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Investigation:

ND-04 (Fernandes / Wandelli)

LBA Dataset ID:

ND04_SECONDARY_FOREST_RECOVERY

Originator(s):

1. FELDPAUSCH, T.R.
2. FERNANDES, E.C.M.
3. RONDON, M.A.
      4. RIHA, S.J.
5. WANDELLI, E.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

The area of secondary forest (SF) regenerating from pastures is increasing in the Amazon Basin; however, the return of forest and canopy structure following abandonment is not well understood. We studied the development of leaf area index (LAI), canopy cover, aboveground biomass, stem density, diameter at breast height (DBH), and basal area (BA) by growth-form and diameter class for ten SFs regenerating from abandoned pastures. Biomass accrual was largely tree-dominated, constituting 94% or more of the total measured biomass in all forests abandoned for at least 4 to 6 years. Vine biomass increased with forest age, but its relative contribution to total biomass decreased with time. Tree stem density peaked after 6 to 8 years (10320 stems ha-1) before declining by 42% in the 12 to 14-year-old SFs. Shrubs greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH contributed significant biomass only in the 2 to 4-year-old forests. Small diameter tree stems in the 1-5 cm size class composed >58% of the total stems for all forests; however, after 12 to 14-years, there was no significant near ground leaf area and canopy cover. Leaf area return (LAI=3.2 after 12 to 14-years) relative to biomass was slower than reported recovery for slash-and-burn sites had not undergone several cycles of clearing. After 12 to 14-years of regrowth following pasture abandonment, the recolonizing vegetation rapidly returned some, but not all components of forest structure. Compared to primary forest values, LAI and basal area were 50-60%, canopy cover and stem density were comparable, and the rapid tree-dominated biomass accrual was 25-50%. Biomass accumulation may stall because of even-aged, monospecific, untiered stand structure. The comparatively slow LAI accumulation relative to reported values indicates a different canopy development pathway that warrants further investigation of gas exchange, soil water uptake, and nutrient limitations to forest structure development.

Beginning Date:

2000-09-12

Ending Date:

2001-09-01

Metadata Last Updated on:

2012-02-29

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil:  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1068

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil:  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/ND04_Secondary_Forest_Recovery.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Feldpausch, T.R., E.C.M. Fernandes, M.A. Rondon, S.J. Riha, and E. Wandelli. 2012. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1068

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS
FOREST MANAGEMENT BIOSPHERE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS FIELD INVESTIGATION ALGORITHM
LEAF CHARACTERISTICS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS
NUTRIENTS BIOSPHERE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS
REFORESTATION AGRICULTURE FOREST SCIENCE FIELD INVESTIGATION ANALYSIS

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS, AMAZONIA, BRAZIL, CAPOIERA, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, DEGRADED LAND, FOREST CANOPY , LAI, LEAF AREA INDEX, PASTURE, REGENERATION, SECONDARY FOREST, SOIL NUTRIENTS, SUCCESSION, VEGETATION

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  AMAZONAS (MANAUS) -2.00000 -2.57160 -59.00000 -60.03000

Related Publication(s):

dos Santos, U.M., J.F.D. Goncalves, and T.R. Feldpausch. 2006. Growth, leaf nutrient concentration and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency in tropical tree species planted in degraded areas in central Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 226(1-3):299-309.

Feldpausch, T., S.J. Riha, E.C.M. Fernandes, and E. Wandelli. 2005. Development of Forest Structure and Leaf Area in Secondary Forests Regenerating on Abandoned Pastures in Central Amazonia. Earth Interactions 9(6):1-22.

Feldpausch, T.R. 2002. Carbon and nutrient accumulation, forest structure, and leaf area in secondary forests regenerating from degraded pastures in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Thesis, Cornell University.

Feldpausch, T.R., M.A. Rondon, E.C.M. Fernandes, S.J. Riha, and E. Wandelli. 2004. Carbon and nutrient accumulation in secondary forests regenerating on pastures in central Amazonia. Ecological Applications 14(4):S164.

Silva, C. E. M. d. 2005. Eficiencia no uso dos nutrientes por especies pioneiras apos correcao da acidez do solo e adubacao fosfatada sobre area degradada na Amazonia central - M.S. Thesis. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Brazil.

