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Termites play important roles in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and soil structure in tropical rain forests. When forests are replaced by agriculture, termite species richness, abundance, and function often decline. We compared the termite assemblage of a primary forest site with that of a low plant diversity, palm-based agroforest (five plant species) and a high plant diversity, home-garden agroforest (10 plant species) using a rapid biodiversity assessment protocol. In comparing the primary forest termite species composition to previously published studies, we found soil feeders and the Apicotermitinae to be more dominant than previously reported in Amazonia. Thirty percent of the species belonged to the Apicotermitinae, and an unusually high percentage (57%) of species were soil feeders. Unexpectedly, the palm-based agroforest, despite its lower plant diversity, was closer to primary forest in termite species composition, rate of species accumulation, and proportions of species in taxonomic and functional classes than was the home-garden agroforest. This suggests that particular plant attributes may better determine the termite assemblage than plant diversity alone in these agroecosystems. Unlike other agroecosystems reported in the literature, Apicotermitinae and soil feeders were proportionally more abundant in these agroforests than in primary forest. The ability of agroforests to support populations of soil feeders has a potentially positive effect on soil fertility in these agroecosystems; insomuch as feeding guild is a proxy for function, these closed-canopy agroforests may be able to sustain the same termite-mediated functions as primary forest

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