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Investigation:

ND-11 (Lehmann / Passos / Couto)

LBA Dataset ID:

LBA_ND11_SPFHC

Originator(s):

1. FILHO NOVAES, J.P.
2. SELVA, E.C.
3. COUTO, E.G.
      4. LEHMANN, J.
5. JOHNSON, M.S.
6. RIHA, S.J.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

The results of the analysis of soil chemical parameters, texture, and color are reported for 185 georeferenced soil profile sample points over four forested headwater catchments near Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Samples were collected from an approximately 20 x 20 m grid over each watershed from 2004/05/01 to 2004/08/18. By sampling each location at depths of 0-20 and 40-60 cm it was possible to distinguish and map the principle soil classes found in the study area to the 2nd category level of the Brazilian System of Soil Classification associated with the topographic relief. The data set contains one comma separated ASCII data file with spatially referenced soil nutrient and organic carbon data from 0-20 cm (A layer, topsoil) and 40-60 cm (B layer, subsoil) depths for the Juruena watersheds study area. A satisfactory relationship between the redness index of the diagnostic horizons and the soil class colors was also found. In spite of the apparent homogeneity of the visible landscape characteristics such as slope, soil color, and vegetation, the carbon and soil clay attributes were found to vary greatly. This variability over small distances demonstrates that extrapolation of soil characteristics and soil carbon stocks to larger areas could produce erroneous results if the spatial variability of the soil attributes is not taken into consideration.

Beginning Date:

2004-05-01

Ending Date:

2004-08-18

Metadata Last Updated on:

2009-03-31

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO ND-11 Soil Properties of Forested Headwater Catchments, Mato Grosso, Brazil :  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=914

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-11 Soil Properties of Forested Headwater Catchments, Mato Grosso, Brazil :  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/ND11_Soil_Spatial_Variability.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Novaes Filho, J.P., E.C. Selva, E.G. Couto, J. Lehmann, M.S. Johnson, and S.J. Riha. 2009. LBA-ECO ND-11 Soil Properties of Forested Headwater Catchments, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/914.

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
CARBON SOLID EARTH SOILS LABORATORY CARBON ANALYZER
CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY SOLID EARTH SOILS LABORATORY ANALYSIS
SOIL CHEMISTRY SOLID EARTH SOILS LABORATORY ANALYSIS
SOIL CLASSIFICATION SOLID EARTH SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION HUMAN OBSERVER
SOIL COLOR SOLID EARTH SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION HUMAN OBSERVER

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  MICROBASINS, PH, SOIL NUTRIENTS, SPATIAL VARIABILITY

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  MATO GROSSO -10.42490 -10.42490 -58.75970 -58.75970

Related Publication(s):

Johnson, M.S., J. Lehmann, S.J. Riha, A.V. Krusche, J.E. Richey, J.P.H.B. Ometto, and E.G. Couto. 2008. CO2 efflux from Amazonian headwater streams represents a significant fate for deep soil respiration. Geophysical Research Letters 35(L17401) doi10.1029/2008GL034619.

Novaes Filho, J.P., E.C. Selva, E.G. Couto, J. Lehmann, M.S. Johnson, and S.J. Riha. 2007. Spatial distribution of soil carbon under primary forest cover in southern Amazonia. Revista Arvore 31( ):83-92.

Novaes Filho, J.P., E.G. Couto, V.A. de Oliveira, M.S. Johnson, J. Lehmann, and J. Riha. 2007. Spatial variability of soil physical attributes used in soil classification of microbasins in southern Amazonia. Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo 31:91-100.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

One comma-delimited ASCII file is provided. Values of -9999 in the ASCII file indicate missing values.

