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Investigation:

ND-11 (Lehmann / Passos / Couto)

LBA Dataset ID:

ND11_LOGGING_DAMAGE_MT

Originator(s):

1. FELDPAUSCH, T.R.
2. JIRKA, S.
      3. PASSOS, C.A.M.
4. RIHA, S.J.

Point(s) of Contact:

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Dataset Abstract:

Data were collected in the logging concession at the Fazenda Rohsamar in the municipality of Juruena in northwestern Mato Grosso. Estimates of damage associated with logging operations were made after logging operations were complete in 2003 and 2004. Damage associated with gaps created by felling single trees was estimated in 54 individual gaps. Characteristics of the single harvested tree were recorded and included species, DBH, commercial height, total height, and canopy proportions. Damage to all surrounding trees was recorded. Stratified transects in two logging blocks were used to estimate damage associated with road building and skid trails. Twenty-six transects were established in Block 5 and 21 transects in Block 18 to assess the frequency of damage by log skidders and tree felling. The boundaries between different types of damage were noted along the transect and the length in meters of that damage type along the transect was recorded. From this information, the area of the logging block affected by tree felling, road building, and skid trails was estimated. The Gap Survey and the Logging Damage Transects Survey data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files. A third file provides the coordinates of the starting points for the Survey Transects.

Beginning Date:

2003-09-30

Ending Date:

2005-07-06

Metadata Last Updated on:

2010-06-17

Data Status:

Archived

Access Constraints:

PUBLIC

Data Center URL:

http://daac.ornl.gov/

Distribution Contact(s):

ORNL DAAC User Services Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37 (ornldaac@ornl.gov)

Access Instructions:

PUBLIC

Data Access:

IMPORTANT: The LBA-ECO Project website is no longer being supported. Links to external websites may be inactive. Final data products from the LBA project can be found at the ORNL DAAC. Please follow the fair use guidelines found in the dataset documentation when using or citing LBA data.
Datafile(s):

LBA-ECO ND-11 Forest Damage Following Reduced Impact Logging, NW Mato Grosso, Brazil :  http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=977

Documentation/Other Supporting Documents:

LBA-ECO ND-11 Forest Damage Following Reduced Impact Logging, NW Mato Grosso, Brazil :  http://daac.ornl.gov/LBA/guides/ND11_Logging_Damage_MT.html

Citation Information - Other Details:

Feldpausch, T.R., S. Jirka, C.A.M. Passos, and S.J. Riha. 2010. LBA-ECO ND-11 Forest Damage following Reduced Impact Logging, NW Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/977

Keywords - Theme:

Parameter Topic Term Source Sensor
CANOPY CHARACTERISTICS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD SURVEY HUMAN OBSERVER
FOREST COMPOSITION/VEGETATION STRUCTURE BIOSPHERE VEGETATION VEGETATION SURVEY HUMAN OBSERVER
PLANT CHARACTERISTICS BIOSPHERE VEGETATION FIELD SURVEY STEEL MEASURING TAPE

Uncontrolled Theme Keyword(s):  BIOMASS ESTIMATE, COMMERCIAL TIMBER INVENTORY (CTI), LOGGING, PRIMARY FOREST, TREE BIOMASS, VINE BIOMASS

Keywords - Place (with associated coordinates):

Region
(click to view profile)
Site
(click to view profile)
North South East West
  MATO GROSSO -10.42490 -10.42490 -58.75970 -58.75970

Related Publication(s):

Feldpausch, T.R., S. Jirka, C.A.M. Passos, F. Jasper, and S.J. Riha. 2005. When big trees fall: Damage and carbon export by reduced impact logging in southern Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 219(2-3):199-215.

Data Characteristics (Entity and Attribute Overview):

Data Characteristics:

Data were collected in logging concession at the Fazenda Rohsamar in the municipality of Juruena in northwestern Mato Grosso. Estimates of damage associated with logging operations were made after logging operations were complete in 2003 and 2004. Damage associated with gaps created by felling single trees was estimated in 54 individual gaps. Stratified transects in two logging blocks were used to estimate damage associated with road building and skid trails.

