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Investigation:

CD-04 (Goulden / Rocha)

LBA Dataset ID:

CD04_Tower_Flux_Gap.html

Originator(s):

1. MILLER, S.D.
2. GOULDEN, M.L.
      3. DA ROCHA, H.R.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

This data set reports 30-minute values for above-canopy meteorology and fluxes of momentum, heat, and carbon dioxide, and within-canopy carbon dioxide and water vapor concentrations collected at 12 levels between 10 cm and 64 m at the tower located within a logging gap at km 83 Tower Site in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. Data were collected over 1.5 years between June 3, 2002 and January 30, 2004. All of the data are contained in one comma-delimited ASCII file. Two towers are located at the km 83 site. The first tower was installed in an intact forest area at this site in June 2000 (the \'intact\' tower). In September 2001, the area adjacent to the tower was selectively logged (Bruno et al., 2006). The second tower (the \'gap tower\') was installed and operating in June 2002, 400 m east of the intact tower. The gap tower was installed in the middle of a 50 m x 50 m log landing.

Beginning Date:

2002-06-03

Ending Date:

2004-01-30

Metadata Last Updated on:

2010-07-22

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO CD-04 CO2 and Heat Flux, km 83 Gap Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=978

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO CD-04 CO2 and Heat Flux, km 83 Gap Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/CD04_Tower_Flux_Gap.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Miller, S.D., M.L. Goulden, H.R. da Rocha. 2010. LBA-ECO CD-04 CO2 and Heat Flux, km 83 Gap Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/978

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
AIR TEMPERATURE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE TOWER TEMPERATURE SENSOR
CARBON DIOXIDE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY TOWER IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)
CARBON DIOXIDE ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY TOWER SONIC ANEMOMETER
SURFACE WINDS ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC WINDS TOWER SONIC ANEMOMETER
WATER VAPOR ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR TOWER IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)
WATER VAPOR ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY TOWER SONIC ANEMOMETER
WATER VAPOR ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR TOWER IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)
WATER VAPOR ATMOSPHERE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY TOWER SONIC ANEMOMETER

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  AIR TEMPERATURE, CARBON DIOXIDE FLUX, CO2, EDDY COVARIANCE, FLUXES, GAP TOWER , H2O, HUMIDITY, KILOMETER 83, LATENT HEAT FLUX, LOGGED SITE, METEOROLOGY, PROFILES, SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX, TAPAJOS FOREST, TOWER FLUX, WIND DIRECTION, WIND SPEED

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Pará Western (Santarém) km 83 Logged Forest Tower Site -3.01700 -3.01700 -54.97070 -54.97070

Related Publication(s):

Miller, S.D., M.L. Goulden, H.R. da Rocha, 2007: The effect of canopy gaps on subcanopy ventilation and scalar fluxes in a tropical forest, Agr. Forest Meteorol. 142:25-34.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data were collected at the tower located within a logging gap within the Tapajos National Forest, 83 km south of the city of Santarem, Para. Data are presented in one comma-delimited ASCII file. There are 44 columns of ASCII data values representing measured or calculated quantities.



This file contains a total of 29,193 records (rows) including:

- a header section (rows 1-51)

- column headings (row 52)

- data (rows 53-29,188), each corresponding to a 30-minute interval beginning June 3, 2002 and ending January 30, 2004

- missing data are represented by -999.

Filename: CD04_gap_tower_met_CO2_fluxes.csv



Column Column heading Units/Format Sensor Variable description

1 Experiment_day Decimal day Day the measurements were taken (0 = January 1 2000 00:00 hours)

2 Date yyyy-mm-dd Measurement date (yyyy-mm-dd)

3 Year yyyy Year the measurements were taken (2002 or 2003)

4 Month mm Month the measurements were taken (1-12)

5 Day dd Day of the month the measurements were taken (1 - 31)

6 Hour hh Hour (0-23) at the start of each sampling period as GMT (note local time is GMT -4)

7 Minute mm Minute at the start of each sampling period (0, 29, 30, or 50)

8 Air_temp_64m degrees C Campbell CSAT3 Sonic air temperature at 64 m height in degrees Celsius

9 Press_64m kPa Campbell CSAT3 Air pressure at 64 m height measured in kiloPascals (kPa)

10 H2O_64m mmol/mol LI-COR LI7500 Concentration of water vapor in the air measured in millimoles of water per mol of air at 64 m height using an open path LI-COR 7500

11 Wind_speed_64m m/s Campbell CSAT3 Wind speed measured in meters per second (m/s) with a sonic anemometer 64 m height

12 Wind_dir_64m degrees Campbell CSAT3 Wind direction measured in degrees (meteorological convention) with a sonic anemometer at 64 m height

