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Investigation:

CD-08 (Trumbore / Camargo)

LBA Dataset ID:

CD08_Soil_C_Acre

Originator(s):

1. Trumbore, Susan E.
2. Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de
3. Almeida, Vanessa P.S.
4. Brown, Irving Foster
5. Chambers, Jeffrey Q.
6. Felsemburgh, Cristina Aledi
7. Higuchi, Niro
8. Ishida, Francoise Yoko
9. Lara, Luciene L.S.
10. Martinelli, Luiz Antonio
11. Melo, Antonio Willian Flores de
12. Miranda, Erika
13. Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias
      14. Perez, Tibisay Josefina Acosta
15. Pinto, Alberto C.M.
16. Rocha, Rosana
17. Santos, Guaciara dos
18. Santos, Joaquim dos
19. Selhorst, Diogo
20. Silva, Roseana P. da
21. Suemitzu, Chieno
22. Teixeira, Liliane Martins
23. Telles, Everaldo de Carvalho Conceicao
24. Tribuzy, Edgard Siza
25. Vieira, Simone Aparecida

Point(s) of Contact:

Melo, Antonio Willian Flores de (willianflores@yahoo.com.br)

Dataset Abstract:

This work had as objectives to estimate the stock of carbon of the main classes of soils of the State of Acre and to compare with studies carried out for the Amazon area. To evaluate the effect of the change in the use and covering of the earth on the stock of carbon and isotopic composition of the organic matter in two soil conditions in Acre. To reach the objectives the work was performed in two scales, local and regional. The first case estimated the stocks of carbon up to one meterdeep, using a map of soils in the scale 1:1.000.000 and analytic data of pedologic profiles accomplished in the area. The second case determined the concentration of carbon, ä13C and density of the soil of samples collected at 12-15, 20 year-old pasture lands, and forest in the depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 50-60, 70-80 e 90-100 cm, in Ultisols (well drained) and Alfisols (poorly drained).

Beginning Date:

2002-03-01

Ending Date:

2003-04-01

Metadata Last Updated on:

2014-01-13

Data Status:

Not yet in archive queue

Access Constraints:

Public

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services (uso@daac.ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

Public

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

Access preliminary data via LBA DIS ftp site:  ftp://lba.cptec.inpe.br/lba_archives/CD/CD-08/Melo/Melo_soil_chemistry_Acre.xls
Access preliminary data via ORNL DAAC ftp site for LBA-ECO data:  Search at ORNL DAAC

Citation Information - Other Details:

unpublished data from dissertation - Antonio Willian Flores de Melo Data Quality Statement: The Data Center has determined that this data set has missing or incomplete data, metadata, or other documentation resulting in diminished usability of this product. User beware.

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
CARBON LAND SURFACE SOILS LABORATORY MASS SPECTROMETER

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  carbon, isotopic conposition, pasture, soil cover, soil organic matter

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
Acre Acre

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data are reported in one ASCII comma-separated file labeled CD08_Soil_Chemistry_Acre.csv



Data are organized as follows:



File name,CD08_Soil_Chemistry_Acre.csv,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

File date,Jan-14,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Associated LME file,CS08_Soil_C_Acre,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Column,Column_heading,Units/format,Explanation,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

1,Location,,Sampling location,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

2,Vegetation,,Dominant vegetation type,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

3,Drainage,,Sites were classified as well_drained or poorly_drained based on EMBRAPA's definitions of drainage classes,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

4,Sampling_depth,,Depth in the soil profile from which sample was collected. A= 0 to 5 cm;B=5 to 10 cm;C=10-20 cm; D=20-30cm;E=30-40 cm; F= 50-60 cm; G=70-80 cm; H= 90-100 cm depth,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

5,Carbon_conc,percent,Concentration of carbon in the soil sample reported in percent by weight,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,AtArg,Clay Activity,,,,,,

6,Std_dev_C,percent,Standard deviation of the soil C concentration reported in percent by weight,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

7,C_pool ,MgC_per_ha,Soil carbon pool reported in megagrams carbon per hectare (MgC per ha) calculated from the soil carbon concentration and soil bulk density,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

8,Std_dev_C_pool,MgC_per_ha,Standard deviation of the soil C pool reported in percent by weight,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

9,delta_13C,per mil,delta (lowercase greek delta) 13C data are reported as [[13C/12C ratio of the sample divided by the 13C/12C of the PeeDee Belemnite standard] -1]*1000, or the deviation in parts per thousand of the 13C/12C ratio of the standard from the 13C/12C of the PDB standard. Measured using the Fisons elemental anlyzer as the input to a continuous flow stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

10,Bulk_density,g per cm3,Soil bulk density reported in grams soil per cubic centimeter ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