Juruena_basins_soils.csv

Column

Column Heading

Description



1

UTMX

sample location, latitude coordinate for Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) zone 21S (easting)



2

UTMY

sample location, longitude coordinate for UTM zone 21S (northing)



3

pH_H2O_0_20

soil pH in water, 1: 2.5 w/v slurry, 0-20 cm depth



4

pH_CaCl2_0_20

soil pH in 0.01 M CaCl2 solution, 1;2.5 w/v slurry, 0-20 cm depth



5

P_0_20

soil phosphorus (mg/dm3), 0-20 cm depth



6

K_0_20

soil potassium (mg/dm3), 0-20 cm depth



7

Ca_0_20

soil calcium (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth



8

Mg_0_20

soil magnesium (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth



9

Al_0_20

soil aluminum (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth



10

H_0_20

soil hydronium (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth



10

H_0_20

soil hydronium (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth



11

Clay_pct_0_20

soil clay content (%), 0-20 cm depth



12

Silt_pct_0_20

soil silt content (%), 0-20 cm depth



13

Sand_pct_0_20

soil sand content (%), 0-20 cm depth



14

SumCat_0_20

sum of base cations (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth



15

CEC_0_20

cation exchange capacity (cmolc/dm3), 0-20 cm depth



16

Sat_Bas_0_20

base saturation of cation exchange capacity (%), 0-20 cm depth



17

Al_Sat_0_20

aluminum saturation (%), 0-20 cm depth



18

C_Tot_0_20

soil total carbon (g/kg), 0-20 cm depth



19

Color_0_20

soil color, Munsell color notation, 0-20 cm depth



20

pH_H2O_40_60

soil pH in water, 1: 2.5 w/v slurry, 40-60 cm depth



21

pH_CaCl2_40_60

soil pH in 0.01 M CaCl2 solution, 1;2.5 w/v slurry, 40-60 cm depth



22

P_40_60

soil phosphorus (mg/dm3), 40-60 cm depth



23

K_40_60

soil potassium (mg/dm3), 40-60 cm depth



24

Ca_plus_Mg_40_60

sum of soil calcium and magnesium (cmolc/dm3), 40-60 cm depth



25

Al_40_60

soil aluminum (cmolc/dm3), 40-60 cm depth



26

H_40_60

soil hydronium (cmolc/dm3), 40-60 cm depth



27

Clay_pct_40_60

soil clay content (%), 40-60 cm depth



28

Silt_pct_40_60

soil silt content (%), 40-60 cm depth



29

Sand_pct_40_60

soil sand content (%), 40-60 cm depth



30

SumCat_40_60

sum of base cations (cmolc/dm3), 40-60 cm depth



31

CEC_40_60

cation exchange capacity (cmolc/dm3), 40-60 cm depth



32

Sat_Bas_40_60

base saturation of cation exchange capacity (%), 40-60 cm depth



33

Al_Sat_40_60

aluminum saturation (%), 40-60 cm depth



34

C_Tot_40_60

soil total carbon (g/kg), 40-60 cm depth



35

Color_40_60

soil color, Munsell color notation, 40-60 cm depth





Example Data Records:



UTMX,UTMY,pH_H2O_0_20,pH_CaCl2_0_20,P_0_20,K_0_20,Ca_0_20,Mg_0_20,Al_0_20,H_0_20,Clay_pct_0_20,

Silt_pct_0_20,Sand_pct_0_20,SumCat_0_20,CEC_0_20,Sat_Bas_0_20,Al_Sat_0_20,C_Tot_0_20,Color_0_20,

pH_H2O_40_60,pH_CaCl2_40_60,P_40_60,K_40_60,Ca_plus_Mg_40_60,Al_40_60,H_40_60,Clay_pct_40_60,Silt_pct_40_60,

Sand_pct_40_60,SumCat_40_60,CEC_40_60,Sat_Bas_40_60,Al_Sat_40_60,C_Tot_40_60,Color_40_60,,,,,,



339525,8841537,4.5,4.0,1.1,38,0.6,0.3,0.8,2.9,18.2,

6.1,75.7,1.0,4.7,21.2,44.5,8.92,5YR 4/6,

4.4,4.1,0.3,4,0.3,0.4,2.3,33.3,0.9, 65.7,0.3,3.0,10.3,56.3,5.72,2,5YR 4/6,,,,,,



339510,8841550,4.2,3.7,0.6,52,0.3,0.2,1.3,2.4,27.5,

2.1,70.4,0.6,4.3,14.6,66.7,8.62,5YR 4/6,

4.2,3.9,0.4,10,0.3,0.4,2.7,30.2,1.0, 68.9,0.3,3.4,9.6,55.1,6.10,2,5YR 4/6,,,,,,



339142,8841453,4.9,4.3,1.7,142,1.1,1.0,0.1,4.2,50.5,

18.6,30.9,2.5,6.8,36.4,4.8,14.81,5YR 5/6,

4.9,4.3,0.5,24,0.6,0.3,1.3,46.1,13.2,

40.8,0.7,2.2,29.6,31.2,7.39,5YR 6/6,,,,,,





Blank lines added to improve readability.