13 CO2_64m ppm LI-COR LI7500 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 64 m height using an open path LI-COR 7500

14 CO2_10cm ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 0.1 m height

15 CO2_35cm ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 0.35 m height

16 CO2_70cm ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 0.70 m height

17 CO2_1_4m ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 1.40 m height

18 CO2_3m ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 3.0 m height

19 CO2_6m ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 6.0 m height

20 CO2_10_7m ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 10.70 m height

21 CO2_20m ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 20.00 m height

22 CO2_35m ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 35.00 m height

23 CO2_40m ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 40.00 m height

24 CO2_50m ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 50.00 m height

25 CO2_64m ppm LI-COR LI800 Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere measured in parts per million (ppm) at 64.00 m height

26 H2O_10cm mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 0.10 m height

27 H2O_35cm mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 0.35 m height

28 H2O_70cm mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 0.70 m height

29 H2O_1_4m mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 1.40 m height

30 H2O_3m mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 3.00 m height

31 H2O_6m mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at6.00 m height

32 H2O_10_7m mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 10.70 m height

33 H2O_20m mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 20.00 m height

34 H2O_35m mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 35.00 m height

35 H2O_40m mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 40.00 m height

36 H2O_50m mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 50.00 m height

37 H2O_64m mmol/mol LI-COR LI800 Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere measured in millimoles water per mole air (mmol/mol) at 64.00 m height

38 Friction_velocity_64m m/s Campbell CSAT3 Friction velocity (u_star) in meters per second (m/s) measured at 64 m height in meters per second

39 Sensible_heat_flux_64m W/m2 Sensible heat flux measured in Watts per meter squared (W/m2) at 64 m height

40 Latent_heat_flux_64m W/m2 Latent heat flux measured in Watts per meter squared (W/m2) at 64 m height

41 CO2_flux_64m umol/m2/s Net flux of carbon dioxide in micromoles of carbon dioxide per meter squared per second (umol/m2/s) at 64 m height. Positive values represent flux upward and negative values represent a downward flux

42 CO2_storage_64m umol/m2/s Calculated storage of carbon dioxide below 64 m in micro moles of CO2 per meter squared per second (umol/m2/s)

43 NEE_raw umol/m2/s Net ecosystem exchange calculated based on CO2 measurements with no correction during periods of low friction velocity in micromoles of CO2 per meter squared per second (umol/m2/s)

44 NEE_corr umol/m2/s Net ecosystem exchange calculated based on CO2 measurements with friction velocity (u_star) corrected with 0.22 m/s cutoff (umol/m2/s)



Example data records:







Experiment_day,Date,Year,Month,Day,Hour,Minute,Air_temp_64m,Press_64m,H2O_64m,Wind_speed_64m,Wind_dir_64m,

CO2_64m,CO2_10cm,CO2_35cm,CO2_70cm,CO2_1_4m,CO2_3m,CO2_6m,CO2_10_7m,CO2_20m,CO2_35m,

CO2_40m,CO2_50m,CO2_64m,H2O_10cm,H2O_35cm,H2O_70cm,H2O_1_4m ,H2O_3m,H2O_6m,H2O_10_7m,

H2O_20m,H2O_35m,H2O_40m,H2O_50m,H2O_64m,Friction_velocity_64m,Sensible_heat_flux_64m,Latent_heat_flux_64m,

CO2_flux_64m,CO2_storage_64m,NEE_raw,NEE_corr



885,2002-06-03,2002,6,3,0,0,27.793494,98.851497,28.439289,2.603938,55.894123,

380.032299,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,

387.955142,387.038845,382.934134,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,-999,

-999,-999,28.440155,28.26809,27.997728,0.246397,-18.687878,49.996735,

9.547383,-999,-999,-999



885.020833,2002-06-03,2002,6,3,0,30,27.772336,98.885206,27.517323,2.754689,62.15423,

377.503361,-999,445.819547,414.175328,442.356354,-999,428.315086,-999,412.909541,388.641362,

388.573601,384.825059,380.467529,-999,28.878946,28.613601,28.839289,-999,28.732323,-999,

28.475118,27.601395,27.537451,27.367376,27.087395,0.184523,-13.462401,23.286157,

6.000996,-999,-999,-999



885.041667,2002-06-03,2002,6,3,1,0,27.486377,98.912688,27.839325,2.610075,49.564987,

380.082424,442.81277,435.295833,424.853022,430.217705,445.900646,434.21457,416.879111,416.183829,390.93016,

388.698053,386.931076,381.434725,28.645426,28.415124,28.350015,28.484821,28.668677,28.434639,28.155599,

28.134648,27.354239,27.264799,27.161372,26.943763,0.217103,-16.614595,20.904091,

9.21241,9.804168,19.016578,19.016578

...