11,Std_dev_bd,g per cm3,Standard deviation of the reported soil bulk density measurement,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

12,C4_C_fraction,percent,Percent of soil C derived from the C4 photosynthetic pathway calculaed from the delta 13C measurement,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

13,C4_fraction_error,percent,Error associated with the C4 fraction calculation,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

14,Sand,percent,Percent of soil particles with diameter greater than or equal to 0.05 mm and less than 2 mm,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

15,Std_dev_sand,percent,Standard deviation of the soil sand fraction,,,,,,,,,,,,

16,Silt,percent,Percent of soil particles with diameter greater than or equal to 0.002 mm and less than 0.05 mm,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

17,Std_dev_silt,percent,Standard deviation of the soil silt fraction,,,,,,,,,,,

18,Clay,percent,Percent of soil particles with diameter less than 0.002 mm,,,,,

19,Std_dev_clay,percent,Standard deviation of the soil clay fraction,,,,,,,,,,,

20,pH_CaCl2,,Soil pH assessed in a slurry of soil and calcium chloride ,,,,,,,,

21,SOM,g dm-3,Soil organic matter measured in grams per decimeter cubed,,,,,,,,,

22,Ca,micromoles of charge per dm-3,Soil calcium ion concentration,,,,,,,,,,,,

23,Mg,micromoles of charge per dm-3,Soil magnesium ion concentration,,,,,,,,,,,,

24,K,micromoles of charge per dm-3,Soil potassium ion concentration,,,,,,,,,,,,

25,Al_H,micromoles of charge per dm-3,Sum of the soil aluminum and hydrogen ion concentrations,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

26,SB,micromoles of charge per dm-3,Sum of bases calculated as the sum of the measured Ca, Mg and K concentrations,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

27,CEC,micromoles of charge per dm-3,Cation exchange capacity calculated as the sum of bases plus the aluminum and hydrogen ion concentrations ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

28,Base_sat,percent,Base saturation calculated as the sum of bases divided by the CEC and reported in percent,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

29,P,mg dm-3,Soluble soil phosphorus determined using the resin method,,,,,,,,,

30,Clay_activity,,Clay activity,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,missing data is represented by -9999,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,



Sample data:

Location,Vegetation,Drainage,Sampling_depth,Carbon_conc,Std_dev_C,C_pool ,Std_dev_C_pool,delta_13C,Bulk_density,Std_dev_bd,C4_C_fraction,C4_fraction_error,Sand,Std_dev_sand,Silt,Std_dev_silt,Clay,Std_dev_clay,pH_CaCl2,SOM,Ca,Mg,K,Al_H,SB,CEC,Base_sat,P,Clay_activity

FA,Forest,well_drained,A,3.3,0.2,18,0.6,-28,1.1,0.05,0,0,49.5,0.7,20.5,3.5,30, 2.8,5.1,61,69,20.5,2.9,22.5,92.4,114.9,80.4,21.5,38.7

FA,Forest,well_drained,B,0.9,0.15,0.7,0.7,-27.2,1.2,0.05,0,0,49.5,2.1,24.5,4.9, 26,2.8,4,18.5,11,7,2.3,30.5,20.3,50.8,39.9,5.5,19.6

FA,Forest,well_drained,C,0.7,0.1,8.3,0.9,-26.4,1.2,0.07,0,0,50,0.4,20.5,0.7, 29.5,0.7,3.6,14,3.5,5.5,2.1,46.5,11.1,57.6,19.2,2,19.5

FA,Forest,well_drained,D,0.5,0.1,7,0.9,-25.7,1.3,0.08,0,0,45.5,0.7,17.5,3.5, 37,4.2,3.7,13.3,2,3.3,1.7,68.5,6.9,75.4,9.1,2,20.4

FA,Forest,well_drained,E,0.4,0.03,6.1,0.5,-25.6,1.4,0.03,0,0,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

FA,Forest,well_drained,F,0.4,0,6.3,0.2,-25.4,1.5,0.05,0,0,33.5,2.1,20.5,0.7, 46,1.4,3.7,8,2,1.8,1.6,77,5.3,82.3,6.4,1,17.9

FA,Forest,well_drained,G,0.5,0,6.8,0.2,-25.2,1.4,0.01,0,0,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

....



