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Investigation:

LC-09 (Moran / Batistella)

LBA Dataset ID:

LBA_LC09_SOIL

Originator(s):

1. BRONDIZIO, E.S.
      2. MORAN, E.F.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

This data set reports basic soil structure and composition information for five Amazonian research sites: Altamira, Bragantina, Tome-Acu, and Ponta de Pedras, all four in the state of Para, Brazil; and one site in Yapu, Colombia. Soil characteristics reported for all five study sites include cation information (e.g., H, Al, Mg, K, Na, S), percent of soil C, N, and organic matter, soil texture/composition and color, pH, and land use history. Soil bulk density and tons of carbon/ha are reported for only three of the study sites: Altamira, Bragantina, and Tome-Acu. All of the data are provided in one comma-separated data file.

Beginning Date:

1992-01-01

Ending Date:

1993-12-31

Metadata Last Updated on:

2009-08-27

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO LC-09 Soil Composition and Structure in the Brazilian Amazon: 1992-1995 :  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=938

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO LC-09 Soil Composition and Structure in the Brazilian Amazon: 1992-1995 :  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/LC09_Soil_Composition.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Brondizio, E.S. and E.F. Moran. 2009. LBA-ECO LC-09 Soil Composition and Structure in the Brazilian Amazon: 1992-1995. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/938

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
LAND COVER LAND SURFACE LAND USE/LAND COVER FIELD SURVEY HUMAN OBSERVER
SOIL BULK DENSITY LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION SOIL CORING DEVICE
SOIL CHEMISTRY LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION SOIL CORING DEVICE
SOIL CLASSIFICATION LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION SOIL CORING DEVICE
SOIL COLOR LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION SOIL CORING DEVICE

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  ALTAMIRA, BRAGANTINA, BULK DENSITY, CARBON, CATION, LAND USE HISTORY, NITROGEN, PARA, PHOSPHORUS, PONTA DE PEDREAS, SOIL COMPOSITION, SOIL STRUCTURE, TOME-ACU, YAPU

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Pará Western (Santarém) Altamira -2.50000 -4.00000 -51.00000 -54.00000

Related Publication(s):

Brondizio, E.S. 2004. Agriculture intensification, economic identity, and shared invisibility in Amazonian peasantry: Caboclos and colonists in comparative perspective. Culture and Agriculture 26(1-2):1-20.

Castro, F., M.C. Silva-Forsberg, W. Wilson, E. Brondizio, and E.F. Moran. 2002. The Use of Remotely-Sensed Data in Rapid Rural Assessment. Field Methods 14:243-269.

Lim, K.P., P.J. Deadman, E.F. Moran, E. Brondizio, and S. McCracken. 2002. Agent-Based Simulations of Household Decision Making and Land Use Change near Altamira, Brazil. In: Integrating geographic information systems and agent based modeling techniques for simulating social and ecological processes. Gimblett, H. R. (ed.). Oxford University Press, pp. 277-310.

Lu, D., E. Moran, and P. Mausel. 2002. Linking amazonian secondary succession forest growth to soil properties. Land Degradation & Development 13(4):331-343.

Moran E.F. and E.S. Brondizio. 1998. Land use change after deforestation in Amazonia. In: People and pixels: linking remote sensing and social science. D. Liverman, E.F. Moran, R.R. Rindfuss & P.C. Stern (eds.). National Academic Press, Washington D.C. pp. 94-120.

Moran, E.F., E.S. Brondizio, and S. McCracken. 2002. Trajectories of Land Use: Soils, Succession, and Crop Choice. In: Deforestation and land use in the Amazon. Wood, C.H. and Porro, R. (eds.). University Press of Florida, Gainesville, pp. 193-217.

