NOTICE -- The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported.  This archive is a snapshot, as it existed in 2013, of the LBA-ECO website, maintained by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and now archived at the ORNL DAAC.  Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC.
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Investigation:

PC-06 (Betts / Maria Silva Dias / Pedro Silva Dias)

LBA Dataset ID:

PC06_ABRACOS_Gas_Profile_Micromet

Originator(s):

Betts, Alan K.

Point(s) of Contact:

Fuentes, Dr. Jose D. (jf6s@virginia.edu)
Betts, Alan K. (akbetts@aol.com)

Dataset Abstract:

This data set and its documentation merge the corrected meteorological and gas analyzer data, with a 10-min time resolution, collected at the ABRACOS pasture site (at Ouro Preto d'Oeste, Rondonia, Brazil; 10o 45' S, 62o 22'W) during the LBA/TRMM/WETAMC campaign, January-February, 1999. This merge was used to intercompare and correct the different humidity measurements and reference them back to a gas analyzer. Other merged datasets exist for the surface micromet and tethered balloon and for the Rawinsonde and tethered balloon (interpolated). Several papers have used these data in preliminary form (Betts et al., 2002a,b; Betts and Jakob, 2002a,b; Silva Dias et al., 2002; Williams et al., 2002). The main accomplishment is to reduce the relative mean biases between different humidity measurements [Microclimate, gas analyzer and dew point hygrometer, abbreviated MC, GA and DPH] to about 1%. There remain some uncertainties in the absolute calibration of both GA and DPH instruments against a dew point generator reference standard. Consequently, we believe that the absolute calibration accuracy of the humidity data may only be 1-2% in RH. This is however far superior to the accuracy of conventional RH sensors. An error of 1% in RH near noon, corresponds to 3 hPa in cloud-base. This is sufficient to give a corrected dataset, that is extremely valuable for the study of boundary layer and convective processes over Rondonia in the rainy season.
This data set combines the 10-minute averaged Microclimate (MC) data merged with the Gas Profile Data (GA) GA_MC_10min.csv</b> (document: GA_MC_DataDoc.pdf)
Overview document LBABettsDatadoc.pdf Associated data sets: MC_1min.csv
MC_10min.csv (10-min micromet data: MC_DataDoc.pdf)
TB_MC_1min.csv (merged tethersonde & micromet data: TB_MC_DataDoc.pdf) Sensors used include: * ANEMOMETER * DEWPOINT HYDROMETER * GAS ANALYZER (LICOR 6262) * PYRANOMETER * PYRGEOMETER * RAIN GAUGE * SOIL TEMPERATURE PROBE * QUANTUM SENSOR

Beginning Date:

1999-01-22

Ending Date:

1999-03-01

Metadata Last Updated on:

2011-09-25

Data Status:

In Preparation for Archive

Access Constraints:

Public

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

Public

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

Merged Gas Profile & Micromet data (GA_MC_10min.csv):  Search at ORNL DAAC

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

Data Set User's Guide:  Search at ORNL DAAC
Wet AMC 1999 - ABRACOS pasture site overview documents:  Search at ORNL DAAC
Merged Gas Profile & Micromet data document (GA_MC_datadoc.pdf:  Search at ORNL DAAC

Citation Information - Other Details:

Betts, A.K. and J.D.Fuentes. 2011. LBA-HMET PC-06 Abracos Pasture Merged Gas Profiles and Microclimate Data: Wet AMC 1999. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. We acknowledge use of the LBA/TRMM Abracos Pasture site merged dataset (Betts et al., 2002). Reference: Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball and J.D.Fuentes, 2002: Calibration and Correction of LBA/TRMM Abracos pasture site merged dataset. Also available from on CD-ROM from Atmospheric Research, 58 Hendee Lane, Pittsford, VT 05763, USA.