P12B,Pasture_B_briz,poorly_drained,D,0.9,0.2,12,2.2,-24.9,1.3,0.04,10.9,2.7,3.3,0.4,12,1.4,85,1.4,4,21,30.5,12.5,3.7,267,46.7,313.7,14.9,4,36.9

P12B,Pasture_B_briz,poorly_drained,E,0.8,0.1,11.1,0.7,-25.5,1.3,0.02,2.7,4.3,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

P12B,Pasture_B_briz,poorly_drained,F,0.6,0.1,7.3,1.5,25.8,1.3,0.01,0,0,2,0,18.5, 4.9,79.5,4.9,3.9,12.5,12.5,8,4,330,24.5,354.5,6.9,1,44.6

P12B,Pasture_B_briz,poorly_drained,G,0.3,0.1,4.3,0.8,-26.1,1.2,0.04,0,0,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

P12B,Pasture_B_briz,poorly_drained,H,0.2,0,2.8,0.5,-27.3,1.3,0.05,0,0,7,0,21, 5.7,72,5.7,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999,-9999

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Standard deviations are reported for most soil characteristics.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Soil samples were collected from two fazendas in the eastern region of Acre State: Fazenda Iracema and Fazenda Alfenas. At each fazenda sampling areas were selected in pastures of 12- 15 years old, pastures 20 years old and forest in each of two soil classes: Luvissolos and Argilissolos. Luvissolos are defined in the Brazilian soil system as pedologically young soils with clay to very clayey texures and a suspended phreatic zone at 40-70 cm depth generally found under slight to undulating relief. Argilissolos are defined as well-developed soils with loam to clayey texure, with a well-developed horizon structure and a phreatic zone found at 1 to 2 meter depth.

In each pasture 2 trenches measuring 2 x 1.5 x 1.2 meters were dug. Samples were collected from 3 walls in each trench at the following depths: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 50-60, 70-80 and 90-100 cm) with a total of six replicates per depth. Bulk density (g/cm3), carbon concentration (%) and pool (kg m-2), delta 13 C, soil nutrient stocks, texture and carbon sources were measured or calculated for all samples.



Physical and chemical analyses of soils

Bulk densities were determined using the Kopec cylinder method in the Soil Fertility Laboratory at the Federal University of Acre. Soil texture was determined using a densitometer with sodium hydroxide and sodium hexametaphosphate used as a dispersant. Sand and clay fractions were measured directly and silt determined by difference. Soil pH, organic matter content and concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Al and Al+H ions were determined using the sortive complex method (Raij et al. 1987). Organic matter concentration was determined colorometrically, Ca and Mg ion concentrations were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and K ion concentration was measured using a flame emission photometry. Hydrogen and aluminum ion concentrations were measured with titration. Soluble P ion concentration was determined using the resin extraction methods. The soil texture, pH, organic matter and ion concentration analyses were all done at the Soil Science Laboratory at the Luiz de Queiroz Agriculture School at the University of Sao Paulo (ESAL/USP).

Soil carbon and delta 13 C analyses

In order to ensure that the subsample analysed was homogenous and representative of the complete sample, subsamples of approximately 10 g of soil were collected using the Jones separator which is considered the most reliable way to produce representative sub samples for soils (Mullins and Hutchinson 1982, Schumacher et al 1990). All visible roots and macroscopic carbon were removed from the subsamples by hand. Soil samples were dried to a constant weight at 60 degrees C , ground and then passed through a 0.25 mm sieve. Soils were then weighed into a tin capsule, oxidized and the resulting gases were separated using gas chromatography, and C concentration measured on a Carlo Erba EA 1110 elemental analyzer. After carbon analysis the gases were purified and carried on a continuous stream of helium through a Finnegan Delta Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer for determination of the carbon isotope ratio. Analytical errors for the carbon concentration measurement are 5 percent while for the isotopic ratio errors are 0.5 per mil.

Carbon stock and 13C to 12C ratio

Carbon stocks were calculated by multiplying soil bulk density (kg per m3) by the thickness of the layer sampled (m) and the carbon concentration (%) for a final value reported in kgC per m2. The ratio of 13C to 12C is represented by the delta notation and reported in units of per mil. The reported delta value is calculated using standard methods: [ (13C/12C ratio of the sample - 13C/12C standard)/ 13C/12C standard] multiplied by 1000. The standard used was Pee Dee Belemnite.

Carbon sources

The percent of soil carbon derived from forest (C3 photosynthetic pathways represented as Cf) and the percent derived from pasture (C4 photosynthetic pathways and represented as Cp) was calculated using an isotopic dilution technique. The pasture derived fraction was calculated as [( delta 13C soil sample under pasture- delta 13C of soil sample under forest (actual value -28 per mil))/ (delta 13C pasture grass tissue (actual value -13 per mil)- delta 13C of soil sample under forest (actual value -28 per mil))] times 100. Forest derived carbon fraction was calculated as 100- Cp.



Statistics and uncertainty

Statistical analyses were done using the STATISTICA 5.5 for Windows software (Statsoft 1999) using a Kruskal- Wallis comparison of means for non-parametric data. Tukey’s HSD test for unequal sample sizes was used to verify the significance of differences found among treatments.

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