Silva, C. E. M. d., J. F. d. C. Goncalves, T. R. Feldpausch, F. J. Luizao, R. R. d. Morais, and G. O. Ribeiro. 2006. Eficiencia no uso dos nutrientes por especies pioneiras crescidas em pastagens degradadas na Amazonia central (Nutrient use efficiency for pioneer species grown on abandoned pastures in central Amazonia). Acta Amazonica 36:503-512.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are presented in three comma-separated ASCII files:

File #1: ND04_Secondary_Forest_LAI_2000-01.csv

File #2: ND04_Secondary_Forest_DBH.csv

File #3: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Structure_Means.csv


Two additional files are provided as supplemental documentation:

File #4: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Plot_Information.csv

File #5: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Allometric_Equations.txt






The files are organized as follows:




File #1: ND04_Secondary_Forest_LAI_2000-01.csv</b>

Column Column Variable Description

Number Heading

1 Sample_date Sampling date (yyyy-mm-dd)

2 Sample_month Month in which sampling was done: March, June, September, December

3 Sample_year Year in which sampling was done

4 Location_ID Sampling location ID code,

consisting of fazenda name code + forest number

(See companion file: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Plot_Information.csv)

5 Stand_age Secondary forest age at the onset of the study

(years since pasture abandonment) in ranges:

0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 6 to 8, 12 to 14

6 Plot_ID Plot identification number:

each forest had four plots varying in area between 100 and 400 m2

7 Rep_no Identification of replicate samples within each plot for each LAI measurement

8 Height Sampling height in centimeters (cm).

Measuring LAI at two heights allows computation of the scrub layer

by subtraction of LAI at 5 from 150

9 Treatment Fertilizer treatment:

- Control: no additions

- P: P added at a rate of 50 kg/ha as TSP

- P+Ca: P (50 kg/ha)+Ca (2 t/ha)

- P+Ca+G: P(50 kg/ha)+Ca (2 metric t/ ha)+Gypsum (CaSO4) (1 metric t/ha)

10 LAI_1 Estimated Leaf Area index (LAI) in meter squared of leaf area per meter squared

of ground area calculated using the CI-110 Digital Plant Canopy Analyzer

[C-110: CID, Inc., Vancouver Washington]

11 Mean_leaf angle Mean leaf angle in degrees

12 Trans_coef Transmission coefficient; a factor that describes the regional clarity

of the atmosphere with respect to instantaneous transmission of direct radiation

13 Threshold Threshold set within the CI-110 software used to differentiate

between leaf margins and sky

14 Canopy_openness Canopy openness based on the GLA software reported in percent (%) [GLA:

Gap Light Analyzer 2.0 software (Frazer et al. 1999)]

15 LAI_GLA_4 Estimated Leaf Area Index (LAI) in meter squared of leaf area per meter squared

of ground area calculated using the GLA software for the 4th ring

[GLA: Gap Light Analyzer 2.0 software (Frazer et al. 1999)]

16 LAI_GLA_5 Estimated Leaf Area Index (LAI) in meter squared of leaf area per meter squared

of ground area calculated using the GLA software for the 5th ring

[GLA: Gap Light Analyzer 2.0 software (Frazer et al. 1999)]




Missing data is represented by -9999, data not collected is represented by -4444


Example data records:


Sample_date,Sample_month,Sample_year,Location_ID,Stand_age,Plot_ID,Rep_no,Height,Treatment,LAI_1,Mean_leaf angle,Trans_coef,Threshold,Canopy_openness ,LAI_GLA_4,LAI_GLA_5

2000-09-12,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,9,1,150,P,-9999,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0

2000-09-12,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,9,2,150,P,0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0

2000-09-12,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,9,3,150,P,0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0

2000-09-12,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,9,4,150,P,0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0

2000-09-12,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,9,5,150,P,0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0

2000-09-12,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,8,1,150,Control,0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0

2000-09-12,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,8,2,150,Control,0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0

2000-09-12,September,2000,DAS-1,0 to 2,8,3,150,Control,0,0,-4444,-4444,0,0,0





File #2: ND04_Secondary_Forest_DBH.csv</b>

Column Column Variable Description

Number Heading

1 Location_ID Sampling location ID code,

consisting of fazenda name code + forest number

(See companion file: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Plot_Information.csv)

2 Stand_age Secondary forest age at the onset of the study

(years since pasture abandonment) in ranges:

0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 6 to 8, 12 to 14

3 Plot_ID Plot identification number:

there are 4 plots per forest with the exception of DAS-1 which has 12 plots

4 Subplot_ID Subplot identification number: there are 3 subplots per plot

5 Subplot_area Subplot area in meters squared (m2)

6 Plant_ID Plant identification number

7 Scientific_name Scientific name of the plant where identified in the format Genus species

8 Common_name Local name of plant where identified

9 Growth_form Plant growth form: tree, shrub or liana

10 DBH mm Diameter at breast height:

measured in millimeters (mm) at 1.3 meters above the surface of the soil

11 Field_notes Comments from the field notebooks




Missing data is indicated by -9999


Example data records:


Location_ID,Stand_age,Plot_ID,Subplot_ID,Subplot_area,Plant_ID,Scientific_name,Common_name,Growth_form,DBH ,Field_notes

DAS-1,0 to 2,1,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH

DAS-1,0 to 2,2,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH

DAS-1,0 to 2,3,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH

DAS-1,0 to 2,4,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH

DAS-1,0 to 2,5,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH

DAS-1,0 to 2,6,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH

DAS-1,0 to 2,7,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH

DAS-1,0 to 2,8,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH

DAS-1,0 to 2,9,-9999,-9999,-9999,Not determined,Not determined,-9999,-9999,No stems greater than or equal to 1 cm DBH





File #3: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Structure_Means.csv</b>

Column Column Variable Description

Number Heading

1 Location_ID Sampling location ID code,

consisting of fazenda name code + forest number

(See companion file: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Plot_Information.csv)

2 Stand_age Secondary forest age at the onset of the study

(years since pasture abandonment) in ranges:

0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 6 to 8, 12 to 14

3 Vegetation_group Type of vegetation: tree, shrub, liana, or

total which indicates that all 3 categories are represented

4 Biomass_TABG Total aboveground biomass calculated using allometric equations

for the trees lianas, reported as mg ha-1

(See below for contents of companion file (File #5):

ND04_Secondary_Forest_Allometric_Equations.txt).

See accompanying documentation for equations.

5 DBH_mean Mean diameter at breast height in centimeters (cm) for each forest.

Diameter was measured at 1.3 meters above the ground or

above prop roots where they occurred

6 Stem_density_mean Mean number of stems per hectare (stems ha-1) for each forest

7 Basal_area_mean Mean basal area calculated from measured dbh and scaled

from the sum of all area inventoried to m2 per hectare for

each forest, reported as m2 ha-1




Missing data is represented by -9999


Example data records:


Location_ID,Stand_age,Vegetation_group,Biomass_TABG,DBH_mean,Stem_density_mean,Basal_area_mean

DAS-1,0 to 2 ,tree,0,0,0,0

DAS-1,0 to 2 ,shrub,0,0,0,0

DAS-1,0 to 2 ,liana,0,0,0,0

DAS-1,0 to 2 ,total,0,-9999,0,0

Rodao-1,0 to 2 ,tree,0,0,0,0

Rodao-1,0 to 2 ,shrub,0,0,0,0

Rodao-1,0 to 2 ,liana,0,0,0,0

Rodao-1,0 to 2 ,total,0,-9999,0,0

Rodao-4,2 to 4,tree,0.08,0.86,75,0

Rodao-4,2 to 4,shrub,0.18,0.73,300,0.1

Rodao-4,2 to 4,liana,0,0,0,0

Rodao-4,2 to 4,total,0.25,-9999,375,0.1

DAS-2,4 to 6,tree,22.27,3.05,6375,7

DAS-2,4 to 6,shrub,1.1,1.81,1875,0.5




File #4: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Plot_Information.csv</b>



Fazenda Fazenda Name / Description

Name

Code

DAS Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental Agricultural District of SUFRAMA (DAS) pasture research site,

BR-174 Km 53-54 (North of Manaus)

Rodao Fazenda Rodao: BR-174 Km 46 (North of Manaus)

Dimona Fazenda Dimona: ZF-3 Km 72 (North of Manaus)



Column Column

Number Heading Variable Description

1 State Study location state: Amazonia

2 Region Study location region: Manaus

3 Km_marker Study location kilometer marker along the highway BR-174

running north from Manaus to Venezuela, or

ZF-3, a feeder road to BF-174

4 Fazenda_name Fazenda name (See Fazenda Name / Description above)

5 Location_ID Sampling location ID code,

consisting of fazenda name code + forest number

6 Stand_age Secondary forest age at onset of study,

i.e. years after pasture abandonment:

0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 6 to 8, 12 to 14

7 N_Plots Number of plots in forest

8 Plot_dimensions Plot dimensions as width of plot in meters X depth of plot in meters (m)

9 N_subplots Number of sub-plots in the plot

10 Subplot_dimensions Sub-plot dimensions as:

width of sub-plot in meters X depth of sub-plot in meters (m)

11 Plot_area Total area sampled per plot in meters squared (m^2)

12 Forest_area Total area sampled per forest in meters squared (m^2)




Example data records:


State,Region,Km_marker,Fazenda_name,Location_ID,Stand_age,N_plots,Plot_dimensions,N_subplots,Subplot_dimensions,Plot_area,Forest_area

Amazonas,Manaus,km 54,Embrapa DAS Experiment,DAS-1,0 to 2,12,10x10,1,10x10,100,1200

Amazonas,Manaus,km 54,Embrapa DAS Experiment,DAS-2,4 to 6,4,15x15,3,4x5,60,240

Amazonas,Manaus,km 54,Embrapa DAS Experiment,DAS-3,12 to 14,4,20x20,3,5x7,105,420

Amazonas,Manaus,km 72,Fazenda Dimona - ZF3 ,Dimona-1,6 to 8,4,15x15,3,4x5,60,240

Amazonas,Manaus,km 72,Fazenda Dimona - ZF3 ,Dimona-2,12 to 14,4,20x20,3,5x7,105,420

Amazonas,Manaus,km 72,Fazenda Dimona - ZF3 ,Dimona-3,6 to 8,4,15x15,3,4x5,60,240

Amazonas,Manaus,km 46,Fazenda Rodao,Rodao-1,0 to 2,4,15x15,1,15x15,225,900

Amazonas,Manaus,km 46,Fazenda Rodao,Rodao-2,6 to 8,4,15x15,3,4x5,60,240

Amazonas,Manaus,km 46,Fazenda Rodao,Rodao-3,4 to 6,4,15x15,3,4x5,60,240

Amazonas,Manaus,km 46,Fazenda Rodao,Rodao-4,2 to 4,4,10x10,1,10x10,100,400





File #5: ND04_Secondary_Forest_Allometric_Equations.txt</b>

Allometric equations relating diameter at breast height (for dbh > 5 cm) to dry weight

of dominant secondary forest species in central Amazonia, Brasil. Based on Nelson et al. 1999





Family Scientific_name Allometric equation R2

Cecropiaceae Cecropia sp. ln (DW)= -2.5118 +2.4257*ln(dbh) 0.98

Celastraceae Goupia glabra ln (DW)= -1.7972 +2.4206*ln(dbh) 0.99

Clusiaceae Vismia japurensis ln (DW)= -1.7829 +2.3651*ln(dbh) 0.99

Clusiaceae Vismia cayennensis ln (DW)= -2.3706 +2.5392*ln(dbh) 0.99

Flacourtiaceae Laetia procera ln (DW)= -2.224 +2.5105*ln(dbh) 0.99

Melastomateceae Bellucia sp. ln (DW)= -1.8158 +2.370*ln(dbh) 0.99

Mixed species ln (DW)= -1.9968 +2.4128*ln(dbh) 0.98



Allometric equation relating basal area (in cm2) to dry weight for lianas. Based on Putz 1983.



Log (DW)= 0.12+ 0.91*log(BA) R2= 0.82



Citations:

Nelson, B.W., R. Mesquita, J.L.G. Pereira, S.G.A. d. Souza, G.T. Batista and L.B. Couto. 1999.

Allometric regressions for improved estimate of secondary forest biomass in the central Amazon.

Forest Ecology and Management 117: 149-167


Putz, F.E. 1983. Liana biomass and leaf area of a 'terre firme' forest in the Rio Negro Basin,

Venezuela. Biotropica 15: 185-189.

Data Application and Derivation:

Using individual tree and shrub DBH measurements we calculated dry biomass by life-form and diameter class using two sets of allometric equations developed in the region (for stems greater than 5 cm diameter from Nelson et al. 1999, for smaller stems from Mesquita unpublished data). We calculated mean basal area for all stems by calculating basal area for the individual based on DBH and summing the values per plot. Using allometric equations developed in Amazonian terra firme sites, we calculated basal area of individual vines and converted basal area to dry biomass (Putz 1983).





