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Investigation:

CD-08 (Trumbore / Camargo)

LBA Dataset ID:

CD08_Ecosystem_Resp_Manaus

Originator(s):

1. CHAMBERS, J.Q.
2. TRIBUZY, E.S.
3. TOLEDO, L.C.
4. CRISPIM, B.F.
5. HIGUCHI, N.
      6. DOS SANTOS, J.
7. ARAUJO, A.C.
8. KRUIJT, B.
9. NOBRE, A.D.
10. TRUMBORE, S.E.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

Leaf, live wood ( tree stem), and soil respiration were measured along with additional environmental factors over a 1-yr period in a Central Amazon terra firme forest and are provided in this data set as three comma delimited data files. Investigations were carried out at an INPA reserve located along the ZF2 road at km 34 [LBA 34] on two 20 x 2500 m permanent forest inventory plots referred to as the Jacaranda plots (-2.6091 degrees S, -60.2093 degrees W). These long and narrow plots capture ecosystem variation associated with the undulating local topography. Leaf respiration measurements were also made at the tower located at ZF-2 road (km 14 [LBA 14]. Leaf respiration was measured during July and August 2001, woody respiration in August 2000 and June 2001, and soil respiration between July 2000 and June 2001 at 4 to 6-wk intervals. Understanding how tropical forest carbon balance will respond to global change requires knowledge of individual heterotrophic and autotrophic respiratory sources, together with factors that control respiratory variability. Theses data were used to estimate ecosystem leaf, live wood and soil respiration with detailed information provided in Chambers et al. ( 2004).
Sensors used include: * LICOR PLANT CANOPY ANALYZER * IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER) * SOIL MOISTURE PROBE

Beginning Date:

2000-07-29

Ending Date:

2001-08-15

Metadata Last Updated on:

2009-02-16

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO CD-08 Tropical Forest Ecosystem Respiration, Manaus, Brazil :  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=912

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO CD-08 Tropical Forest Ecosystem Respiration, Manaus, Brazil :  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/CD08_Ecosystem_Resp_Manaus.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Chambers, J.Q., E.S. Tribuzy, L.C. Toledo, B.F. Crispim, N. Higuchi, J. dos Santos, A.C. Araujo, B. Kruijt, A.D. Nobre, and S.E. Trumbore. 2009. LBA-ECO CD-08 Tropical Forest Ecosystem Respiration, Manaus, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/912.

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
LEAF CHARACTERISTICS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD INVESTIGATION LICOR PLANT CANOPY ANALYZER
RESPIRATION BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD INVESTIGATION IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)
RESPIRATION BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD INVESTIGATION LICOR PLANT CANOPY ANALYZER
SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT LAND SURFACE SOILS FIELD INVESTIGATION SOIL MOISTURE PROBE
SOIL RESPIRATION BIOSPHERE ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS FIELD INVESTIGATION IRGA (INFRARED GAS ANALYZER)

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  AMAZON, AMAZON TERRA FIRME FOREST, ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATIONS, CARBON, CARBON BALANCE, CENTRAL-AMAZON, DARK RESPIRATION, DIURNAL, ECOPHYSIOLOGY, ECOSYSTEM, EDDY COVARIANCE, FLUX, FOREST DYNAMICS, GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE, GLOBAL CHANGE, LEAF RESPIRATION, LEAVES, RAIN-FOREST, SOIL MOISTURE, SOIL RESPIRATION, WOODY-TISSUE RESPIRATION

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  AMAZONAS (MANAUS) -2.58900 -2.60910 -60.11520 -60.20930

Related Publication(s):

Chambers, J.Q., E.S. Tribuzy, L.C. Toledo, B.F. Crispim, N. Higuchi, J. dos Santos, A.C. Araujo, B. Kruijt, A.D. Nobre, and S.E. Trumbore. 2004. Respiration from a tropical forest ecosystem: Partitioning of sources and low carbon use efficiency. Ecological Applications 14(4):S72.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Leaf Respiration



Data are provided as a comma-separated value (.csv) ASCII file:



Filename: CD-08_Manaus_ZF2_Jacaranda_plot_leaf_respiration_data.csv



Column





Column Heading





Units/Format





Variable Description



1





Date





yyyy/mm/dd





Date that respiration data were collected



2





Tower





character





Location of the tower where data were collected [LBA 14, LBA 34]



3





common_name





character





Common name of tree (when available).