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
DEW POINT ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR METEOROLOGICAL STATION DEWPOINT HYDROMETER
SURFACE FLUX ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC FLUX METEOROLOGICAL STATION ANALYSIS
PRECIPITATION AMOUNT ATMOSPHERE PRECIPITATION METEOROLOGICAL STATION RAIN GAUGE
WIND DIRECTION ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC WINDS METEOROLOGICAL STATION ANEMOMETER
SOIL TEMPERATURE LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION SOIL TEMPERATURE PROBE
WIND SPEED ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC WINDS METEOROLOGICAL STATION ANEMOMETER
SOLAR RADIATION ATMOSPHERE RADIATION BUDGET METEOROLOGICAL STATION PYRANOMETER
LONGWAVE RADIATION ATMOSPHERE RADIATION BUDGET METEOROLOGICAL STATION PYRGEOMETER
AIR TEMPERATURE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR METEOROLOGICAL STATION GAS ANALYZER
PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY METEOROLOGICAL STATION QUANTUM SENSOR
OZONE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY METEOROLOGICAL STATION GAS ANALYZER
CARBON DIOXIDE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY METEOROLOGICAL STATION GAS ANALYZER

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Rondonia Ouro Preto do Oeste -10.71278 -62.37222

Related Publication(s):

Betts, A.K. and C. Jakob. 2002. Evaluation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, surface thermodynamics, and surface fluxes in the ECMWF model using LBA data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D20). Special Issue.

Betts, A.K. and C. Jakob. 2002. Study of diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over Amazonia using a single column model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D23).

Betts, A.K., J.D. Fuentes, M. Garstang, and J.H. Ball. 2002. Surface diurnal cycle and boundary layer structure over Rondonia during the rainy season. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D20): .

Betts, A.K., L.V. Gatti, A.M. Cordova, M.A.F.S. Dias, and J.D. Fuentes. 2002. Transport of ozone to the surface by convective downdrafts at night. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D20).

Dias, M.A.F.S., W. Petersen, P.L.S. Dias, R. Cifelli, A.K. Betts, M. Longo, A.M. Gomes, G.F. Fisch, M.A. Lima, M.A. Antonio, and R.I. Albrecht. 2002. A case study of convective organization into precipitating lines in the Southwest Amazon during the WETAMC and TRMM-LBA. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D20): .

Williams, E., D. Rosenfeld, N. Madden, J. Gerlach, N. Gears, L. Atkinson, N. Dunnemann, G. Frostrom, M. Antonio, B. Biazon, R. Camargo, H. Franca, A. Gomes, M. Lima, R. Machado, S. Manhaes, L. Nachtigall, H. Piva, W. Quintiliano, L. Machado, P. Artaxo, G. Roberts, N. Renno, R. Blakeslee, J. Bailey, D. Boccippio, A. Betts, D. Wolff, and B. Roy. 2002. Contrasting convective regimes over the Amazon: Implications for cloud electrification. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 107(D20): .

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:





The data set provided here reflects a merge of the the 10-minute averaged Microclimate (MC) data with the Gas Profile Data (GA).



Data are provided in a single comma-delimited ASCII file:


GA_MC_1min.csv</b> (document: GA_MCDataDoc.pdf)




Note that original data files had .txt file extensions and the original PDF documentation refers to the data file names with .txt file extensions. These files have been converted to comma-delimited ASCII during the archive preparation process and all references to filenames with .txt extension should be read by current users as .csv file extensions.



In addition, some original variable names contained characters that were inconsistent with archive guidelines. Minor changes have been made to the variable names for compliance with the archive guidelines, e.g. dashes or hyphens in variable names have been converted to underscores.



File contents and organization:



Note: Brackets [] around variables indicate Field Names of variables that are included in the data

base. This is pertinent because some calculations are done using interim calculations. This convention

of brackets will be found in both descriptive text and in calculated variables to indicate where Field

Names were used in calculations.



Column number Variable name Units/format Variable description (brackets ?[]? indicate a Variable name)