Data Application and Derivation:

Data sets contain results from field study of spatial variability of soil properties.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

No known problems with data.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Soil samples collected using dutch auger and analyzed using EMBRAPA standard methods (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) for analysis of soil chemical and physical properties. The units of cmolc (centimoles of charge) and dm3 (cubic decimeters) are common in Brazilian soils analyses enploying EMBRAPA standards.



Soil texture was determined using the pipette method with 16 hours of slow shaking (30 rpm) and dispersion of organic matter with NaOH and sodium hexametaphosphate.



Soil color was determined on fresh, moist soils in the field using a Munsell color chart.



Exchangeable calcium, magnesium and aluminum were all determined on dry soils extracted with 1 M KCL. Aluminum concentrations were measured via titration with NaOH. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined by titration with EDTA (provides a value for the concentration of Ca + Mg). Concentration of exchangeable Ca alone was determined by titrating the 1M KCl extract with 0.0125M EDTA after addition of calcon carbonic acid. Exchangeable Mg concentrations are then determined as the difference between Ca + Mg and Ca concentrations.



Available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium and sodium were all extracted from dry air soils using a Melich I extraction solution (0.05 M HCL + 0.0125 M H2SO4). The ratio of soil to extraction solution was 1:10 w/v. Phosphorus in the extractant solution was measured on a spectrophotometer using the ascorbic acid-molybdate blue reaction. Potassium and sodium were measured by flame photometry (atomic absorbtion).



Potential acidity, the sum of aluminum and hydrogen ion concentrations extracted with 0.5M calcium acetate solution was measured by titration with 0.025M NaOH phenolphthalein as an indicator.





The analysis of carbon was done using the combustion method at high temperatures (Eltra oven at 1350 degrees C) and an elemental analyzer (Multi NC 3000) in which all forms of carbon in the soil are converted to CO2 followed by measurement of the CO2 (total carbon), following the method described by the Soil Survey Staff (1996).



Equations for calculated values:



Total exchangeable bases (S) = (Ca2+) + ( Mg2+) + ( K+) + (Na+)



Cation exchange capacity (T) = S + (H+) + (Al3+)



Base saturation (V) = 100*(S/T)



Exchangeable Al saturation (m) = 100*( (Al3+)/(S + Al3+))]

References:

Cooper M, Mendes L.M.S., Silva W.L.C., Sparovek G. 2005. A national soil profile database for Brazil available to international scientists. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 649-652. The database is available for free download at http://www.esalq.usp.br/gerd/ (verified 04 Feb 2008).



Novaes Filho J.P., Couto E.G., de Oliveira V.A., Johnson M.S., Lehmann J., Riha J. 2007a. Spatial variability of soil physical attributes used in soil classification of microbasins in southern Amazonia. Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo (Brazilian Journal of Soil Science), 31, 91-100.doi:10.1590/S0100-06832007000100010.



Novaes filho J.P., Selva E.C., Couto, E.G., Lehmann, J., Johnson, M.S., Riha S.J. 2007b. Spatial distribution of soil carbon under primary forest cover in Southern amazonia. Revista Arvore (Tree Journal), 31, 83-92.



Silva, F.C. da, P.A. da Eira, W. De Oliveira Barreto, D. Vidal Perez and C.A. Silva. 1998. Analises quimicas para avaliacao da fertilidade do solo: Metodos usados na Embrapa Solos. Doc. No. 3



Soil Survey Staff. 1996. Soil survey laboratory methods manual. Soil Survey Investigations, Report 42 (Version 3.0). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE. 693 p.

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