSURE PROBE
HUMIDITY ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR METEOROLOGICAL STATION HUMIDITY SENSOR
PRECIPITATION AMOUNT ATMOSPHERE PRECIPITATION METEOROLOGICAL STATION RAIN GAUGE
SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT SOLID EARTH SOILS METEOROLOGICAL STATION TDR (TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY PROBE)
SOIL TEMPERATURE SOLID EARTH SOILS METEOROLOGICAL STATION THERMISTOR
SOLAR RADIATION ATMOSPHERE RADIATION BUDGET METEOROLOGICAL STATION PYRANOMETER
WIND DIRECTION ATMOSPHERE WIND METEOROLOGICAL STATION WIND VANE
WIND SPEED ATMOSPHERE WIND METEOROLOGICAL STATION CUP ANEMOMETER

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  AIR PRESSURE, AIR TEMPERATURE, DAILY DATA, HOURLY DATA, HUMIDITY, MESOSCALE NETWORK, METEOROLOGICAL STATION, PRECIPITATION, SANTAREM (PA), SOIL TEMPERATURE, SOIL WATER CONTENT, SOLAR RADIATION, WIND DIRECTION, WIND SPEED

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  PARA WESTERN (SANTAREM) -3.35020 -3.35020 -54.92400 -54.92400

Related Publication(s):

Fitzjarrald, D.R., R.K. Sakai, O.L.L. Moraes, R.C. de Oliveira, O.C. Acevedo, M.J. Czikowsky, and T. Beldini. 2008. Spatial and temporal rainfall variability near the Amazon-Tapajos confluence. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 113:G00B11, doi:10.1029/2007JG000596.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

This data set consists of meteorological data from eight stations located in the region of Santarem, Para. Belterra and Km117 stations have been almost continuously collecting data since August, 1998. Mojui, Jamaraqua, and Guarana have been collecting data since July, 2000. EMBRAPA, Vila Franca and SUDAM stations started collecting data in 2002.

Data are presented in 52 individual comma-separated ASCII files. Each file contains data from one calendar year for one site; both site and year are identified clearly in the data file name. All files follow the same header information and organizational structure.



Time series of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation from Belterra and Km117 stations are available since late August, 1998. Soil temperature and moisture, and air pressure sensors were installed on July, 2000. The met stations consist of a 10 m tower with a Campbell Scientific dataloggers, powered by a solar panel. Wind speed and direction system, solar radiation sensor, air temperature and RH sensors, and air pressure sensor were installed at 10, 9.5, 2, and 1m respectively. Soil temperatures measurements were taken at two levels, 0.1, and 1 m, and the soil water content sensor at 0.2 m below the organic layer. The sampling interval is 1 measurement for every 2 seconds and data are presented as 1 hour averages with associated standard deviations as well as minimum and maximum values for the sampling interval (1 hour).











Measurements and Sampling Periods:



Met Station 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Belterra X X X X X X X X X

EMBRAPA X X X X X

Guarana X X X X X X

Jamaraqua X X X X X X X

Km 117 X X X X X X X X

Mojui X X X X X X X

SUDAM X X X X

Vila Franca X X X X X







Data Description:



Column Heading Units Description

Number or Format

1 Year (YYYY) Year

2 Julian_day fractional day Julian day or fractional day (e.g., 1.22917) corresponding to the middle of the averaging period (1 hour) based on GMT. Local time is GMT-4.

3 Hour fractional hour Fractional hour corresponding to the middle of the averaging period (1 hour). Using a 24 hour clock based on GMT.