1 Year yyyy Year

2 McDaSq LST =[McDOY]+([McTime]/1440) in Local Standard Time

3 McUTSq UTC =[McUTCDoy]+([McUTC]/1440)

4 McDOY Day of the year in LST (Local Standard Time)

5 McUTCDoy Day of year based on [McUTC]

6 McTime hhmm Time of day after midnight LST

7 McUTC hhmm UTC time of day = [McTime]+ 4 hours

8 Cx10 Index values 1 thru 6 used for averaging up to 10 minutes

9 Tref C Reference Temp.

10 TSoil5 C Soil Temp. at 5 cm

11 TSoil20 C Soil Temp. at 20 cm

12 TSoil50 C Soil Temp. at 50 cm

13 TSoil1s C Soil Temp. at 1cm (used for starage calc)

14 TSoil5s C Soil Temp. at 5cm (used for starage calc)

15 SoilHeat1 Wm-2 Soil Heat flux at 5cm; flux plate 1

16 SoilHeat2 Wm-2 Soil Heat flux at 5cm; flux plate 2

17 TempRH1m C Temp. at 1 m used in [Qs1m] calculation; 1m probe temp.

18 Qs1m 622/(0.16361 *([Pres_Mc]+0.11)*Exp(-17.67*[TempRH1m]/([TempRH1m]+243.5))-1)

19 RH1m_orig % 1m probe RH

20 DelRH1m RH1m correction factor (see Section 2.2)

21 RH1m_corr % Corrected RH at 1 m =[RH1m-orig]+[DelRH1m]

22 Q1m_orig gKg-1 Mixing ratio at 1 m =([RH1m-orig]/100)*[Qs1m]/(1+([Qs1m]/622)*(1-([RH1m-orig]/100)))

23 Q1m_corr gKg-1 Corrected mixing ratio=([RH1m_corr]/100)*[Qs1m]/(1+([Qs1m]/622)*(1-([RH1m_corr]/100)))

24 TempRH6m C Temp. at 1 m used in [Qs6m] calculation; 6m probe temp.

25 Qs6m 622/(0.16361*([Pres_Mc]-0.44)*Exp(-17.67*[TempRH6m]/([TempRH6m]+243.5))-1)

26 RH6m_orig % 6m probe RH

27 DelRH6m RH6m correction factor

28 RH6m_corr % Corrected RH at 6m=[RH6m-orig]+[DelRH6m]

29 Q6m_orig gKg-1 Mixing ratio at 6m =([RH6m-orig]/100)*Qs6m/(1+(Qs6m/622)*(1-([RH6m-orig]/100)))

30 Q6m_corr gKg-1 Corrected mixing ratio=([RH6m_corr]/100)*[Qs6m]/(1+([Qs6m]/622)*(1-([RH6m_corr]/100)))

31 Tair05 C Air Temp. at 0.5 m

32 T1 C Calculated Air Temp. at 1m ==0.37*[Tair05]+.63*[Tair15]

33 Tair15 C Air Temp. at 1.5 m

34 Tair30 C Air Temp. at 3 m

35 Tair60 C Air Temp. at 6 m

36 Tair95 C Air Temp. at 9.5 m

37 WV_corr ms-1 Corrected Windspeed =[WVold]/2

38 NN ** Indicates Wind Direction was corrected when passing through 360/0

39 WD_corr degrees Corrected Wind direction

40 U_corr U component of corrected Wind

41 V_corr V component of corrected Wind

42 WD_TB_corr_TN degrees corrected [WD_TB]+[Corr_WD]-11 (True North)

43 U_TB_corr_TN U component of corrected Wind (True North)

44 V_TB_corr_TN V component of corrected Wind (True North)

45 PARIn Wm-2 PAR Radiation In

46 PAROut Wm-2 PAR Radiation Out

47 SolarIn Wm-2 Solar Radiation In

48 SWDown Wm-2 Short Wave Radiation In

49 SWUp Wm-2 Short Wave Radiation Out

50 LWDown Wm-2 Long Wave Radiation In

51 LWUp Wm-2 Long Wave Radiation Out

52 Pres_Mc hPa Pressure at 1.5 meters

53 Rain mm Rainfall

54 Th1m K ([T1]+273.15)*Pow((1000/([Pres_Mc]+0.11))

55 Th6m K ([Tair60]+273.15)*Pow((1000/([Pres_Mc-0.44))

56 TH95 K ([Tair95]+273.15)*Pow((1000/[Pres95])

57 TSat1m_corr K 55+(2840/(3.5*Ln([TH1m])-Ln(1000*[Q1m_corr]/(622+[Q1m_corr]))-4.805))

