Litterfall production and fluvial export in headwater catchments of the southern Amazon
Resolving the carbon (C) balance in the Amazonian forest depends on an improved quantification of production and losses of particulate C from forested landscapes via stream export. The main goal of this work was to quantify litterfall, the lateral movement of litter, and the export of coarse organic particulate matter (>2 mm) in four small watersheds (1-2 ha) under native forest in southern Amazonia near Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10 degrees 25 \' S, 58 degrees 46 \' W. Mean litterfall production was 11.8 Mg ha(-1) y(-1) (5.7 Mg C ha(-1) y(-1)). Litterfall showed strong seasonality. with the highest deposition in the driest months of the year. About two times more C per month was deposited on the forest floor during the 6-mo dry season (0.65 Mg C ha(-1) me(-1)) compared with the rainy season (0.3 Mg C ha(-1) mo(-1)). The measured C concentration of the litterfall samples was signiticantly greater in the dry season than in the rainy season (49% vs. 46%). The lateral movement of litter increased from the plateau (upper landscape position) towards the riparian zone. However, the trend in C concentration of laterally transported litter samples was the opposite, being highest on the plateau (44%) and lowest in the riparian zone (42%). Stream-water exports of particulate C were positively correlated with streamflow, increasing in the rainiest months. The export of particulate C in streamflow was found to be very small (less than 1%) in relation to the amount of litterfall produced.