4 T_air degrees C

5 RH_air % Relative humidity

6 S_dw W/m2 Downward solar radiation: 280-2800 nm wavelengths

7 pressure millibars Atmospheric pressure with a 1000 mbar offset: ie a reading of 998 mbars is reported as -2

8 sd_T_air degrees C Standard deviation of the air temperature

9 sd_RH_air % Standard deviation of relative humidity

10 sd_S_dw W/m2 Standard deviation of downward solar radiation

11 sd_press millibars Standard deviation of atmospheric pressure

12 sd_WS m/s Standard deviation of the mean windspeed

13 wind_speed m/s Mean horizontal scalar wind speed

14 vector_WS m/s Mean horizontal resultant vector wind speed

15 WD degrees Mean horizontal resultant vector wind direction

16 sd_WD degrees Standard deviation of the wind direction

17 max_T_air degrees C Maximum recorded air temperature

18 max_RH_air % Maximum recorded relative humidity

19 max_S_dw W/m2 Maximum recorded downward solar radiation

20 max_press millibars Maximum recorded air pressure

21 max_WS m/s Maximum recorded wind speed

22 min_T_air degrees C Minimum recorded air temperature

23 min_RH_air % Minimum recorded relative humidity

24 min_S_dw W/m2 Minimum recorded downward solar radiation

25 min_press millibars Minimum recorded air pressure

26 min_WS m/s Minimum recorded wind speed

27 precip mm Total precipitation for the one hour sampling interval

28 Tsoil_1 degrees C Soil temperature 0.05 m depth in degrees C

29 Tsoil_2 degrees C Soil temperature 1 m depth in degrees C

30 soil_moisture % Soil moisture at 0.2 m depth: reported as percent on a volume basis

31 sd_Tsoil_1 degrees C Standard deviation of soil temperature 0.05 m depth

32 sd_Tsoil_2 degrees C Standard deviation of soil temperature 1 m depth

33 sd_soil_moisture % Standard deviation of soil moisture at 0.2 m depth

34 batt V Battery charge



Example Data Records:



Missing data is represented by -9999. Placeholder missing values are included in a data file even when a parameter was not measured at that site to maintain consistent file format across files from all sites / years.



Data Records from file cd03_belterra_1998_hourly_met_data.csv

Year,Julian_day,Hour,T_air,RH_air,S_dw,pressure,sd_T_air,sd_RH_air,sd_S_dw,sd_press,sd_WS,wind_speed,vector_WS,WD,sd_WD,max_T_air,max_RH_air,max_S_dw,max_press,max_WS,min_T_air,min_RH_air,min_S_dw,min_press,min_WS,precip,Tsoil_1,Tsoil_2,soil_moisture,sd_Tsoil_1,sd_Tsoil_2,sd_soil_moisture,batt

1998,233.8125,19.5,32.75,52.81,461.31,-9999,0.32,1.57,162.7,-9999,0.94,2.79,2.52,99.3,25.01,33.42,56.91,684.68,-9999,6.4,32.04,49.18,94.03,-9999,0.8,0,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

1998,233.85417,20.5,31.85,58.46,249.93,-9999,0.39,2.04,73.5,-9999,0.85,2.29,2.1,98.8,23.39,32.5,62.65,384.49,-9999,5.6,31.06,54.05,129.05,-9999,0,0,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

Data Application and Derivation:

This CD-03 effort aims to assess how the special mesoclimatic characteristics of the LBA Santarem study area might introduce a bias in standard climatic variables and, potentially, in ecosystem productivity estimates. In the Santarem study areas, for example, the tall flux towers are located in a thin area of forest sandwiched between cleared lands and near to large rivers that are known to influence cloudiness and alter winds in their proximity. The mesoclimate of the region must be understood before results regarding net forest carbon uptake can be generalized.



The need to document radiation, rainfall and temperature anomalies led to the development of a network of eight surface weather stations. Results for the first six years of data indicate that that temperature and precipitation are higher and wind speed is lower during the LBA-ECO years compared to the recent past. The daily averaged wind speed at Santarem correlates well with the observed Belem-Santarem surface pressure difference. From composite data we deduced the river breeze pressure gradient forcing, and identified double diurnal peaks in precipitation and specific humidity. The precipitation peak in the early morning hours is consistent with previous studies of propagating squall line circulations from the Atlantic coast. However, for inland areas away from the rivers, the nocturnal period precipitation contributes less than half of total precipitation. Nocturnal flows following local topographic gradients are seen, including the terral along the Tapajos River south of Jamaraqua.



