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Investigation:

ND-03 (Deegan / Victoria / Krusche / Ballester)

LBA Dataset ID:

ND03_FLOWPATH_CHEMISTRY

Originator(s):

1. NEILL, C.
2. KRUSCHE, A.V.
3. ELSENBEER, H.
      4. GERMER, S.
5. NETO, S.G.
6. CHAVES, J.E.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

We set out to quantify how hydrological flowpaths and nitrogen transformations change in response to the clearing of tropical rainforest for cattle pasture in the Amazon. Field measurements were carried out at Rancho Grande in the Brazilian state of Rondonia, in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon basin.
This data set consists of 3081 water chemistry observations of various flowpaths and water compartments in one forest (1.43 ha) and one pasture (0.73 ha) watersheds drained by ephemeral-to-intermittent streams in the southwestern Amazon. Data was collected during one entire rainy season starting on August 2004 and ending on April 2005. Support for this study was provided by the US National Science Foundation (DEB-0315656), the NASA LBA Program (NCC5-690) and by grants from Brazilian agencies FAPESP (# 03/13172-2) and CNPq (# 420199/2005-5).

Beginning Date:

2004-08-22

Ending Date:

2005-03-08

Metadata Last Updated on:

2012-03-29

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO ND-03 Forest and Pasture Watershed Hydrochemistry, Rondonia, Brazil :  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1076

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-03 Forest and Pasture Watershed Hydrochemistry, Rondonia, Brazil :  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/ND03_Flowpath_Chemistry.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Neill, C., A.V. Krusche, H. Elsenbeer, S. Germer, S.G. Neto, J.E. Chaves. 2012. LBA-ECO ND-03 Forest and Pasture Watershed Hydrochemistry, Rondonia, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1076

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
DISCHARGE/FLOW TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE SURFACE WATER FIELD INVESTIGATION STREAM GAUGE
GROUNDWATER CHEMISTRY TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE GROUND WATER LABORATORY ION CHROMATOGRAPH
PRECIPITATION AMOUNT ATMOSPHERE PRECIPITATION FIELD INVESTIGATION RAIN GAUGE
SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE SURFACE WATER FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS
WATER ION CONCENTRATION ATMOSPHERE PRECIPITATION LABORATORY ION CHROMATOGRAPH

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  FLOWPATHS, FOREST , GROUNDWATER, OVERLAND FLOW, PASTURE, RONDONIA, SOIL SOLUTION, STREAMS, THROUGHFALL

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  RONDONIA -10.28860 -10.32310 -62.85830 -62.88110

Related Publication(s):

Chaves, J., C. Neill, S. Germer, S.G. Neto, A. Krusche, and H. Elsenbeer. 2008. Land management impacts on runoff sources in small Amazon watersheds. Hydrological Processes 22(12):1766-1775.

Germer, S., H. Elsenbeer, and J.M. Moraes. 2006. Throughfall and temporal trends of rainfall redistribution in an open tropical rainforest, south-western Amazonia (Rondonia, Brazil). Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 10(3):383-393.

Neill, C., L.A. Deegan, S.M. Thomas, C.L. Haupert, A.V. Krusche, V.M. Ballester, and R.L. Victoria. 2006. Deforestation alters the hydraulic and biogeochemical characteristics of small lowland Amazonian streams. Hydrological Processes 20(12):2563-2580.

Neto, Sergio Candido de Gouveia. 2006. Concentracoes e balancos de Carbono organico dissolvido em duas bacias do estado de Rondonia: uma comparacao entre floresta e pastagem. M.S. Thesis. University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 55p.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are provided as a single comma-separated ASCII file.




Filename: Rancho_Gde_RO_flowpath_chemistry.csv</b>




Column Variable Variable Description

Number Name

1 Event_nr Sequential number ID for precipitation events during the 2004-05 rainy season.

This ID link samples collected during a precipitation event to that event.

Event 2001 is the first event, 2002 the second and so on. NULL for non-event samples

2 Watershed_type Sample watershed, i.e.: F, Forest or P, Pasture

3 Sample_type Type of sample; precipitation, R.; streamflow, CF; throughfall, TF;

groundwater, GW; soil solution, L; overland flow, OF;

4 Sample_num Sample number. Identifies sequential number for CF samples,

collector/well number for OF, L, GW, and TF samples. NULL for R samples

5 Lys_depth Depth of Lysimeter (cm) from which samples was collected, 20 or 100 discharge_L_s

6 Discharge Discharge in L/s at the time CF samples was collected.

Calculated from stage height at a 30.5 cm H-flume at the outlet of each watershed

logged every 5 minutes with a TruTrack 50 cm datalogger.

7 TF_collected TF (liters) measured at 20 collectors (1-20), installed on support

1 m above ground, made out of 150 mm diameter PVC pipe, which were connected via

flexible tubes to 20 L plastic canisters from which sample for hydrochemistry

was also collected. The total collecting area per collector was 980 cm2 (70 cm * 140 cm).

To avoid splash losses a orifice with a width (70 mm) smaller than the diameter

was cut out of the PVC pipes. Throughfall quantities per event were measured manually

with 20 collectors Two hours after every event or alternatively the next morning for

events which ended after 09:00 PM, we emptied the collectors and quantified the throughfall

with graduated cylinders of three different sizes. For events with less or equal to 5 mm,

between 5 and 15 mm and events bigger or equal to 15 mm graduated cylinders of 100 ml,

500 ml and 1000 ml were used, respectively. NULL for non TF samples

8 Precip_tot Total precipitation during rain event a sample was collected.

NULL for non event samples

9 Sample_date Date of sample collection in yyyy-mm-dd format

10 Time Time of day of sample collection: 00:00 to 23:59

11 Time_stamp Time stamp for logger derived data (e.g. discharge) YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.