4





HHMMSS





hh:mm:ss





Hour, minute, and second of day when data were collected (UTC - 5)



5





TOD





decimal fraction of a day





Decimal time for hours and minutes from Column 4, e.g. 2:30 is 2.50



6





Height





meters





Leaf height above ground level where respiration data were collected



7





Respiration





umol CO2/m2/s





Respiration rate: negative numbers are respiratory flux, positive numbers imply photosynthesis, but also imply measurements with significant unknown errors, but data are provided so as not to bias estimates.



8





Tleaf





deg C





Temperature of the leaf at time respiration data were collected (degree Celsius)



9





Tair





deg C





Air temperature at time respiration data were collected (degree Celsius)





Sample Data Records:



Filename: CD-08_Manaus_ZF2_Jacaranda_plot_leaf_respiration_data.csv

Column No.,Column Heading,Units/Format,Variable Description,,,,,,,,,,,,

1,Date,yyyy/mm/dd,Date that respiration data were collected,,,,,,,,,,,,

2,Tower,character,Location of the tower were data were collected [LBA 14, LBA 34],,,,,,,,,,,,

3,common_name,character,Common name of tree (when available).,,,,,,,,,,,,

4,HHMMSS,hh:mm:ss,hour, minute, and second of day when data were collected (UTC - 5),,,,,,,,,,,,

5,TOD,decimal fraction of a day,decimal time for hours and minutes from Column 4, e.g. 2:30 is 2.50 ,,,,,,,,,,,,

6,Height,meters,Leaf height above ground level were respiration data were collected,,,,,,,,,,,,

7,Respiration,umol CO2/m2/s,Respiration rate: negative numbers are respiratory flux, positive numbers imply photosynthesis,

but also imply measurements with significant unknown errors, but data are provided so as not to bias estimates.,,,,,,,,,,,,

8,Tleaf,deg C,Temperature of the leaf at time respiration data were collected (degree Celsius),,,,,,,,,,,,

9,Tair,deg C,Air temperature at time respiration data were collected (degree Celsius),,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

There are no missing data values.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Date,Tower,common_name,HHMMSS,TOD,Height,Respiration,Tleaf,Tair,,,,,,,

yyyy/mm/dd,,,hh:mm:ss,decimal fraction of a day,meters,umol CO2/m2/s,deg C,deg C,,,,,,,

2001/08/08,LBA 34,Louro Preto,02:46:44,2.767,0.5,2.370,24.10,24.27

2001/08/08,LBA 34,Louro Preto,04:23:10,4.383,0.5,-1.200,24.42,24.72

2001/08/15,LBA 34,Louro Preto,06:30:42,6.500,0.5,-0.699,25.55,26.05

2001/08/15,LBA 34,Louro Preto,07:52:36,7.867,0.5,0.045,29.16,29.83

2001/08/07,LBA 34,Louro Preto,09:37:29,9.617,0.5,-0.582,27.58,28.07

...

2001/07/05,LBA 14,Amap Roxo,17:06:13,17.100,25,-1.010,29.23,29.70

2001/07/05,LBA 14,Amap Roxo,18:23:05,18.380,25,-0.787,28.26,28.63

2001/07/05,LBA 14,Amap Roxo,19:35:51,19.580,25,-1.270,27.07,27.51

2001/07/05,LBA 14,Amap Roxo,20:45:13,20.750,25,-0.864,26.56,27.17

2001/07/05,LBA 14,Amap Roxo,22:03:42,22.050,25,-1.350,26.32,26.96

2001/07/05,LBA 14,Amap Roxo,23:19:40,23.320,25,-1.150,25.91,26.42







Woody Stem Respiration



Data are provided as a comma-separated value (.csv) ASCII file:



Filename: CD-08_Manaus_ZF2_tree_stem_respiration_data_2000-2001.csv



Column





Column Heading





Units/Format





Variable Description



1





date





yyyy/mm/dd





Date stem respiration data collected



2





plot





character





Identity of plot: L-O = east/west transect plot, N-S = north/south transect plot: these plots are located at KM 34 of the ZF-2 road in the INPA reserve north of Manaus.