Three ASCII files are provided.

File #1: ND11_Logging_Damage_Gap_Survey_MT.csv
Column Column Heading Units Description
1 YYYY/MM/DD Survey date
2 Year_logged YYYY Year logged
3 Block Logging block id
4 Transect Transect number - Rohden Industria timber survey transects
5 Tree_number Unique id - tree ID number based on Rohden Industria tree numbering system
6 Common_name Tree common name
7 Fall_bearing degrees from true North Direction of tree fall
8 Total_gap_area m2 Gap area was measured using the center point system (Runkle 1982) based on the summation of the area of six triangles using the distance from the center of the gap to the edge to define the triangles.
9 DBH_Rohden m DBH - Rohden Industria timber survey
10 Volume_Rohden m3 Volume bole - Rohden Industria timber survey
11 Commercial_bole m Length to first bifurcation
12 Crown_height m Distance from first bifurcation to top of crown
13 Total_tree_height m Total tree height calculated as Commercial_bole + Crown_height
14 Crown_width m Crown width
15 Crown_area m2 Crown area
16 Crown_volume m3 Crown volume calculated as vol=4/3*PI*Crown_height*Crown_width^2
17 Stump_sawn_height cm Stump sawn height
18 Total_stems_damaged_gap Damaged stems were those still standing above 1.3 m height
19 Stems_severed_smashed_gap Severed or smashed stems were severed below 1.3m height or had been crushed prone

Example Data Records:

Sample_date,Year_logged,Block,Transect,Tree_number,Common_name,Fall_bearing,Total_gap_area,DBH_Rohden,Volume_Rohden,Commercial_bole,
Crown_height,Total_tree_height,Crown_width,Crown_area,Crown_volume,Stump_sawn_height,Total_stems_damaged_gap,Stems_severed_smashed_gap
2004/08/25,2004,1,1,21,Cedro marinheiro,292,328.6,0.76,8.02,17.2,17.3,34.5,18.8,1021.8,25612,40,30,16
2004/08/25,2004,1,11,24,Angelim amargo,72,251.6,1.18,30.5,24.5,22.4,46.9,9.4,661.5,8291,35,17,6
2004/08/25,2004,1,2,387,Caixeta/Marupa,340,136.7,0.81,6.83,14.9,15.6,30.5,19.3,945.9,24340,26,20,8
...
2003/10/08,2003,5,17,15091,Ipe amarelo,358,159.8,0.64,2.9,16.6,22.8,39.4,15.7,1124.6,23541,62,19,3
2003/10/07,2003,8,15,15125,Caixeta/Marupa,320,167.6,0.64,2.67,19.5,9.6,29.1,16.8,506.7,11350,46,22,10
2003/10/07,2003,5,19,16053,Angelim amargo,48,86.6,0.64,4.46,26.6,12.5,39.1,9,353.4,4241,33,10,3

file # 2: ND11_Logging_Damage_Transects_Survey_MT.csv
Column Column Heading Units Description
1 Sample_date YYYY/MM/DD Sample date.
2 Block Logging block id
3 Sub_Block Work unit id (some ?)
4 Transect Transect id
5 Transect_total meters Total length of transect. Value repeated for each Damage observation on that Transect.
6 Forest_type Forest type description
7 Landscape_position Transect sections (25 m) were assigned to one of three topographic positions (upland, lowland, or slope) based on estimates of hardwood (upland) vs. palms (lowland), slope, and proximity to streams.
8 Damage_class Category of ground damage: gap, none, road, or skid.
9 Ground_damage_length meters Distance in meters of damage class along the Transect. Distances are consecutive
from the origin of the Transect and sum to the Transect_total length.
10 Canopy_damage_length meters Distance in meters (linear) along a Transect that canopy damage occurred. Canopy damage is
always related to an area of ground damage. Zeros represent zero canopy damage within Damage_class.

