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A land-surface model (MOSES) was tested against observed fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide for two primary forest sites near Manaus, Brazil. Flux data from one site (called C14) were used to calibrate the model, and data from the other site (called K34) were used to validate the calibrated model. Long-term fluxes of water vapour at C14 and K34 simulated by the uncalibrated model were good, whereas modelled net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was poor. The uncalibrated model persistently underpredicted canopy conductance (g(c)) from mid-morning to mid-afternoon due to saturation of the response to solar radiation at low light levels. This in turn caused a poor simulation of the diurnal cycles of water vapour and carbon fluxes. Calibration of the stomatal conductance/photosynthesis sub-model of MOSES improved the simulated diurnal cycle of g(c) and increased the diurnal maximum NEE, but at the expense of degrading long-term water vapour fluxes. Seasonality in observed canopy conductance due to soil moisture change was not captured by the model. Introducing realistic depth-dependent soil parameters decreased the amount of moisture available for transpiration at each depth and led to the model experiencing soil moisture limitation on canopy conductance during the dry season. However, this limitation had only a limited effect on the seasonality in modelled NEE

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