58 TSat6m_corr K 55+(2840/(3.5*Ln([TH6m])-Ln(1000*[Q6m_corr]/(622+[Q6m_corr]))-4.805))

59 PSat1m_corr hPa 1000*Pow(([TSat1m_corr]/[TH1m])

60 PSat6m_corr hPa 1000*Pow(([TSat6m_corr]/[TH6m])

61 PLCL1m_orig hPa [Pres_Mc]+0.11-PSat1m_orig

62 PLCL1m_corr hPa [Pres_Mc]+0.11-PSat1m_corr

63 PLCL6m_orig hPa [Pres_Mc]-0.44-PSat6m_orig

64 PLCL6m_corr hPa [Pres_Mc]-0.44-PSat6m_corr

65 THe1m_corr K [TH1m]*Exp(2.67*[Q1m_corr]/[TSat1m_corr])

66 THe6m_corr K [TH6m]*Exp(2.67*[Q6m_corr]/[TSat6m_corr])

67 Pres95 hPa ([Pres_Mc]-0.88)

68 K_Pres_MC Count of datum included/accepted during the 10 min averaging. (Field only exists in McAvg10min data base.)

69 LiCorTemp Temperature of LiCor 6262

70 Flag_LiCor -99 indicates LiCorTemp computed from Tref (see below)

71 RhoScale =100*[pres_Mc]/(1.118*287*(273.15+LiCorTemp))

72 Eg_L1 hPa Vapor pressure at level 1 (0.5m)

73 Qg05_orig gKg-1 Mixing ratio at level 1 (0.5m)

74 Qg05_corrRho gKg-1 [Qg05_orig]/[RhoScale]

75 Eg_L2 hPa Vapor pressure at level 2 (1.5m)

76 Qg15_orig gKg-1 Mixing ratio at level 2 (1.5m)

77 Qg15_corrRho gKg-1 [Qg15_orig]/[RhoScale]

78 Eg_L3 hPa Vapor pressure at level 3 (4.0m)

79 Qg40_orig gKg-1 Mixing ratio at level 3 (4.0m)

80 Qg40_corrRho gKg-1 [Qg40_orig]/[RhoScale]

81 Eg_L4 hPa Vapor pressure at level 4 (9.5m)

82 Qg95_orig gKg-1 Mixing ratio at level 4 (9.5m)

83 Qg95_corrRho gKg-1 [Qg95_orig]/[RhoScale]

84 PLCL95GA hPa Calculated from [Qg95_corrRho]

85 THe95GA K [TH95]*Exp(2.67*[Qg95_corrRho]/TSat95ga)

86 Tdew6 C Dew point at 6m. From DPH.

87 Flag_Td Flag values: -99

88 Q6TD gKg-1 =622/(0.16361*([Pres_Mc])*Exp(-17.67*[Tdew6]/([TDew6]+243.5))-1)

89 PLCL6TD mb Calculated from [Q6TD]

90 THe6TD K Calculated as: THe6m_corr

91 CO2_L1 ppm CO2 at level 1 (0.5m)

92 CO2_L2 ppm CO2 at level 2 (1.5m)

93 CO2_L3 ppm CO2 at level 3 (4.0m)

94 CO2_L4 ppm CO2 at level 4 (9.5m)

95 Ozone_L1 ppb Ozone at level 1 (0.5m)

96 Ozone_L2 ppb Ozone at level 2 (1.5m)

97 Ozone_L3 ppb Ozone at level 3 (4.0m)

98 Ozone_L4 ppb Ozone at level 4 (9.5m)





Example data records:



Year,McDaSq,McUTSq,McDOY,McUTCDoy,McTime,McUTC,Cx10,Tref,TSoil5,TSoil20,TSoil50,TSoil1s,TSoil5s,SoilHeat1,SoilHeat2,TempRH1m,Qs1m,RH1m_orig,DelRH1m,RH1m_corr,Q1m_orig,Q1m_corr,TempRH6m,Qs6m,RH6m_orig,DelRH6m,RH6m_corr,Q6m_orig,Q6m_corr,Tair05,T1,Tair15,Tair30,Tair60,Tair95,WV_corr,NN,WD_corr,U_corr,V_corr,WD_TB_corr_TN,U_TB_corr_TN,V_TB_corr_TN,PARIn,PAROut,SolarIn,SWDown,SWUp,LWDown,LWUp,Pres_Mc,Rain,Th1m,Th6m,TH95,TSat1m_corr,TSat6m_corr,PSat1m_corr,PSat6m_corr,PLCL1m_orig,PLCL1m_corr,PLCL6m_orig,PLCL6m_corr,THe1m_corr,THe6m_corr,Pres95,K_Pres_MC,LiCorTemp,Flag_LiCor,RhoScale,Eg_L1,Qg05_orig,Qg05_corrRho,Eg_L2,Qg15_orig,Qg15_corrRho,Eg_L3,Qg40_orig,Qg40_corrRho,Eg_L4,Qg95_orig,Qg95_corrRho,PLCL95GA,THe95GA,Tdew6,Flag_Td,Q6TD,PLCL6TD,THe6TD,CO2_L1,CO2_L2,CO2_L3,CO2_L4,Ozone_L1,Ozone_L2,Ozone_L3,Ozone_L4