Moran, E.F., E.S. Brondizio, J. Tucker, M.C. Silva-Forsberg, I. Falesi, and S. McCracken. 2000. Strategies for Amazonian Forest Restoration: Evidence for Afforestation in Five Regions of the Brazilian Amazon. In: Amazonia at the Crossroads: The Challenge of Sustainable Development. Hall, A. (ed.). Institute of Latin America Studies, pp. 129-149.

Moran, E.F., E.S. Brondizio, J.M. Tucker, M.C. Silva-Forsberg, S. McCracken, and I. Falesi. 2000. Effects of soil fertility and land-use on forest succession in Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 139(1-3):93-108.

Tucker, J., E.S. Brondizio, and E.F. Moran. 1998. Rates of forest regrowth in Eastern Amazonia: A comparsion of Altamira and Bragantina Regions, Para State, Brazil. Interciencia 23(2):1-10.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Filename: LC09_Soil_Composition_Structure.csv



Column Column heading Units/Format Variable Description

#

1 Sample_year YYYY Sampling year (1992, 1993)

2 latitude UTM Sampling location latitude

3 longitude UTM Sampling location longitude

4 location Sampling location name (Altamira, Bragantina, Ponta de Pedras, Tome-Acu, Yapu)

5 sample_ID Soil sample ID: Site code + Year (e.g. A001-92, B001-92, P001-92, T001-02, Y002-92)

6 sample_depth cm Soil sample depth, segment of soil core (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100)

7 bulk_dens_rep1 g/cc Soil bulk density, Rep #1

8 bulk_dens_rep2 g/cc Soil bulk density, Rep #2

9 bulk_dens_rep3 g/cc Soil bulk density, Rep #3

10 C_ton_ha ton/ha Tons of Carbon per hectare: calculated from bulk density and

carbon concentration

11 pH pH

12 Ca_MEQ_100g meq/100g Cation exchange capacity - calcium

13 Mg_MEQ_100g meq/100g Cation exchange capacity - magnesium

14 K_MEQ_100g meq/100g Cation exchange capacity - potassium

15 Na_MEQ_100g meq/100g Cation exchange capacity - sodium

16 S_MEQ_100g meq/100g Cation exchange capacity - sulfur

17 H_MEQ_100g meq/100g Cation exchange capacity - hydrogen

18 Al_MEQ_100g meq/100g Cation exchange capacity - aluminum

19 C_perc % Concentration of C in soil sample

20 N_perc % Concentration of N in soil sample

21 OM_perc % Concentration of organic matter in soil sample

22 P_ppm ppm Concentration of phosphorus in soil sample

23 K_ppm ppm Concentration of potassium in soil sample

24 Na_ppm ppm Concentration of sodium in soil sample

25 Sand_CoarsePart % Percentage of coarse sand particles in soil sample

26 Sand_FinePart % Percentage of fine sand particles in soil sample

27 Silt % Percentage of silt in soil sample

28 Tot_clay % Percentage of clay in soil sample

29 SoilColor Munsell soil color

30 SoilColorObs Observation of soil color

31 LC_type Land cover type sampled (Liana forest, upland forest, SS1, SS2, SS3)

32 LC_age Land cover age (years)

33 LU_type Land use type reported (years of use)

34 LULC_hist Land use/land cover history with dates where available

35 Man_mec_ag Agriculture methods (manual, mechanized, manual/mechanized)

36 Num_burn Number of burnings

37 Fert_use Fertilizer use (no, yes or

yes/no which indicates previous but no current fertilization in the area)







Missing data values are represented as -9999.