Data Application and Derivation:

Data Calculations

For the storage flux, molar densities of CO2 and H2O in the profile were determined using an IRGA. The amount of CO2 stored beneath the eddy flux sensors (64 m) was calculated by integrating the profile between 0 and 64 m. The storage flux was then calculated by differentiating this quantity with respect to time. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was calculated for each half-hour interval as the sum of the turbulent CO2 flux at 64 m and the change in the amount of CO2 in the air column beneath 64 m (the storage flux). Uncertainties in the calculation of respiration and NEE at the Tapajos sites are discussed in detail in Saleska et al. [2003] and Miller et al. [2004].



Applications

Analysis of eddy covariance observations provides information useful for identifying which physiological and physical processes play dominant roles in controlling CO2 exchange. In turn, this information contributes to the development and improvement of models of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange and to understanding which processes are particularly sensitive to future change.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

This data set is not gap-filled. Missing values or data that were flagged as unreliable have been given a value of -999. It is up to the end-user to fill these values if necessary.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Flux measurements were made from a 65 m tower located in a gap created by a reduced impact logging operation conducted at the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. Winds from the east predominate at 64 m, accounting for about 85% of day and night intervals. The data acquisition computer and closed-path gas analyzers were located in an air-conditioned hut 8 m south of the tower base. Data acquisition and control systems were automated and data were downloaded weekly.



Profile measurements: Closed path IRGA

An infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA, LI-COR LI800, Lincoln NE) sequentially measured the concentrations of CO2 and H2O at 12 heights (0.1, 0.35, 0.7, 1.4, 3, 6, 10.7, 20, 35, 40, 50, 64 m above the ground) every 48 minutes. Four standard liters per minute (slpm) of air were drawn through a filter at each altitude, down 5.5-mm inner-diameter polyethylene lined tubing (Furon Dekabon 1300), through a solenoid manifold in an enclosure at the base of the tower (Parker General Valve, Fairfield NJ), into the equipment hut, and through the IRGA cell. The pressure in the IRGA cell was actively controlled at 83 kPa (MKS Instruments, Andover MA). The IRGA was calibrated for CO2 and water vapor daily by sequentially sampling purge air, CO2 standard in air (+-1% Scott Marin, Riverside CA), CO2 free air (Scott Marin, Riverside CA), and 16 C dew point air (LI-COR LI610, Lincoln NE).



Atmospheric CO2 and H2O concentrations: Open path IRGA

An independent measurement of CO2 and H2O at 64 m was made with an open path IRGA (LI-COR LI7500, Lincoln NE) positioned 40-cm south of the sonic anemometer. The open path was calibrated by comparison with the simultaneous measurements made with the closed-path eddy covariance IRGA.



Flux measurements

The turbulent fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, CO2, and momentum at 64 m were determined with the eddy covariance technique. The signals directly required for flux calculation were digitized and stored at 4 Hz. Wind and temperature were measured with a 3-axis sonic anemometer pointed due east (Campbell Scientific, Logan UT).

References:

Bruno, R.D., H.R. da Rocha, H.C. de Freitas, M.L. Goulden, and S.D. Miller. 2006. Soil moisture dynamics in an eastern Amazonian tropical forest. Hydrological Processes 20(12):2477-2489.doi:10.1002/hyp.6211



Miller, S.D., M.L. Goulden, M.C. Menton, H.R. da Rocha, H.C. de Freitas, A.M.E.S. Figueira, and C.A.D. de Sousa. (2004) Biometric and micrometeorological measurements of tropical forest carbon balance. Ecological Applications 14(4):S114-126. doi:10.1890/02-6005



Saleska SR, SD Miller, DM Matross, ML Goulden, SC Wofsy, HR da Rocha, PB de Camargo, P Crill, BC Daube, HC de Freitas, L Hutyra, M Keller, V Kirchhoff, M Menton, JW Munger, EH Pyle, AH Rice, H Silva H. 2003. Carbon in amazon forests: Unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses. Science 302:1554-1557



Related Publications



Miller, S.D., M.L. Goulden, H.R. da Rocha, 2007: The effect of canopy gaps on subcanopy ventilation and scalar fluxes in a tropical forest, Agr. Forest Meteorol. 142:25-34. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.10.008

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