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We investigated the influences of forest or pasture land use and stream size on particulate and dissolved material concentrations in a network of second to third order streams in Rondonia, in the Brazilian Amazon. During the dry season, a second order stream originating in pasture had lower concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nitrate, higher concentrations of chlorophyll, total suspended solids, particulate organic carbon, particular organic nitrogen, ammonium, and phosphate than a second order stream originating in forest. Where the second order forest stream exited forest and entered pasture, concentrations of dissolved oxygen dropped from 6 mg/L to almost 0 mg/L and nitrate concentrations dropped from 12 muM to 2 muM over a reach of 2 km. These changes indicated a strong influence of land use. During the rainy season, differences among reaches of all particulate and dissolved materials were diminished. Concentrations of oxygen, chlorophyll, total suspended solids, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in the third order pasture stream more closely resembled the second order forest stream than the second order pasture stream, suggesting that conditions in the channels of larger pasture streams more strongly control concentrations of these materials. If this pattern is widespread in stream networks of regions that consist of a mosaic of forest and pasture lands, it may have important consequences for understanding the effects of deforestation on larger rivers of the Amazon Basin. This would indicate that the effects of forest clearing on the concentrations of many suspended and dissolved materials will be most easily detected in very small streams but potentially difficult to detect in larger streams and rivers

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