3





stem_ID





character





Stem ID number located on metal plate attached to tree with fishing line.



4





Tstem





deg C





Surface temperature of stem where CO2 flux measured (degree Celsius)



5





HHMMSS





hh:mm





Time of day that data were collected (HH:MM) (UTC - 5)



6





slope





umol CO2/mol air/s





The slope of the relationship CO2 flux (micro mol CO2 per mol air) with time (seconds)



7





Carea





m2





The flux area of the chamber attached to the tree (m2)



8





Cvol





L





The volume of the chamber attached to the tree (L)



9





n





mol





The number of moles of air in the sample chamber (mol)



10





rate





umol CO2/m2/s





The flux of CO2 from the stem surface (micro mol CO2 per meter squared per second)



11





dbh





cm





The stem base diameter of the tree (cm) measured at 1.3 meters height.



12





growth_class





character





The growth rate class of the tree with class 1 the highest and class 5 the lowest growth rate.





Sample Data Records:



Filename: CD-08_Manaus_ZF2_tree_stem_respiration_data_2000-2001.csv

Column Number,Column Heading,Units/Format,Variable Description,,,,

1,date,yyyy/mm/dd,Date stem respiration data collected,,,,

2,plot,character,Identity of plot: L-O = east/west transect plot, N-S = north/south transect plot: these plots are located at KM 34 of the ZF-2 road in the INPA reserve north of Manaus.,,,,

3,stem_ID,character,Stem ID number located on metal plate attached to tree with fishing line.,,,,

4,Tstem,deg C,Surface temperature of stem where CO2 flux measured (degree Celsius),,,,

5,HHMMSS,hh:mm,Time of day that data was collected (HH:MM) (UTC - 5),,,,

6,slope,umol CO2/mol air/s,The slope of the relationship CO2 flux (micro mol CO2 per mol air) with time (seconds),,,,

7,Carea,m2,The flux area of the chamber attached to the tree (m2),,,,

8,Cvol,L,The volume of the chamber attached to the tree (L),,,,

9,n,mol,The number of moles of air in the sample chamber (mol),,,,

10,rate,umol CO2/m2/s,The flux of CO2 from the stem surface (micro mol CO2 per meter squared per second),,,,

11,dbh,cm,The stem base diameter of the tree (cm) measured at 1.3 meters height.,,,,

12,growth_class,character,The growth rate class of the tree with class 1 the highest and class 5 the lowest growth rate.,,,,



Missing values are represented as -999.9,,,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,,,

date,plot,stem_ID,Tstem,HHMMSS,slope,Carea,Cvol,n,rate,dbh,growth_class

yyyy/mm/dd,,,deg C,hh:mm,umol CO2/mol air/s,m2,L,mol,umol CO2/m2/s,cm,

2000/08/04,L-O,157,31,14:15,0.068,0.01,0.4,0.01637,0.1113,30,5

2000/08/04,L-O,217,28.6,12:15,0.61642,0.01,0.4,0.01637,1.009,42,2

2000/08/04,L-O,227,27.4,12:00,0.32396,0.01,0.4,0.01637,0.5303,50,4

2000/08/04,L-O,361,26.4,11:34,0.49389,0.01,0.4,0.01637,0.8085,32.5,2

2000/08/04,L-O,631,29.2,11:05,0.38672,0.00925,0.25,0.01023,0.4277,11.6,2

...

2001/06/13,N-S,2585,23.9,10:27,0.328,0.01,0.4,0.01637,0.537,33.8,2

2001/06/13,N-S,2657,26.4,10:34,0.145,0.01,0.4,0.01637,0.237,45.5,5

2001/06/13,N-S,2665,24.3,10:37,0.586,0.00925,0.25,0.01023,0.648,48,3

2001/06/13,N-S,2841,24.9,10:44,0.552,0.01,0.4,0.01637,0.904,11.8,1

2001/06/13,N-S,2962,25,10:48,0.49,0.01,0.4,0.01637,0.802,11,3







Forest Soil Respiration



Data are provided as a comma-separated value (.csv) ASCII file:



Filename: CD-08_Manaus_ZF2_Jacaranda_plot_soil_respiration_data.csv



Column





Column Heading





Units/Format





Variable Description



1





date





yyyy/mm/dd





Date soil respiration data were collected



2





topo





character





Topographic position of soil chamber with p: plateau, e: slope, and b: valley bottom



3





id





character





Chamber identification number



4





slope





umol CO2/mol air/s





Slope of the change in chamber CO2 concentration with time: micro mol of CO2 per mol of chamber air per second.