Example Data Records:

Sample_date,Block,Sub_Block,Transect,Transect_total,Forest_type,Landscape_position,Damage,Ground_damage_intercept,Canopy_damage_intercept
2004/09/22,5,1,Picada22,646.9,Dominant,upland,none,32.8,0
2004/09/22,5,1,Picada22,646.9,Dominant,upland,gap,16.2,16.2
2004/09/22,5,1,Picada22,646.9,Dominant,upland,none,20.5,0
...
2005/07/06,5,1,Ben-Eli-27,260.1,Dominant,low,none,21.6,0
2005/07/06,5,1,Ben-Eli-27,260.1,Dominant,low,none,21.2,0
2005/07/06,5,1,Ben-Eli-27,260.1,Dominant,low,none,16.7,0

File #3: ND11_Logging_Damage_Transects_GPS_MT_2003.csv
Column Column Heading Units Description
1 Block Logging block id
2 Transect Transect id
3 X_start meters Location of the transect starting point. UTM, Zone 22S
4 Y_start meters Location of the transect starting point. UTM, Zone 22S

Example Data Records

Block,Transect,X_start,Y_start
5,Picada22,338560,8841797
5,NP2,338301,8840693
5,NP10a,334631,8840809
5,NP7,335038,8840390
5,NP10b,334273,8840662
...
18,Ben-Eli-18,338638,8834894
18,Ben-Eli-19,337698,8834846
18,Ben-Eli-20,336858,8834716
18,Ben-Eli-21,337299,8834546
18,Ben-Eli-22,336226,8833296






Sample Data Record:
Sample date Block Sub-Block (UT) Transect Transect total (m) Forest type Landscape position Damage Ground damage intercept (m) Canopy damage intercept (m)
20040922 5 1 22 646.9 Dominant upland none 32.8 0
20040922 5 1 22 646.9 Dominant upland gap 16.2 16.2
20040922 5 1 22 646.9 Dominant upland none 20.5 0
20040922 5 1 22 646.9 Dominant upland gap 5.4 10.6


File #2: ND11_Logging_Damage_Gap_Survey_MT.txt</b>
Column number Column heading units description
1 Sample_date YYYYMMDD
Year_logged YYYY
2 Block (UT) logging block id
3 Transect transect number
4 Tree no. unique id
5 Common name
6 Fall_bearing degrees direction of tree fall
7 Total gap area (m2) m^2
8 DBH_(m)_Rohden m
9 Volume_Rohden m^3 calculated as vol=PI*(DBH/2)^2
10 Commercial_Bole_(m) m length to first bifurcation
11 Crown height (m) m distance from first bifurcation to top of crown
12 Total tree height m
13 Crown width (m) m
14 Crown area (m2) m^2
15 Crown volume (m3) m^3 4/3*PI*CrownHeight*CrownWidth^2
16 Stump sawn ht. (cm) cm
17 Total stems damaged/gap damaged stems were those still standing above 1.3 m height
18 Stems severed or smashed/gap severed or smashed stems were severed below 1.3m height or had been crushed prone

All tree-fall gaps were located in Logging unit no. 5 and locations correspond to timber survey transects and tree ID numbers based on Rohden Industria tree numbering system.

This file is tab-delimited ASCII text.


Sample Data Record:
Sample_date Year_logged Block (UT) Transect Tree no. Common name Fall_bearing Total gap area (m2) DBH_(m)_Rohden Volume_Rohden Commercial_Bole_(m) Crown height (m) Total tree height Crown width (m) Crown area (m2) Crown volume (m3) Stump sawn ht. (cm) Total stems damaged/gap Stems severed or smashed/gap
20040825 2004 1 1 21 Cedro marinheiro 292 328.6 0.76 8.02 17.2 17.3 34.5 18.8 1021.8 25612 40 30 16
20040825 2004 1 11 24 Angelim amargo 72 251.6 1.18 30.5 24.5 22.4 46.9 9.4 661.5 8291 35 17 6
20040825 2004 1 2 387 Caixeta/Marupa 340 136.7 0.81 6.83 14.9 15.6 30.5 19.3 945.9 24340 26 20 8
20040825 2004 1 17 1312 Cerejeira/Imburana 322 233 0.64 2.9 20.9 12.3 33.2 10.6 409.6 5789 55 20 11



File #3: ND11_Logging_Damage_Transects_GPS_MT_2003.csv</b>
Column Heading Units Description
1 Block logging block
2 Transect transect id
3 X_start UTM location of the transect starting point
4 Y_start UTM location of the transect starting point


This file is comma-delimited ASCII text.