The most striking mesoclimatic difference is in incident solar radiation and its variation. Owing to over-river clearing provoked by the daytime river breeze, there is 20-30% more incident radiation along the river than inland. The corresponding diminution in the standard deviation of the solar radiation verifies the diminished cloudiness. A large-scale rainfall increase just to the west of Santarem manifests itself locally as a \'tongue\' of enhanced rain from along the wide area of open water at the Tapajos-Amazon confluence. The Amazon River breeze circulation affects rainfall more than does the Tapajos breeze, which moves contrary to the predominant wind. East of the riverbank the Tapajos breeze influence on precipitation extends only a few kilometers inland. Rainfall increases to the north of the Amazon, possibly the result uplift over elevated terrain. Dry season rainfall increases by up to 30% going away from the Amazon River, as would be expected given breeze subsidence over the river. This reinforces the idea that stations close to the rivers are biased. These results indicate the data from the standard climatic stations, all located near the river, be used in producing model parameterizations only after allowing for these mesoclimatic biases.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

There are no known problems with these data.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

The met stations consist of a 10 m tower with a Campbell Scientific dataloggers, powered by a solar panel. Data are sampled at 0.5 Hz and a mean, standard deviation and both minimum and maximum values are recorded at hourly intervals for most variables. Precipitation is the cumulative amount for the entire sampling period. The sensors used and installation arrangements at each site are listed below.



Sensor positions (Belterra, Km117, Mojui, Guarana, Jamaraqua):



Air temperature and relative humidity, (Vaisala, model HMP45C): 2.5 m

Downward solar radiation, (Licor, model LI200Sz): 8.5 m



Windspeed and direction, (Met One, model 034A): 10 m



Pressure,(Vaisala, model PTB101B): 1.9 m(Km 117), 1.7m (Belterra,Mojui, Guarana, Jamaraqua)



Precipitation, (Texas inst., model TE525): 0.5 m

Soil temperature 1, (Campbell, model 107): 0.05 m

Soil temperature 2, (Campbell, model 107): 1 m

Soil moisture, (Campbell, model CS615): 0.2 m







Sensor positions (Embrapa, V. Franca, Sudam):



Air temperature and relative humidity: 3 m

Downward solar radiation: 3 m

Windspeed and direction: 3 m

Pressure(Vaisala, model PTB101B): 1.7 m

Precipitation (Texas inst., model TE525): 0.5 m

Soil temperature 1(Campbell, model 107): 0.05 m

Soil temperature 2(Campbell, model 107): NA

Soil moisture (Campbell, model 615): 0.2 m







Collection periods for meteorological and soil measurements varied by site and are listed in the accompanying documentation.



Sensors used include: AIR THERMOMETER (VAISALA, HMP45C)



HUMIDITY SENSOR (VAISALA, HMP45C)



CUP ANEMOMETER (MET ONE 014A, 034A-L)



WIND VANE (MET ONE 024, 034A-L)



PYRANOMETER (LICOR, LI-200SZ)



BAROMETER (VAISALA, PTB 101)



RAIN GAGE (CAMPBELL, TE525MM)



THERMISTOR (CAMPBELL, 107)



TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETER (CAMPBELL, CS615)

References:

Bates, H.W., 1864. A Naturalist on the River Amazons, second edition, reprinted by U. Cal. Press, 1962, 465 pp.



Related Publications

Fitzjarrald D.R., Sakai, R.K., Moraes, O.M.M., Cosme, R.O., Acevedo, O.C., and Czikowsky, M.J. 2008. Spatial and temporal rainfall variability near the Amazon-Tapajos confluence. Submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences.

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