1999,21.83681,22.00347,21,22,2005,5,1,30.01,29.59,28.73,26.92,29.49,29.73,7.2,7.9,27.15,23.74713482,75.1,5,80.1,17.67,18.87802811,27.49,24.2583654,77,-2.1,74.9,18.52,17.99337587,26.66,26.8931,27.03,27.37,27.56,27.65,1.16,-9999,136.4320962,-0.78,0.82,125.43,-0.95,0.67,-0.01,-0.08,-1.37,-0.61,0.98,-14.85,0.52,978.14,0,301.94,302.66,302.78,295.72,294.61,929.87,910.05,62.03,48.38,61.55,67.65,358.05,356.26,977.31,10,36.69056,-99,0.984,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,452.1,424.2,393.3,387.3,14.63,12.14,14.13,14.13

1999,21.84375,22.01042,21,22,2015,15,2,29.78,29.53,28.73,26.92,29.41,29.67,7.23,8.14,26.78,23.21461564,76.3,5,81.3,17.56,18.74267153,27.38,24.09411669,78.31,-2.1,76.21,18.71,18.19445679,26.38,26.5816,26.7,26.94,27.18,27.33,1.64,-9999,131.0206175,-1.23,1.07,120.02,-1.42,0.82,-0.07,-0.07,-3.2,-4.47,1.3,-18.61,0.13,978.23,0,301.61,302.27,302.45,295.66,294.92,932.61,917.54,59.26,45.73,54.2,60.25,357.24,356.39,977.4,10,36.44768,-99,0.985,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,417.7,406.4,396.1,388.3,14.13,13.62,17.61,17.61

1999,21.85069,22.01736,21,22,2025,25,3,29.52,29.47,28.73,26.93,29.32,29.61,7.79,8.86,26.65,23.02894586,76.47,5,81.47,17.46,18.63384373,27.14,23.74223225,79.27,-2.1,77.17,18.67,18.16359594,26.07,26.3535,26.52,26.78,27,27.13,1.73,-9999,151.6543064,-0.82,1.52,140.65,-1.1,1.34,-0.04,-0.04,-3.62,-3.33,1.11,-33.9,-1.46,978.31,0,301.38,302.08,302.24,295.6,294.93,934.51,919.65,57.18,43.91,52.31,58.22,356.62,356.07,977.48,10,36.17312,-99,0.986,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,418.7,405.4,397.8,384.8,14.13,15.13,13.62,13.62

1999,21.85764,22.02431,21,22,2035,35,4,29.31,29.41,28.72,26.94,29.21,29.54,8.79,9.7,26.37,22.63251563,75.84,5,80.84,17.02,18.16945387,26.88,23.36304186,78.96,-2.1,76.86,18.3,17.80210427,25.85,26.1146,26.27,26.57,26.87,27.04,2.24,-9999,117.6347651,-1.91,1,106.63,-2.15,0.64,0.02,-0.05,-3.3,-2.04,0.82,-29.09,-1.72,978.53,0,301.12,301.93,302.13,295.16,294.57,932.5,917.33,59.57,46.14,54.87,60.76,354.91,354.8,977.7,10,35.95136,-99,0.987,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,408,397.2,388.9,383.2,14.63,14.13,15.13,15.13

1999,21.86458,22.03125,21,22,2045,45,5,29.09,29.33,28.71,26.95,29.09,29.48,9.58,10.85,26.35,22.59931207,75.59,5,80.59,16.94,18.08524316,26.72,23.1301477,79.61,-2.1,77.51,18.28,17.7794824,25.96,26.1553,26.27,26.51,26.74,26.85,1.86,-9999,91.23863467,-1.85,0.04,80.24,-1.83,-0.32,-0.06,-0.12,-2.4,-1.25,0.8,-25.92,-1.58,978.76,0,301.14,301.78,301.92,295.06,294.58,931.21,919.05,61.3,47.66,53.32,59.27,354.68,354.54,977.93,10,35.71904,-99,0.988,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,399.4,392,396.3,389.1,16.62,15.63,17.62,17.62

1999,21.87153,22.03819,21,22,2055,55,6,28.78,29.26,28.7,26.96,28.99,29.41,10.31,11.71,26.26,22.46556789,73.9,5,78.9,16.44,17.59127076,26.54,22.86727698,78.83,-2.1,76.73,17.89,17.39722819,25.9,26.089,26.2,26.36,26.51,26.59,1.89,-9999,99.91865063,-1.83,0.32,88.92,-1.89,-0.04,-0.07,-0.16,-1.96,-0.87,0.85,-26.19,-2.68,979.16,0,301.04,301.51,301.62,294.54,294.21,926.56,917.92,66.68,52.71,54.78,60.8,353.08,353.08,978.33,10,35.39168,-99,0.989,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,390.2,386.3,384.2,382.4,18.64,17.12,18.61,18.61