For non logger data YYYY-MM-DD 00:00:00

12 pH pH (+/- 0.01) measured in the field with an ORION 250A+ pH/conductivity meter

13 Conductivity Conductivity (uS/cm +/- 0.1) measured in the field with an ORION

250A+ pH/conductivity meter

14 Alk_tot Total alkalinity, mg/L titrated to pH 4.2 with H2SO4 using a HACH titration kit

15 DOC Dissolved organic carbon, umoles/L analyzed on a Shimadzu TOC 5000A carbon analyzer.

16 DIC Dissolved inorganic carbon, umoles/L , analyzed at the field laboratory on

a Li-Cor infrared gas analyzer

17 Cl Concentration of Cl-, umoles/L determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500)

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

18 NO2 Concentration of NO2-, umoles/L determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500)

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

19 SO42 Concentration of SO4-2, umoles/L determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500)

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

20 NO3 Concentration of NO3-, umoles/L determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500)

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

21 PO42 Concentration of PO4-3, umoles/L determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500)

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

22 Na Concentration of Na+, umoles/L determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500)

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

23 NH4 Concentration of NH4+, umoles/L determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500)

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

24 K Concentration of K+, umoles/L determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500)

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

25 Mg Concentration of Mg+2, umoles/L determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500)

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

26 Ca Concentration of K+2, umoles/L determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500)

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

27 Si Concentration of Si(OH)4, umoles/L determined colorimetrically by the

silicomolybdate reduction with ascorbic acid to molybdenum blue method

at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura-USP, in Piracicaba, SP

28 CO2 Concentration of CO2, umoles/L , analyzed at the field laboratory

on a Li-Cor infrared gas analyzer

29 HC03 Concentration of HCO3-, umoles/L , analyzed at the field laboratory

on a Li-Cor infrared gas analyzer

30 CO32 Concentration of CO32-, umoles/L , analyzed at the field laboratory

on a Li-Cor infrared gas analyzer




Missing values are represented as -9999. Values designated as NULL have a specific meaning as defined in individual variable description (see above)

Data Application and Derivation:

Typical Application of Data:


Assessment of material fluxes from/to atmosphere, canopy, soil and groundwater to/from streams and watersheds of the elements and chemical species investigated.





Theory of Measurements: Not available


Derivation Techniques and Algorithms:


Formulae: Not applicable





Processing Steps:


After collection, all samples were transported to a field laboratory located 500 m from the research watersheds and filtered through Whatman GF/F filters (0.7 um pore size). Samples were preserved with thymol and stored frozen in 60 mL acid-washed polyethylene bottles.


Processing Changes:


Special Corrections/Adjustments: Not applicable


Calculated Variables: Not applicable


Graphs and Plots Used in Analysis: Not applicable

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Data Usage Guidance:


Errors and Limitations:


Error Sources:


Possible sample contamination during collection, manipulation and/or analysis. Suspect samples were removed from dataset.


Limitations of the Data: None


Known Problems with the Data: None


Quality Assessment Activities: Not available


Other Relevant Information about the Study: Not available

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Both watersheds were instrumented for hydrological and hydrochemical measurements beginning in August 2004. A tipping bucket rain gauge (Hydrological Services P/L, Liverpool Australia) and a Campbell logger installed in the pasture recorded rainfall intensity. Incident rainfall volumes and rainfall samples for chemical analyses were collected after each precipitation event into a 20 L acid washed polyethylene container using a trough-type collector installed 1 m above ground. Canopy throughfall was collected after each event at 20 similar trough collectors distributed throughout the catchment. Overland flow samplers were placed at one location in each watershed during the first four months of sampling and at three additional locations in the subsequent months of sampling. Samples of soil solution from the vadose zone were taken every ten days from tension lysimeters installed at two depths at ten locations in each watershed. The lysimeters were installed above and below the texture break at the top of the B horizon (20, 100cm). Groundwater was sampled weekly from three wells at each watershed. Wells were 5 m apart and 10 m from the outlet of each watershed and ranged 4-6 m in depth. Stream flow was collected from a 30.5 cm H-flume installed at the outlet of each watershed using ISCO samplers. Samples were collected every five minutes during the first 80 min of flow and every 20 min for the following 160 min. Stage height was recorded every 5 min with TruTrack loggers installed on each flume.

All field measurements and sampling were conducted between late August 2004 and late April 2005, excluding December 2004 due to personnel and logistical limitations, and encompassed an entire rainy season. The logging equipment recorded precipitation intensity and stage heights continually for the duration of the study.





After collection, all samples were transported to a field laboratory located 500 m from the research watersheds and filtered through Whatman GF/F filters (0.7 um pore size). Samples were preserved with thymol and stored frozen in 60 mL acid-washed polyethylene bottles. Concentrations of cations and anions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, and SO42-) were determined by ion chromatography (Dionex DX-500) and silicates (SiOH4) colorimetrically at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, at the University of Sao Paulo, in Piracicaba, SP. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) species were determined at the field laboratory with a LICOR infrared gas analyser. Conductivity and pH were measured in the field with an Orion pH/conductivity meter. DOC was analyzed on a Shimadzu TOC analyser.

References:

none cited

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