5





Cvol





L





The volume of the chamber (liters)



6





n





mol





number of moles of air in the chamber



7





Carea





m2





The area of the chamber (square meters)



8





rate





umol CO2/m2/s





The CO2 flux rate from the soil surface: micro mole of CO2 per meter squared per second.



9





soil_moisture





percent by volume





The soil moisture content as measured by a Campbell Scientific MoistureSense probe taken at the same time that CO2 was measured: % water by volume.



10





Tsoil





deg C





Soil temperature at the time CO2 flux and moisture content were determined. (degree Celsius)



Sample Data Records:



Filename: CD-08_Manaus_ZF2_Jacaranda_plot_soil_respiration_data.csv

Column Number,Column Heading,Units/Format,Variable Description,,,,,,

1,date,yyyy/mm/dd,Date soil respiration data were collected,,,,,,

2,topo,character,Topographic position of soil chamber with p: plateau, e: slope, and b: valley bottom,,,,,,

3,id,character,Chamber identification number,,,,,,

4,slope,umol CO2/mol air/s,Slope of the change in chamber CO2 concentration with time: micro mol of CO2 per mol of chamber air per second.,,,,,,

5,Cvol,L,The volume of the chamber (liters),,,,,,

6,n,mol,number of moles of air in the chamber,,,,,,

7,Carea,m2,The area of the chamber (square meters),,,,,,

8,rate,umol CO2/m2/s,The CO2 flux rate from the soil surface: micro mole of CO2 per meter squared per second.,,,,,,

9,soil_moisture,percent by volume,The soil moisture content as measured by a Campbell Scientific MoistureSense probe taken at the same time that CO2 was measured: % water by volume.,,,,,,

10,Tsoil,deg C,Soil temperature at the time CO2 flux and moisture content were determined. (degree Celsius),,,,,,

,,,,,,,,,

There are no missing data values.,,,,,,,,,



date,topo,id,slope,Cvol,n,Carea,rate,soil_moisture,Tsoil

yyyy/mm/dd,,,umol CO2/mol air/s,L,mol,m2,umol CO2/m2/s,percent by volume,deg C

2000/07/29,p,1,0.292,5.51,0.2256,0.03142,2.1,36,24.4

2000/07/29,p,2,0.312,5.99,0.2452,0.03142,2.44,39,24.6

2000/07/29,p,3,0.195,5.97,0.2443,0.03142,1.52,38,24.8

2000/07/29,p,4,0.244,5.87,0.2404,0.03142,1.87,30,24.8

2000/07/29,p,5,0.265,5.77,0.2362,0.03142,1.99,30,25.3

...

2001/06/20,b,14,0.139,5.51,0.2256,0.03142,1,90,24.02

2001/06/20,b,15,0.225,5.42,0.2218,0.03142,1.59,46,23.19

2001/06/20,b,16,0.156,4.69,0.1919,0.03142,0.95,34,23.62

2001/06/20,b,17,0.125,5.58,0.2282,0.03142,0.91,64,24.13

2001/06/20,b,18,0.504,5.69,0.233,0.03142,3.74,47,24.03

Data Application and Derivation:

Leaf Respiration



These data can be used to quantify variability in leaf respiration with height, time of day, and temperature.



Woody Stem Respiration



These data can be used to estimate respiratory flux from live woody tissues. Detailed scaling methods are provided in Chambers et al., 2004.



Forest Soil Respiration



These data can be used to quantify soil respiratory flux and relationships with topography, moisture content, and time of year.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Leaf Respiration



A number of positive values are noted which suggest photosynthesis and not respiration. These data, which are clearly in error, were not removed from the dataset so as not to bias overall flux estimates. More details on potential errors provided in Chamber et al., 2004.