1999,21.87847,22.04514,21,22,2105,105,1,28.43,29.19,28.69,26.98,28.9,29.33,10.94,12.54,26.14,22.28328961,74.57,5,79.57,16.46,17.60198298,26.36,22.59879876,79.06,-2.1,76.96,17.73,17.24765537,25.84,25.9912,26.08,26.29,26.43,26.5,1.02,6.96,21.90870483,-0.37,-0.92,10.91,-0.19,-1,-0.05,-0.05,-1.61,-0.65,0.51,-14.61,-0.53,979.91,0,300.87,301.36,301.47,294.59,294.08,928.89,918,65.07,51.13,55.58,61.47,352.91,352.45,979.08,10,35.02208,-99,0.991,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,395.3,384.6,380.5,377.9,17.12,18.11,17.62,17.62

1999,21.88542,22.05208,21,22,2115,115,2,28.06,29.11,28.68,26.99,28.86,29.28,10.67,12.79,26.01,22.10379273,76.05,5,81.05,16.67,17.79528709,26.32,22.54088932,79.9,-2.1,77.8,17.88,17.39685178,25.73,25.8623,25.94,26.2,26.39,26.49,1.8,-9999,34.32364432,-0.99,-1.45,23.32,-0.71,-1.65,-0.04,-0.06,-1.6,-0.96,0.35,-18.66,-0.89,980.02,0,300.73,301.31,301.45,294.84,294.26,933.13,920.51,60.72,47,53.21,59.07,353.32,352.84,979.19,10,34.63136,-99,0.992,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,400.4,391.8,381.4,378.1,17.12,17.62,20.12,20.12

1999,21.89236,22.05903,21,22,2125,125,3,27.69,29.05,28.66,27,28.81,29.22,10.82,13.18,26.01,22.09515538,75.2,5,80.2,16.47,17.59654918,26.29,22.49070847,79.42,-2.1,77.32,17.73,17.24836553,25.79,25.916,25.99,26.2,26.39,26.45,2.38,20.21,39.30764812,-1.4,-1.71,28.31,-1.13,-2.1,-0.03,-0.06,-0.92,-0.33,0.49,-14.09,-1.35,980.39,0,300.76,301.28,301.37,294.61,294.1,930.4,919.1,63.95,50.1,54.93,60.85,352.75,352.35,979.56,10,34.24064,-99,0.994,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,388.7,383.6,380.7,379.7,17.12,22.11,17.62,17.62

1999,21.89931,22.06597,21,22,2135,135,4,27.34,28.99,28.66,27.02,28.74,29.18,11.31,13.92,25.64,21.59634308,79.84,5,84.84,17.12,18.22639963,26.18,22.33704414,83.58,-2.1,81.48,18.55,18.07997659,25.44,25.503,25.54,25.57,25.66,25.69,2.45,27.18,332.8994898,1.09,-2.13,321.9,1.51,-1.93,0,-0.06,-1.79,-1.64,-0.47,-18.91,-1.45,980.5,0,300.33,300.54,300.6,295.41,295.2,943.85,939.27,50.24,36.76,35.04,40.79,354.11,353.93,979.67,10,33.87104,-99,0.995,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,390.6,385.7,381.1,380.1,16.63,15.63,16.63,16.63

1999,21.90625,22.07292,21,22,2145,145,5,27.1,28.91,28.65,27.02,28.69,29.1,11.45,14.38,25.2,21.01592004,81.31,5,86.31,16.98,18.05532514,25.7,21.68504263,85.42,-2.0804,83.3396,18.43,17.96786354,25.13,25.193,25.23,25.24,25.31,25.37,1.38,25.51,320.863872,0.83,-1.02,309.86,1.06,-0.88,0,-0.04,-2.09,-1.53,-0.02,-18.4,0.44,980.66,0,300,300.17,300.26,295.3,295.16,946.22,942.88,47.9,34.55,31.74,37.34,353.2,353.15,979.83,10,33.6176,-99,0.996,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,391.2,382.6,383.4,382,18.12,18.62,16.13,16.13