These data allow the calculation of rate the recovery of secondary forests as well as the structure of the recovering forest in terms of stem size and density.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Since we only measured DBH for stems greater than or equal to 1 cm diameter, our estimates underestimate total aboveground biomass and stem density.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:


Study sites:</b>

The study sites are located in the state of Amazonas, Brazil along the road BR-174 north of the city of Manaus. The terrain is undulating with an elevation of 50-150 m.a.s.l. The plateau soil is classified as dystrophic, isohyperthermic, clayey kaolinitic Hapludoxes with approximately 80 to 95 % clay. Regional climate is tropical humid and the mean temperature is 26.7 degrees C. Mean annual rainfall in Manaus is 2.2 meters with March and April the wettest months.

Ten secondary forests were selected within three fazendas (cattle ranches) now in various stages of grazing, pasture abandonment or pasture reclamation: Fazenda Rodao (km 46), Embrapa-District of SUFRAMA (DAS) pasture research site (km 53) and Fazenda Dimona (km 72). Within each forest located on plateau Oxisols we established 4 plots of 100 m2 to 400 m2 area. Within each plot 3 subplots ranging in size from 35 to 100 m2 were established. A total of 0.56 ha of area was included in this study across the 10 forests.




Fertilizer treatments:</b>

Fertilizer was added once in late November 2000 as follows:

Treatment Quantity and form of nutrients added per hectare

P 50 kg P as triple superphosphate

P+Ca P added as for the P treatment + 2 metric tons of Ca

P+Ca+Gypsum P and Ca as above, + 1 metric ton Gypsum (CaSO4)

Control no additions




LAI measurements:</b>

Leaf area index was measured in all sub-plots beginning in September 2000 and repeated every three months for a year using a portable, electronic handheld hemispheric (fish-eye) lens (CI-110: CID, Inc., Vancouver Washington) with the plane of the lens set parallel to the ground. We measured LAI at 5 and 150 cm above the ground, this resulted in 12 LAI images per forest per height (total of 240 images). The two heights allow the distinction of understory (leaf area below 150 cm height)and overstory leaf area. All photographs were taken using the incident light characteristic of morning and evening twilight hours.


Leaf area index was calculated from the digital photos using the CI-110 software (version 3.0.1.1) on a high-resolution LCD monitor. We reduced the field of view from 180 degrees to 150 degrees to reduce the misclassification of stems as leaves. After setting an image specific threshold to differentiate between leaf margins and sky, the software uses gap fraction analysis to calculate LAI for each image (Norman and Campbell 1989).


Canopy cover, a measure of the percentage of leaf cover obscuring the open sky as viewed from the ground, was calculated from the same digital photos using the Gap Light Analyzer 2.0 software (Frazer et al. 1999). Additional LAI estimates were made from the GLA software based on reductions in the hemispheric view from GLA ring 4 and ring 5.


Canopy cover was calculated using the canopy gap diffuse data, the fraction of pixels in each sky region that are open (white) on the fisheye photograph, weighted by hemispherical area.




Forest structure and biomass measurements:</b>

Diameters of all stems (trees, shrubs and vines) with diameters at breast height (1.3 m above ground) were measured in each sub-plot in late December 2000/early January 2001. Using individual tree and shrub DBH measurements we calculated dry biomass by life-form and diameter class using two sets of allometric equations developed in the region (for stems greater than 5 cm diameter from Nelson et al. 1999, for smaller stems from Mesquita unpublished data). We calculated mean basal area for all stems by calculating basal area for the individual based on DBH and summing the values per plot. Using allometric equations developed in Amazonian terra firme sites, we calculated basal area of individual vines and converted basal area to dry biomass (Putz 1983).

References:

Frazer, G.W., C.D. Canham and K.P. Lertzman. 1999. Gap Light Analyzer (GLA): Imaging software to extract canopy structure and gap light transmission indices from true-color fisheye photographs: User\'s manual and program documentation (version 2.0). Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada and the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY 36 pp.



Nelson, B.W., R. Mesquita, J.L.G. Pereira, S.G.A. d. Souza, G.T. Batista and L.B. Couto. 1999. Allometric regressions for improved estimate of secondary forest biomass in the central Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 117: 149-167.



Norman, J.M. and G.S.Campbell. 1989. Canopy structure. Pages 301-325 in Plant Physiological Ecology: Field Methods and Instrumentation. J.E.R.W. Pearcy, H.A. Mooney and P.W. Rundel editors.



Putz, F.E. 1983. Liana biomass and leaf area of a \'terre firme\' forest in the Rio Negro Basin, Venezuela. Biotropica 15: 185-189.

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