Woody Stem Respiration



One major source of error is the potential for CO2 to be transported in the xylem stream. These errors are very difficult to account for, and were not possible to evaluate for this study.



Forest Soil Respiration



The main sources of error inherent in soil respiration measurements is difficulty maintaining an undisturbed boundary layer.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Leaf Respiration



Data were collected using a LiCor 6400 and canopy access towers.



Leaf respiration (Rleaf) measurements were made at ambient leaf temperature (Tleaf) using a LiCor 6400 equipped with a Blue/Red LED light source turned off creating a dark chamber. Measurements were logged only after the total coefficient of variation (CV) fell below 1%, and the IRGAs were matched prior to each measurement. Rleaf was measured at 1-2 hour intervals for the same leaf from different trees (>10 cm Db) located near two canopy access towers along the ZF2 road (ZF2-K14 and ZF2-K34). From 5-13 July 2001 leaf respiration was measured for 12 trees near the ZF2-K14 tower from ground to canopy, and from 7-15 August leaf respiration was measured for 12 trees near the ZF2-K34 tower from ground to canopy, over a 24 hour period.



This data set describes leaf respiration data collected with a LiCor 6400 on two towers located off the ZF-2 road (km 14 [LBA 34] and km 34 [LBA 14]) in the Central Amazon near Manaus. data were collected over an approximate 24 hour period on the same leaf from trees located near the tower to quantify diurnal variability in respiratory flux. Additionally, leaves from a variety of heights were measured to obtain a profile of respiration change with the height of the leaf from the ground surface. In some cases common names for species were available, and in other cases common names were not available.



Woody Stem Respiration



Data were collected using close dynamic chambers attached to the boles of live trees and CO2 flux quantified suing a LiCor 6252 infra-red gas analyzer.



Stem respiration (Rwood) was measured using an infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA, LI 6252 with an LI-670 Flow Control Unit) operated as a closed dynamic chamber (CDC) system with a flow rate of 1.0 L min-1. Semi-circular polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chambers were cinched to the base of the tree (at ~Db) using nylon straps. Closed cell foam coated with silicon was glued to the rim of the chamber to provide a malleable seal that conformed to irregularities in the trunk. The measurement interval was about one minute. Measurements were made eight times between Aug. 2000 and Jun. 2001 at approximately 4-6 week intervals.



Fifty trees were selected from five relative growth classes using data collected during the first year of a tree community growth study. Briefly about 300 trees were randomly selected from three size classes from the Jacaranda plots. Each tree was outfitted with a dendrometer band used for measuring small changes in circumference (i.e. < 0.05 mm). Using these increments, average woody tissue production (10 months from Sep. 1999 to Jul. 2000) was estimated for all trees using an allometric model that predicts tree mass as a function of base diameter (Db; at 1.3 m height or above the buttresses) and expressed as mg growth kg-1 (dry weight) biomass day-1. Next, trees were classified into four classes each representing 25% of total wood production, and a fifth class for trees that experienced no measurable growth during the 10 month period. Ten trees were randomly selected from each of these five growth classes.



Soil Respiration



Measurements were collected using a LiCor 6252 and closed dynamic chambers, and Campbell MoistureSense probes for soil water content.



To explore how soil respiratory flux varies with changes in topography and soil texture, 54 PVC collars were equally distributed among plateau, slope and valley soils, with each collar separated by 15 m. The IRGA system and methodology were the same as used for stem respiration with the exception that the chamber top had a small pressure equilibration vent. In conjunction with soil surface flux measurements, soil temperature and soil volumetric water content (VWC) (TDR probes, HydroSense, Campbell Scientific) were also measured.

References:

Chambers, J. Q., E. S. Tribuzy, L. C. Toledo, B. F. Crispim, N. Higuchi, J. dos Santos, A. C. Arajo, B. Kruijt, A. D. Nobre, and S. E. Trumbore. 2004. Respiration from a tropical forest ecosystem: Partitioning of sources and low carbon use efficiency. Ecological Applications 14:S72-S88. doi:10.1890/01-6012

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