1999,21.91319,22.07986,21,22,2155,155,6,27,28.84,28.63,27.02,28.64,29.04,11.5,14.22,25.22,21.03783756,80.92,5,85.92,16.92,17.99003674,25.5,21.4159874,85.71,-2.066866667,83.64313333,18.27,17.81268527,25.08,25.1556,25.2,25.22,25.29,25.35,2.54,-9999,327.4582464,1.34,-2.1,316.46,1.75,-1.84,0.02,-0.04,-1.79,-1.43,0.13,-23.67,-0.58,980.84,0,299.95,300.13,300.23,295.24,295,946.14,941.46,48.1,34.81,33.38,38.94,352.95,352.64,980.01,10,33.512,-99,0.997,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,387.3,390.4,380.5,378.3,16.63,16.63,18.62,18.62

1999,21.92014,22.08681,21,22,2205,205,1,26.94,28.77,28.61,27.03,28.57,28.99,11.91,14.65,24.63,20.28193367,83.02,5,88.02,16.75,17.78269185,25.15,20.95547062,87.43,-1.9866,85.4434,18.24,17.81768533,24.57,24.6015,24.62,24.54,24.53,24.54,2.72,-9999,313.9583733,1.96,-1.89,302.96,2.28,-1.48,-0.01,-0.03,-2.32,-1.96,-0.55,-21.51,0.02,981.02,0,299.38,299.35,299.4,295.15,295.19,951.44,952.21,42.84,29.69,23.1,28.37,351.63,351.7,980.19,10,33.44864,-99,0.997,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,381.3,379.9,377.5,376.4,19.11,19.11,20.61,20.61

1999,21.92708,22.09375,21,22,2215,215,2,26.92,28.7,28.59,27.04,28.5,28.93,12.48,15.38,24.37,19.95968361,83.39,5,88.39,16.56,17.57688003,24.74,20.4333564,88.39,-1.9418,86.4482,18,17.58597763,24.35,24.3941,24.42,24.34,24.34,24.36,2.1,-9999,306.3726469,1.67,-1.23,295.37,1.9,-0.9,0.01,-0.04,-2.14,-1.61,-0.05,-20.8,0.98,980.96,0,299.17,299.17,299.22,294.96,294.98,951.65,951.86,42.46,29.42,23.53,28.66,350.77,350.79,980.13,10,33.42752,-99,0.997,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,380.3,379.1,380.1,381.4,21.1,20.61,18.62,18.62





Associated data sets:

MC_1min.csv (Microclimate 1-minute)

MC_10min.csv (Microclimate 10-minute)

MC_TB_1min.csv (Merged microclimate and tethered balloon data sets)

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Known Problems:

Surface data in field at ABRACOS pasture site had surface wind-speed high by factor of 2.



VIZ software interpolated wind-speed, from position values every 50 sec, so intermediate winds are in

error, especially when wind swings through north. [Solution: winds were recalculated by interpolation

correct u,v values every 50 secs]



Satellite ephemeris information was incorrect, so GPS had lock-in difficulties and on many occasions sondes were left on ground for GPS lock. Afternoon [1800UTC; 1400LT] sondes often show dry near-surface bias, with mixing ratio increasing in first 100hPa, suggesting a sonde heating problem before launch. [No solution: generally tethersonde data better in BL during daytime]



VIZ humidity known to be wetter than the Vaisala humidity [at LBA sites, RM and RJ]

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Gas analyzer data: Gas samples from 4 levels, 0.5m, 1.5m, 4m & 9.5m were passed though a

LiCor 6262 gas analyzer.



Sampling Rate: 2 minutes per level average, followed by a 30-sec purge, cycling every 10-min.



Timestamp: 10 minute, time-stamped at 5-min mid-time of the 4 levels of samples. The times

correspond to multiples of 5 minutes past the hour and run from :05 through :55.



