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LC-11 Abstract

JERS1 Amazon Multi-Season Mapping Study (JAMMS)

Bruce Chapman — Jet Propulsion Laboratory (US-PI)
Luciano Vieira Dutra — INPE- Image Processing Division (DPI) (SA-PI)

Objectives





We propose studies in carbon storage and exchange. We propose to work in disturbed and

undisturbed sites along a C3/C4 gradient (savanna to rainforest).





Project Overview





We propose to map the entire Amazon Basin using radar images from the Japanese

JERS-1 (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Because of the

radar’s ability to see through clouds, a sequence of radar images over this area

collected on each overpass of the JERS-1 satellite would result in a unique map of the

Amazon Basin in one 44 day repeat cycle.





There is a great deal of interest in the effect of the substantial flooding that occurs

along the Amazon. The JERS-1 satellite is particularly well suited to studying the extent

of flooding, due to the large amount of electromagnetic penetration to the ground through

the forest canopy at this wavelength: the radar waves penetrate to the smooth water

surface and "double bounce" off the trees trunks back to the radar, resulting in

a bright radar return for these areas.





This project will result in a unique data set, representing not only the extent of

inundation of the rainforests, but also mapping man made artifacts such as roads, cities,

cropland, and deforestation. This proposed map will be used by the international team of

investigators to examine the amount of deforestation present over the entire Amazon Basin.

Since radar observations are not hampered by clouds or rain, we will for the first time

get a "snapshot" of the current state of deforestation. Comparison of this data

set with past and future maps will enable the rate of deforestation to be estimated. In

addition, different biological habitats will be distinguishable in the radar images. This

data will be made available to scientists studying the Amazon initially through the

release of a CD-ROM set containing the data, and later on the Internet.





Radar images from JERS-1 have been used successfully to determine flood extent, basic

vegetation type (including clear-cuts), and to study changes in these parameters. We

propose to extend our development of algorithms which can be applied to JERS-1 data over

the entire Amazon to generate maps of flooding and vegetation type. These maps will be

verified against stream gauge date, vegetation maps, field studies, and complementary

remotely sensed data from selected sites. These correspond to NASA categories in Land

Surface Hydrologic Interfaces, Ecological Processes and Modeling, and Environmental

Consequences of Landcover Change and USGCP efforts in Biogeochemical Dynamics, and

Ecological Systems and Dynamics.





This project is a collaborative effort with scientists from the Jet Propulsion

Laboratory (JPL, U.S.), the University of California –(UCSB, U.S.), the Alaska SAR

Facility (ASF, U.S.), The National Institute for Space Research (INPE, Brazil), the

National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA, Brazil), the National Space Development

Agency of Japan (NASDA, Japan), and the British National Space Center (BNSC, UK).

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