Sample Data Record:
Block,Transect,X_start,Y_start
5,Picada22,338560,8841797
5,NP2,338301,8840693
5,NP10,334631,8840809
5,NP7,335038,8840390
5,NP10b,334273,8840662
5,NP9a,334711,8841166

Data Application and Derivation:

The methods developed in this study could be useful for facilitating commercial inventory practices, understanding the relationship of tree species distribution to landscape features, and improving the novel use of commercial timber inventories to estimate above ground biomass.

Quality Assessment (Data Quality Attribute Accuracy Report):

Quality Assessment:

Care should be taken in using tree taxonomic data since local names were converted to Latin names for species identification.

Process Description:

Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:

Logging Damage Transect Survey:

Sampling was stratified to provide full coverage of each logging block. Within a stratified area the transect start point was randomly selected. Twenty-six transects were established in Block 5 and 21 transects in Block 18 to assess the frequency of damage by log skidders and tree felling. Distance along the transect for each type of damage was recorded. Transect sections (25 m) were assigned to one of three topographic positions (upland, lowland, or slope) based on estimates of hardwood vs. palms, slope, and proximity to streams. Road and deck locations in Blocks 5 and 18 were mapped with a GPS. Road width was measured at 11 random points and deck size was measured at 10 decks (representing 11% of the total). Total length and area in roads were calculated and maps produced using GIS.


Logging Damage Gap Survey:

Survey of Damage Caused by Single Tree Logging:

To quantify the effects of single logged tree fall, a survey was performed in 54 gaps formed by the felling of single trees. Characteristics of the single harvested tree were recorded and included species, DBH, commercial height, total height, and canopy proportions. Damage to all surrounding trees was recorded. Gap-trees damaged were assigned to one of nine classes based on the severity of damage. Damage to trees in the gaps varied from a slight bump (I) or minor to severe bark loss (II and III), to minor to severe canopy damage (IV-VII), to more acute damage including severing of the trunk (VIII) and crushing the entire tree to the ground (IX). Total_stems_damaged_gap report the total number of trees in all nine classes. The field Stems_severed_smashed_gap reports trees in classes VIII and IX (Feldpausch et al., 2005). Gaps were defined as the actual projected canopy and gap area was measured using the center point system (Runkle 1982) based on the summation of the area of six triangles using the distance from the center of the gap to the edge to define the triangles.

Of the 1,031 measured damaged trees (>10 cm DBH), nearly 50% either had the trunk severed or were crushed to the ground, which is equivalent to 5 trees severed at the trunk and 5 trees crushed to the ground for every tree logged. Damage in these two classes results in tree mortality in the absence of stump or stem coppicing.

References:

Feldpausch, T.R., S. Jirka, C.A.M. Passos, F. Jasper, and S.J. Riha. 2005. When big trees fall: Damage and carbon export by reduced impact logging in southern Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 219(2-3):199-215.

Feldpausch, T.R., A.J. McDonald, C.A.M. Passos, J. Lehmann, and S.J. Riha. 2006. Biomass, harvestable area, and forest structure estimated from commercial timber inventories and remotely sensed imagery in southern Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 233(1):121-132.doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.06.016

Runkle, J.R. 1982. Patterns of disturbance in some old-growth mesic forest of eastern North America. Ecology 63: 1533-1541

Related Publications
Feldpausch, T.R., S. Jirka, C.A.M. Passos, F. Jasper, and S.J. Riha. 2005. When big trees fall: Damage and carbon export by reduced impact logging in southern Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 219(2-3):199-215.

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