Original Data:

The following is an example of the original data:

Id, year, day, hhmm, sec, AvgCO2(mv), AvgH2O(mv), Level, Ozone, Tdew(DPH), LicorTemp

105,1999, 43, 1752, 28, 1833, 2152, .998, 18.19, -1114, 39.11

105,1999, 43, 1754, 58, 1825, 2116, 2.003, 14.2, -1117, 39.08

105,1999, 43, 1757, 28, 1826, 2107, 3.008, 18.19, -1117, 39.05

105,1999, 43, 1759, 58, 1824, 2076, 4.013, 18.69, -1119, 39.05

105,1999, 43, 1802, 28, 1846, 2119, .998, 18.69, -1116, 39.05

105,1999, 43, 1804, 58, 1842, 2107, 2.003, 18.69, -1117, 39.02

105,1999, 43, 1807, 28, 1836, 2095, 3.008, 17.7, -1117, 38.97

105,1999, 43, 1809, 58, 1828, 2078, 4.013, 17.7, -1118, 38.96



The data cycles through 4 levels, 0.5m, 1.5m, 4m & 9.5m as air is passed though tubes to a

LiCor 6262 gas analyzer. with a duration interval of 2.5 minute per level. The original time stamp on

the data corresponded to the end time of the data averaging period for each level.



MC Data Merged

The 1-min MC data [MC_1min.csv] and the Dew-point (DPH) data were averaged to 10-min

[MC_10min.csv] with the same 5-min mid-times (ie., we averaged MC data with end-time stamps from

1 to 10min), and this 10-min dataset [MC_10min.csv] was merged with the GA data to give

GA_MC_10min.csv.



Because the GA samples are all at different times within the 10-min time interval, some of the

variance in the differences from the MC and DPH data comes from this inhomogeneous sampling.



However, when data is averaged up to the hourly timescale, this gives a reasonable estimate of the

mean gradients within the surface layer, as well as the mean biases.

References:

Barr, A.G. and A.K. Betts, 1997: Radiosonde Boundary-layer budgets above a Boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res,

102, 29205-29212.



Betts, A.K., 1982: Saturation Point Analysis of Moist Convective Overturning. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 1484-1505.



Betts, A.K., J. Fuentes, M. Garstang, and J. H. Ball, 2002a: Surface diurnal cycle and Boundary Layer

structure over Rondonia during the rainy season, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8065, doi:10.1029/2001JD000356.



Betts, A.K., L.V. Gatti, A.M. Cordova, M. A. F. Silva Dias, and J. Fuentes, 2002b: Transport of ozone to the

surface by convective downdrafts at night. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8046, doi:10.1029/2000JD000158.



Betts, A.K. and C. Jakob, 2002, Evaluation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, surface thermodynamics and

surface fluxes in the ECMWF model using LBA data.. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8045, doi:10.1029/2001JD000427.



Bolton, D., 1980: The computation of equivalent potential temperature. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1046-1053.

Cole, H. and E. Miller, 1999: Correction and re-calculation of humidity data from TOGA COARE radiosondes

and the development of humidity correction algorithms for global radiosonde data. Proc. WCRP COARE-98

Conf. WCRP 107, WMO/TD-940, Boulder CO. 139-141.



Elbers, J. A., A, C. de Araujo, P. Stefani, P. J. de Oliveira, and B. Kruijt, 2001, How accurate is latent heat

flux from Licor LI-6262 measurements under tropical conditions? Poster from Alterra Green World Research,

Department of Water and the Environment, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands, J.A.Elbers@alterra.wag-ur.nl



Fisch, G., J. Tota, L.A.T. Machado, M.A.F. Silva Dias, R.F. da F. Lyra, C. A. Nobre, A.J. Dolman, A.D. Culf J.

Halverson, and J. D. Fuentes, 2001: The convective boundary layer over pasture and forest in Amazonia,

submitted to J. Geophys. Res.



Guichard, F., D. Parsons, and E. Miller, 2000: Thermodynamical and radiative impact of the

corrections of sounding humidity bias in the tropics. J. Climate, 13, 3611-3624.



Heitz, R. C. H., 2001, Mixed layer budgets and entrainment rates of heat and water vapor over a deforested site in

Amazonia., M.S Thesis, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ., of Virginia, Jan, 2001, 160pp.



Lucas C. and E. J. Zipser, 2000: Environmental variability during TOGA COARE, 2000. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2333-

2350.



Silva Dias, M. A. F., W. Petersen, P.L. Silva Dias, R. Cifelli, A.K. Betts, M. Longo, A.M. Gomes, G.F. Fisch, M.A.

Antonio, and R.I. Albrecht, 2002: A case study of convective organization into precipitating lines in the

Southwest Amazon during the WETAMC AND TRMM-LBA. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8078, doi:10.1029/2001JD000375.



Williams, E. and 32 Co-authors, Contrasting Convective Regimes Over the Amazon: Implications for Cloud

Electrification, J. Geophys. Res., 107, in press, LBA special issue.

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