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Investigation:

ND-07 (Zepp / Bustamante)

LBA Dataset ID:

ND07_NO_FLUX_CERRADO

Originator(s):

1. KOZOVITS, A.R.
2. VIANA, L.T.
3. SOUSA, D.M.
      4. PINTO, A.S.
5. BUSTAMANTE, M.M.C.
6. ZEPP, R.G.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

The Cerrado biome covers 2 million km2, quite as large as Western Europe. It is a species rich wet tropical savanna classified as a hotspot because of its large number of endemic species and the rapid loss of habitats. The fragmentation of Cerrado areas and the rapid conversion into agroecosystems may lead to higher nutrient inputs in adjacent native areas. The enrichment of native areas with N and P will probably affect plant and soil microbial community and consequently change the magnitude of NOx emissions. Our objective in obtaining these data was to determine the long-term effects of nutrient addition (N and N+P) in native Cerrado area on N oxides fluxes from soil to the atmosphere.

Beginning Date:

2004-03-22

Ending Date:

2004-11-25

Metadata Last Updated on:

2012-09-25

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO ND-07 Nitric Oxide Flux from Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil: 2004:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1124

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-07 Nitric Oxide Flux from Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil: 2004:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/ND07_NO_Flux_Cerrado.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Kozovits, A.R., L.T. Viana, D.M. Sousa, A.S. Pinto, M.M.C. Bustamante, and R.G. Zepp. 2012. LBA-ECO ND-07 Nitric Oxide Flux from Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil: 2004 . Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1124

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
NITROGEN OXIDES BIOSPHERE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS
SOIL FERTILITY BIOSPHERE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS
SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT BIOSPHERE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS
TRACE GASES BIOSPHERE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  AMMONIUM, BRAZIL, CERRADO, NITRATE, NITRIC OXIDE, SAVANNAS

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Brasília Reserva Ecologica do Roncador IBGE -15.93280 -15.93280 -47.85060 -47.85060

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are presented in one comma-delimited ASCII file: IGBE_NO_data_2004.csv

File Contents and Organization:



File name: IBGE_NO_Data_2004.csv



Col. Column heading Variable description

1 Treatment Experimental treatment: Control had no fertilization; N addition was at the rate of 100 kg N ha-1 year-1; NP addition was at the rate of 100 kg ha-1 year-1 for both N and P

2 Date Sampling date (mm/dd/yyyy)

3 NO_flux_mean Mean measured flux of nitric oxide from the soil surface (ng N-NO cm-2 h-1); positive values indicate a flux from the soil to the atmosphere

4 NO_flux_std_err Standard error of the flux of nitric oxide from the soil surface

5 Soil_moisture_mean Mean soil moisture reported in percent

6 Soil_moisture_std_err Standard error of soil moisture

7 Soil_NO3_mean Mean soil NO3 reported in milligrams of nitrogen in the form of nitrate per kilogram of soil (mg N kg-1). Nitrate was extracted from the soil using a 2M KCl solution

8 Soil_NO3_std_err Standard error of the soil NO3 concentration

9 Soil_NH4_mean Mean soil NH4 reported in milligrams of nitrogen in the form of ammonium per kilogram of soil (mg N kg-1). Ammonium was extracted from the soil using a 2M KCl solution.

10 Soil_NH4_std_err Standard error of the soil NH4concentration



Missing data values are represented as -9999



Soil concentrations below the detection limit are represented as 0 (zero)





Example data records:

Treatment,Date,NO_flux_mean,NO_flux_std_err,Soil_moisture_mean,Soil_moisture_std_err,Soil_NO3_mean,Soil_NO3_std_err,Soil_NH4_mean,Soil_NH4_std_err

Control,3/22/2004,-9999,-9999,33.46,1.04,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

Control,3/26/2004,6.19,3.73,43.47,0.87,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

Control,4/2/2004,0.11,0.04,35.62,1.54,-9999,-9999,34.44,2.41

Control,4/13/2004,1.52,1.09,41.67,0.25,-9999,-9999,40.63,3.64

Control,5/19/2004,2.73,1.58,21.26,2.31,0.08,0.02,35.83,0.65

Control,6/24/2004,0.85,0.16,26.37,2.15,4.38,0.44,38.92,12.41

... (records intentionally omitted)

N addition,10/7/2004,16.57,5.13,27.46,1.81,17.4,5.12,155.84,29.73

N addition,10/28/2004,8.78,3.3,38.96,1.24,14.51,7.22,121.9,22.51

N addition,11/25/2004,2.62,0.76,31.72,2.68,0.57,0.79,64.49,3.77

NP addition,3/22/2004,0.51,0.26,41.16,2.4,0.05,0.02,34.53,2.34

NP addition,3/26/2004,4.43,2.65,47.29,3.72,0.04,0.02,415.01,145.36

NP addition,4/2/2004,3.93,1.32,45.19,3.52,0.02,0.01,229.4,66.04

Data Application and Derivation:

Trace gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical forests are important components of the global nitrogen budget. These measurements of soil-atmosphere gas exchange of NO reveal important seasonal variations in flux and provide insight to the effects of soil nutrient status on NO fluxes in this ecosystem.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

For NO measurements, frequent standardization in the field was necessary. The LMA-3 is relatively unstable under the changing temperature, humidity, and background contaminant levels found in the field. Calibration curves were done twice (before and after measurements) a day to assure data quality.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

This study was carried out in an area located in the Roncador Ecological Reserve

belonging to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (RECOR / IBGE), near Brasilia\'s Federal District, Brazil. Soils of the study area are classified as Oxisols (Haplustox), characterized as acidic, with high Al levels and low cation exchange capacity (Haridasan, 1994). Total precipitation was

1667 mm in 2006 and 1183.7 mm in 2007. Air temperature ranged from 10.1 to 31.9 degrees C during the study period. The vegetation is classified as cerrado sensu stricto, which is characterized by a continuous grassy layer and a woody layer of trees and shrubs varying in cover from 20 to 60%: this is the most common vegetation found in the Cerrado region (Eiten, 1972).



The fertilization experiment began in 1998 and the experimental design was

completely randomized, with four nutrient addition treatments and four replicates randomly divided into 16 plots of 225 m2, separated by a 10 m buffer area. The treatments were: control (C; without fertilization), +N (single addition of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2 SO4), +P (single addition of 20% superphosphate - Ca (H2PO4)2 + CaSO4. 2H2O) and +NP (simultaneous addition of Ammonium sulfate / 20% superphosphate) applied in the litter layer without incorporation. Between 1998 and 2006, 100 kg ha-1 of N, P and N plus P was added, applied twice a year (at beginning and end of rainy the season). The study area burned accidentally twice, in 1994 (before the beginning of the treatments) and in 2005. After the accidental fire in 2005, the plots were re-installed in the same locations.



Soil sampling and analysis



In October 2007, composite soil samples were collected and consisted of two

samples in each plot, at five depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30 - 40; 40-50 cm). Analyses were performed to determine pH in water and CaCl2 (0.01 M), total N (Microkjeldahl method), P (extraction with Mehlich 1 and colorimetric determination) and Al (extraction with 1M KCl and titulation with NaOH) (EMBRAPA, 1999).



NO flux and ancillary data



Soil surface fluxes of NO were measured using dynamic chamber technique and a

Scintrex LMA-3 as described by Pinto et al. (2002). Two PVC rings per plot (314.2cm2), totaling six rings per treatment, were installed at least 30 minutes before the beginning of flux measurements. NO concentration was recorded over a period of 5 minutes in each chamber. Fluxes were calculated from the rate of increase of NO concentration using the linear portion of the accumulation curve. Calibration curves were done twice (before and after measurements) a day. Data sampling occurred almost monthly, except for measurements in April 2004, when fluxes were measured some hours before fertilization (April 22), and three and ten days after it. Chamber and soil (2.5 and 5.0 cm 166 depth) temperatures were measured during flux measurements. Soil samples from 0-5 cm were collected within the chambers every sampling day for gravimetric water content, NO3- and NH4+ determination. Soil samples

were extracted with 1 mol/L KCl for 1 hour. NH4+ was determined through reaction

with Nessler reagent and NO3- was determined by UV-absorption according to the

method proposed by Meier (1991).

References:

Eiten, G., 1972. The cerrado vegetation of Brazil. Botanical Review 38, 201-341.



EMBRAPA, 1999. Manual de analises quamicas de solos, plantas e fertilizantes, first ed.Embrapa, Brazil.



Haridasan, M., 1994. Solos do Distrito Federal, in: Novaes-Pinto, M. (Ed.), Cerrado:Caracterizacao, ocupacao e perspectivas O caso do Distrito Federal. Editora da Universidade de Brasilia/SEMATEC, BrasÃÆâ�™Ãƒâ� Ã¢ï¿½â„¢ÃƒÆ’â�šÃâ�šÃ‚­lia, pp. 321-344.



Meier, M., 1991. Nitratbestimmung in Boden-Proben (N-min-Methode). Labor Praxis, 244-247.



Pinto, A.S., Bustamante, M.M.C., Kisselle, K., Burke, R., Zepp, R., Viana, L.T.,

Varella, R.F., Molina, M., 2002. Soil emissions of N2O, NO, and CO2 in Brazilian Savannas: Effects of vegetation type, seasonality, and prescribed fires. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 571-579.

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