Example Data Records:</b>



Sample_year,Latitude,Longitude,Location,Siteno_yr,Soil_depth,Bulk_dens_rep1,Bulk_dens_rep2,Bulk_dens_rep3,C_ton_ha,pH,Ca_MEQ_100g,Mg_MEQ_100g,K_MEQ_100g,Na_MEQ_100g,S_MEQ_100g,H_MEQ_100g,Al_MEQ_100g,C_perc,N_perc,OM_perc,P_ppm,K_ppm,Na_ppm,Sand_CoarsePart,Sand_FinePart,Silt,Tot_clay,SoilColor,SoilColorObs,LC_type,LC_age,LU_type,LULC_hist,Man_mec_ag,Num_burn,Fert_use

1992,9637017,344603,Altamira,A001-92,0-20,0.94,-9999,-9999,33.65,5,4.1,1.1,0.08,0.02,5.3,4.9,0.2,1.79,0.29,3.06,2,-9999,-9999,6,6,32,56,2.5YR 3/4,DARK REDDISH BROWN,SS 3,16,Experiment,1975-forest; 1976-cleared,Manual,-9999,-9999

1992,9637017,344603,Altamira,A001-92,20-40,1.13,-9999,-9999,22.14,5.199999809,1.7,1.2,0.03,0.02,2.95,2.9,0.1,0.98,0.22,1.69,1,-9999,-9999,6,6,25,63,2.5YR 3/4,DARK REDDISH BROWN,SS 3,16,Experiment,1975-forest; 1976-cleared,Manual,-9999,-9999

Data Application and Derivation:

This data set provides soil nutrients and physical characteristics as well as length and type of dominant land use. These types of data are useful for the development of models to predict productivity and structure of secondary forests after pasture or agricultural areas are abandoned.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Soil analyses were carried out by experienced researchers in the field and analyzed at the Embrapa Amazonia Oriental research lab in Belem, Brazil, and at the CEPLAC research facility in Belem. There are no known problems with the data.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

At each site, soil samples were collected with a dutch bipartite soil auger at 20-cm intervals down to a depth of 1 meter. Soil color was determined by use of Munsell color charts. Chemical and textural analyzes were carried out by the soil laboratories of the Cocoa Research Center (CEPLAC) and the Brazilian Agropastoral Research Center for the Humid Tropics (EMBRAPA/CPATU) in Belem, Para.



Organic material was analyzed using the modified Walkley-Black method: a volumetric method through aqueous dichromatic oxidation with potassium (0.4 N) and titration with ammonia iron sulfate (0.1 N).

Exchangeable Al was analyzed using the KCl method: soil extraction with a solution of 1M KCl in a proportion of 1:10 and volumetric determination with a dilute solution of NaOH.



Exchangeable Ca and Mg also were analyzed using the KCl method: soil in a solution of 1M KCl (in a proportion of 1:10) and analyzed (in Portuguese, \'complexometrica\') with EDTA and spectral interference from atomic absorption measured in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet ranges through spectrophotometry.



Available P was measured using the Mehlich-1 method, also called the double-acid or North Carolina method: an extractive solution comprised of HCl (0.05M) and H2SO4 (0.0125M) mixed with soil in a solution (proportion: 1:10) and determined colorimetrically.



Available K and Na also were measured using the Mehlich-1 method: an extractive solution comprised of a mixture of HCl (0.05M) and H2SO4 (0.0125M) mixed with soil in a solution (proportion: 1:10) and determined directly using flame photometry.



H and Al were measured using the calcium acetate method: soil extraction was made using a solution of calcium acetate (0.5M) buffered to a pH of 7. The soil solution proportion varied, but was most efficient at 1:20. Determination was made using a dilute solution of NaOH.



Total organic N was measured using the Kjeldahl method: burning to oxidation was made using a digestive solution containing H2SO4 and catalysts (CuSO4 and Na2SO4) distilled to a vapor, and with the Kjeldahl condenser, quantified by titration with HCl (0.02N).

References:

Cochrane, T.T. and L.F. Sanchez. 1981. Climates, Landscapes and Soils of the Tropical Savannas of South-America. Interciencia 6: 239-244.



Nicholaides, J.J. D.E. Bandy, P.A. Sanchez et al. 1985. Agricultural Alternatives for the Amazon Basin. BioScience 35: 279-285. doi:10.2307/1309926




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